What is LNG?
Natural gas is a colorless, non-toxic substance composed of hydrogen and carbon. It is considered the least polluting fossil fuel because its carbon footprint is considerably lower compared to other fossil fuels (U.S. Energy Information Administration).
Natural gas is consumed in a gaseous state because it needs to be burned. It is mainly transported by pipeline but sometimes, due to the distance to the place of consumption, it is necessary to transport it by vessel. However, the transport of gas by ship would not be profitable and therefore its liquefaction is necessary. Converting natural gas to liquid state reduces its volume by 600 times. This means that it is possible to transport much more using the same space if it is in a liquid state.
When the Natural Gas is in its liquid state, it is called Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) and it usually stored at -162 ºC and 1 bar (atmospheric pressure) inside cryogenic tanks.
In 2017, global LNG imports reached 289,8 million tons (MT) consuming Japan 83,5 MT (28,8%). Norway produced 3,9 MT (1,3%) of the total imported LNG (giignl.org).