1.2 Expert Interview

Who was interviewed? 

  1. A mother of two, who has a child in 2nd grade, and one in kindergarten. 
  2. A female teacher with many years of experience, who now is mainly teaching kids with special needs in 1.-4. grade. 

 

Where was the interview conducted? 

  1. The first interview was conducted at the college university of Østfold, in a group room. 
  2. The second one was conducted at the school, in a group room, where the teacher works. 

 

How was the interview conducted? 

All of the group members contributed to making the questions. Before the interview we separated responsibilities among the people in our group. Primarily, one person was asking the questions, but the others could ask questions one by one afterwards.

For both the interviews we showed appreciation for the person’s time, and guided them through the processwhat we wanted to know and that we had some questions about their experiences and thoughts. They signed the consent form which gives them anonymity, and which tells them the sound record will only be used by us and will be deleted afterwards. 

We started the recording, asked our questions and showed interest by nodding or confirming what they’ve told us. At first, we asked some of our predefined questions, and depending on what the person said, we asked some questions that came to mind. This way it would become more of a natural conversation, and also a semi-structured interview. 

Afterwards, we once again thanked them for their time and asked if they wanted to continue to participate in the project – for further, upcoming tasks.

 

What was the theme(s) of the interview? 

The communication between teachers and parents, and each of the parties experiences. 

 

Why was the theme(s) chosen? 

The theme was chosen in order to get personal input on the communication between the teachers and parents. In addition, we chose it to explore people’s own experiences and what they might find challenging about the information flow. 

 

Interview Guide (questions) 

  • How do you communicate with the parent(s)/ teacher(s) of your pupils? 
  • What do you as a parent/teacher think about the existing communication system between the parent and teacher? 
  • Does the teacher/parent provide enough information about your child/pupil? 
  • Do you have time to attend all the teacherparent conferences? Do you feel like all parents have the time to attend all the teacher-parent conferences? 
  • What is challenging about the everyday communication between parents and teachers? 

Parent questions

  • Hvordan kommuniserer du med lærerne til barnet ditt? 
  • Hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom foreldre og lærere? 
  • Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 
  • Synes du at lærerne formidler nok informasjon om barnet ditt? 
  • Har du tid til å komme til alle foreldremøter, og lignende? 

Teacher questions

  • Hvordan kommuniserer du med foreldrene til elevene dine? 
  • Hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom foreldre og lærere? 
  • Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 
  • Synes du at foreldrene formidler nok informasjon om barnet deres/eleven? 
  • Føler du at alle foreldrene har tid til å komme til foreldremøter, og lignende? 

 

Transcription 

The First Interview: The Parent

Kan du fortelle meg hvordan du kommuniserer med lærerne til barnet ditt? 

SMS eller e-post.

Og hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom deg og lærerne? 

Syns ikke at det fungerer bra, og syns at det skal forbedres. 

Hvordan synes du det kan forbedres? 

Jeg skulle ønske det var en plattform for å kunne dele informasjon, og som i barnehagen hvor den yngste sønnen min går, så får vi noen ganger bilder og info om hva som skjer på en app. Noen ganger får vi ark med info fra skolen, men det er mer generell info om ting som skal skje. Så de kunne kanskje sette av en tid hver uke hvor de sender ut et kort “newsletter” med hva som har foregått den uken som gjelder mitt barn eller generelt, sånn at vi blir bedre oppdatert. 

Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 

Det er litt upersonlig, og det er vanskelig å få tak i dem fordi de kun har jobbtelefon. Sønnen min går på skole og er flyttet til et midlertidig lokale så vi har ikke det daglige møtet, fordi vi må sette de på bussen og så kjører de. Og i fjor hadde vi bedre kommunikasjon fordi vi så læreren hver dag. 

Det blir altså ikke formidlet nok informasjon om barnet ditt? 

Nei, det blir det ikke. 

Når det er foreldremøter og konferansetimer, har du tid til å være med på alt? 

Ja, men vi bytter litt på det, noen ganger er jeg med, men nå er det litt vanskelig fordi det er så langt unna. 

Så, når det er foreldremøte er det én av foreldrene som møter opp? 

Ja. 

Er dere flinke til å medføre informasjonen til hverandre eller skal læreren gi et sammendrag til begge foreldrene som f.eks. sendes på e-mail? 

Det hadde vært fint, fordi samboeren min han glemmer litt, og det var foreldremøte i går og da var han tilstede. 

Så du skulle ha ønsket at selv om ikke alle foreldrene hadde møtt opp, så ville alle foreldrene kunne ha fått den samme informasjonen selv om du ikke var der personlig? 

Ja. 

Føler du at læreren holder deg godt oppdatert om hvordan sønnen din har det daglig på skolen, eller om sønnen din har god eller negativ oppførsel? 

Nei, det gjorde de i fjor, men nå så hører vi stort sett ingenting med mindre vi sender en melding. Så jeg vet at andre i klassen har problemer med å få tak i læreren, fordi jobbtelefonen hennes fungerer ikke, så hun får ikke beskjed. 

Så du har ingen måter å kontakte de privat, kun i jobbetiden? 

Ja, i fjor kunne vi kontakte de på deres private telefon, men i år så har de fått jobbtelefoner og da svarer de kun i jobbetiden, og da er de stort sett opptatt med å være lærere. 

 

The Second Interview: The Teacher

Først, så kan jeg spørre deg om du er kontaktlærer …? 

Jeg har en stilling som er litt miks. Jeg er ansvarlig for intensiv opplæring, som dekker 1.-4.trinn. Primært nå er jeg på 1.-2.trinn i forhold til det da, og med de ressursene jeg har, så har jeg fem timer i uka. Så nå jobber jeg med å lage gode grupper i forhold til nivået de er på. Mange har jo ikke lært alle lydene ennå, og klarer ikke å sette lyder og bokstaver sammen, og så er vi på veldig tidlige lesestadiet og sånt. Så det er mye å jobbe med. Nå driver jeg med [spesial pedagogikk] på flere av elevene jeg har hatt siden 1.trinn. Dette er 3. trinn da, følger noen kjente elever der, primært med lesing; lesing og matte. Og så har jeg også- fordi jeg fyller opp for en kontaktlærer som har bibliotekansvaret her på skolen. Så når ho har bibliotektid, så har jeg engelsk på begge- eller hele trinnet, og så har jeg norsk og matte. Så sånn timelærer da, så jeg har på måte ikke en kontaktlærerstilling. Men jeg er jo, i bunn og grunn, førskolelærer med masse tilleggsutdanning, [spesial pedagogikk], og masse fag oppe på der igjen, men norsk som greia mi. Så der er min bakgrunn da, pluss at jeg har jobbet like mye i barnevernet og psykiatri som skolen, men nå har jeg jobbet noen år, så det ca. 15 år på hvert sted. 

Så, mens du har jobbet nå da på 1.-4. trinn, har du hatt noe kontakt med foreldrene til elevene dine? 

Det har jeg, men eh- eh, ikke i det settet her, fordi jeg har på en måte alltid vært student eller hatt andre typer oppgaver, men jeg har vært kontaktlærer tidligere. Og da har jeg vært kontaktlærer fra 1.-4. trinn, bare at det er en stund siden. 

Så, hvordan kommuniserte du med foreldrene da, når du var kontaktlærer? 

Eh, jeg hadde- hvis jeg skal summe meg litt tilbake til da jeg sist hadde 1.klasse, så var det veldig ofte jeg hadde veldig ofte kontakt. Det kunne vært i morgensituasjon, bringing, og så den daglige praten. Men det er alltid sånn at det er noen som kommer mer frampå enn andre i forhold at de har mer behov for å snakke mer med lærerne enn ellers og sånn. Men det er mer på sånt detalj-beskjed-nivå. Det er ikke da du tar de store samtalene på en måte, det rekker du ikke heller. Og det var rett og slett litt uryddig også, fordi at når du skal ta imot klassen din, så har du nok med å hilse inn barn, ikke være på mange nivåer samtidig i hodet, ikke sant, da blir det jo ikke noe særlig kommunikasjon ut av det. Men det kunne vært sånn- det var oftere kontakt i hvert fall med de yngste.  

Eh, og så har vi jo obligatoriske utviklingssamtaler. Vi har jo mobil: beskjeder og mail, ikke sant, så det her slusa seg litt ut. Hva får du på mail, hva får du på mobil, kanskje fravær, «ungen min har gått litt senere hjemmefra i dag, pass på at de kommer. Kan du gi meg beskjed når de kommer.» Den biten der. Til litt mer alvorligere livshendelser og andre type ting som er viktig at læreren får greie på om barns liv da og situasjon. Eh, telefonsamtalen eller direkte som her nå, møter eller på mail, så det var flere kanaler da.

Hva synes du om det kommunikasjonssystemet? Synes du det var bra, eller om det er noe som burde bli forbedret? 

Eh, hvis det går på det sikkerhetsmessige, så synes jeg det var litt dårlig å ha min mobil som jeg alltid måtte sørge for var der, i forhold om barna kom på skolen eller ikke. For vi har jo et ansvar om å vite om barnet er sykt, eller om det er- så nå er har jo alle kontaktlærere egne telefoner som hører til klassen. Jeg tenker at det er en gave. Vi er sent ute med det, for vi fikk det først nå. Veldig bra, for da har vi den sikkerheten igjen i forhold til hvorfor barna er vekk og sånt. 

Eh, men [kommunikasjonssystemet] var bra, jeg tenkte vel aldri over det, for det var bare sånn det var. Jeg savnet ikke noe annet da, tror jeg. Men det er klart, eh, foreldre er forskjellige og så klart, jeg skulle ønske at noen kom litt før til meg, ved å gi et hint da «jeg trenger en samtale med deg om noe» eller «hvorfor er barnet som det er på skolen?». Sånn at man kanskje hadde forstått situasjonen bedre- vært mer tilpasset i forhold til barnets situasjon da. For barn reagerer jo når det er ting i livet, og det eh- men vi sier jo i fra at vi vil ha beskjed. Men noen ganger så tenkte jeg «oi, det her skulle jeg gjerne ha visst, ikke sant.» Jeg fikk faktisk en «faren min er død, han.» … Det skulle jeg faktisk ha visst… Vi har lesebøker med sånne temaer. Jeg vil gjerne kjenne klassen min før jeg tar det som et leseeksempel på en måte. Sånne tingen, ikke sant. Så kommunikasjonen kan jo aldri være god nok, men det er viktige ting å vite om. 

Så, det er noe av det som er utfordrende ved den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen? Sånne ting? 

Mhm. 

Hvilke måter foretrekker du å kommunisere med foreldrene? Er det liksom person til person, foreldremøter, eller er det sånn en daglig mail eller melding? Som du foretrekker? 

Det kommer helt an på hva det skal kommuniseres om. Jeg tar veldig gjerne møte- det møtet. Fordi at det andre er- du må tolke litt da, i meldinger og mail og sånn. Men har man en klar avtale på hva man skal melde ifra om på mobil: fravær, enkle ting, glemt boka. Hvis du har en unge som er litt stresset for at du snakker om å ta opp boka og så har den ikke husket boka, så kan man godt få den beskjeden da. Eh, selv om det ikke er så viktig, så er det noen unger det er veldig viktig for. Man kan jo gjøre sånne individuelle avtaler med foreldre, men da må man jo ha tatt den samtalen, som man gjerne tar på høsten. Med nye elever så ønsker jeg å komme fort inn i samtalemodus med foreldre, gjerne med et treff. Jeg vet ikke, det å sitte ned og kjenne litt på folk, synes jeg er litt ålreit. Så får de en feeling for meg også. Det er en god ting å gjøre. 

Men når du har møter, føler du at begge foreldrene prioriterer å komme, eller føler du ofte det er en part som dukker opp? 

Det er gjerne én part, eh, men jeg sier alltid ifra der det er skilte hjem at begge foreldrene har lov å komme, men at de kan komme hver for seg. Jeg har vært gjennom den biten selv, det er ikke bare å sitte sammen i en samtale med læreren hvis man har gått fra hverandre. Men da åpnet jeg opp for begge deler. Men det er klart, har du 24 elever og mange skilte hjem, så får du mange møter. Men man må jo tilpasse seg situasjonen, tenker jeg. Jeg har aldri sittet med klokka da, selv om man sier- man har jo denne halvtimen på samtalen, men møtet skal man kunne ta. Jeg vil gjerne være litt åpen på det, «bare kom». Vi gjør avtaler, og får vi det ikke til en gang, så får vi det til neste gang. Men min tid er også viktig, så jeg vil gjerne få beskjed. Du sitter ikke der gang på gang, bare venter og ingen kommer, det gidder vi ikke. Men det skjer ikke så ofte, egentlig. 

 

Analysis and summary of findings with quotes 

Both parties answered our questions, including those we came up with during the interview. The parent said she mainly communicated with the teacher through e-mails and text messages. However, she isn’t satisfied with the way they communicate, because the contact is impersonal and infrequent. 

She says she “has problems getting in touch with the teacher, because the teacher only has a work phone , and [the teacher] doesn’t get the messages”.  

The parent wants an application or platform where teachers can share information with the parents, such as sending general information. In her opinion, the teacher needs to be available more hours a day than just during work hours. The teacher however thought that getting a work phone has been a nice change, meaning that they are only available during work hours. Also, the teacher felt that having her own phone charged and available at all times was a burden.

“For security purposes, I think it’s bad for me to always make sure my [private] phone is there, to check if a child has arrived at school or not,” the teacher says.

Both parties agreed that they want a more personal way of communicating.

“It’s a bit impersonal, and it’s difficult to reach [the teacher] because they only have a work phone,” the mother says. 

The parent and the teacher preferred to communicate over face-to-face meetings so they could get a better understanding, but the parent thinks it should be more often.

The teacher points out “it’s important to set a time for important conversations beforehand, and not take those conversations during a chaotic morning, since the teacher’s focus should primarily be on the kids. Also, the teacher should be notified of important things happening in a child’s life.”

She also says they differentiate what type of messages they should get over e-mails, the phones, and the direct face-to-face meeting. 

When we brought up the teacher-parent conferences, both sides agreed mostly only one parent show up. As the teacher had experienced, she was open for both parents to come separately if they aren’t together.

The mother said, “it would be nice [to get a summary of the meeting sent on e-mail to both parents], because [the father of my son] easily forgets things.

What we thought was the most interesting part was the application/platform the mother suggested. This is something we would like to look more into in the further parts of this project. 

 

Cultural Probes – Exercise

Choose an example cultural probes and find out:
We chose the Crafting Cultural Probe Boxes

  • What is the design goal of the cultural probe?

The design goal of the cultural probe was to find out the perception of value in the products that people own.

  • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

The probe is made out of oak wood. The task was for users to receive the box and interpret, then send the box back so the designer would interpret the possession that the user put inside the box.

  • What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?

The inspiration the design team got was from researching in «cultural probes are a means of conversation not simply another standard research method». After the designer put a lot of effort in making the box, they felt that they added a lot of their own value into the box and hopes that the world will endure the box as an item.

 

 

1.1 Literature Review

Documentation of the Literature Search

1. Preparation

Questions / Goal

  • Our main question for this literature review is: How do teachers and parents communicate, and how can we make it easier?
  • Other relevant questions are about the challenges in the information flow, what needs to be improved, and the available digital tools.
  • Our goal for this project is to improve the way teachers and parents communicate, such as sharing information and keeping in touch.

Keywords

  • Elementary school, teacher, parents / parent, information, communication, technology, problems, challenges, to improve, collaboration, everyday, digital tool
  • Barneskole, lærer, foreldre / forelder, informasjon, kommunikasjon, teknologi, problemer, utfordringer, å forbedre, samarbeid, hverdagslig, digitale verktøy

Combining Keywords

  • How do teachers and parents communicate? («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parents AND communication) OR («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parent AND communication) OR («teacher parent collaboration» AND everyday) OR (barneskole AND lærer AND foreldre AND kommunikasjon)
  • Do they use some type of technology to communicate? Or are there any available digital tools for them to use? («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND technology) OR (barneskole AND lærer AND foreldre AND teknologi)
  • Are there any problems regarding teacher-parent communication? If so, what needs to be improved? («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND problems) OR («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND challenges) OR («Elementary school» AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND «to improve»)

Determine Nature of Literature

We’ll search for relevant literature through the web, f.i. Google Scholar and Google Search. Here we are mainly looking for articles, reports, and similar, which could tell us about the current process of teacher-parent communication. We have chosen the Internet as an information source, due to the fact that books are often outdated.

 

2. Search, Selection & Evaluation

As previously mentioned, we wanted to use Google Scholar and Google Search to research. First, we searched the combined keywords. Afterwards, we searched full texts to try and gather more useful information. We were mainly looking for free PDF-files we could download, however we were open to other kinds of sources as well.

As we were looking for relevant literature, we read the bibliographic information to gather a sense of what each of the documents were about. This way we could determine if they were indeed relevant for our research. To get the most recent piece of information, we filtered our searches. Thus the documents must have been released after 2010 for us to see it as relevant.

Once we had gathered a handful of sources, we dug deeper into the documents to look for answers. For a short time period, we deleted sources and went looking for new ones with better keywords. As soon as we were satisfied, we began writing the summary.

 

Literature Review

Information Flow Between Teachers and Parents 

Main Elements/Characteristics of the Information Flow 

According to the Norwegian Education Act § 1-1, the school and the pupil’s caregivers are bound to cooperate. This way the parents have the rights to obtain information about their child, including rights and duties, during parent-teacher conferences, other meetings, and conversations. These rights are connected to the parents’ responsibility for raising their child, giving care, and making decisions on their behalf, whilst the school’s main responsibility is to educate (Helgøy & Homme, 2015). 

The teacher-parent information flow is dynamic and everchanging, depending on what the context behind the approach is (Lilleindset, 2019), meaning it could be spontaneous or planned beforehand.  

It’s standard to divide the teacher-parent cooperation into three levels: information, dialogue and discussions, and involvement and codetermination (Odden, 2016). The exchange of information, for instance regarding a pupil’s academic- and social development, is essential in the teacher-parent communication. In this mutual exchange there is room for dialogue and discussions (Udir, 2016). Involvement and codetermination are part of the highest level of cooperation. On this level, teachers and parents have the influence to make decisions affecting the pupil (Odden, 2016). 

By using methods to create a good teacher-parent relation and cooperation, the home will become an active and responsible part of the pupil’s academic life (Lilleindset, 2019). Simultaneously, good cooperation will help the teachers develop a better educational environment, which again will help the pupil achieve better results. Once again, you can distinguish three forms of school-home cooperation: the representative-, the direct-, and the contactless cooperation (Helgøy & Homme, 2015) 

The representative cooperation involves different groups of individuals. In Norwegian elementary schools, it’s natural to have a parent council, consisting of all the pupils’ parents. The parent council selects a few individuals for the parent-teacher association, who will discuss important matters with the teachers and staff members on behalf of the rest of the parents (ibid).  

Direct cooperation is referring to direct yet formal meetings between the teacher and the caregivers, such as teacher-parent conferences and achievement review meetings. The parents will receive information about the pupil’s academic goals, their academic development, and how the home can contribute to reaching those goals. Which leads us to contactless cooperation. As mentioned earlier, the home should be an active and responsible part of the pupil’s academic life. The simple act of showing interest in the pupil’s everyday academic life, will increase the pupil’s motivation to do well in school (ibid). 

 

Challenges Encountered in the Information Flow 

Communication between parents and teachers at the elementary school levels is a two-way street. However, this street is often a bump one. The lack of information flow between the parents and the school creates challenges for everyone involved, and the kids are often the ones who pay the price for this unnecessary problem. Many parents today do not have the luxury to take time off work to go to every teacher-parent meeting, and to help out at school events. This creates less opportunities for teachers and parents to talk about the pupil (Hall, 2013). By giving both the parents and the teachers an easier way to convey both information and needs, the barriers and fear of missing out grow smaller (Edsys, 2017). 

The schools have a responsibility to inform the parents of events at school, such as; teacher-parent conferences, soccer days, hiking trips and so on. Other than general information, the school also has the responsibility to convey to the parents how their child is doing in classes, as well as advancing in social skills and over all behavior. On the other hand, the parents are responsible to convey any important information that can be relevant to the school, such as: allergies, if there is a situation at home the school should be aware of, diagnoses (ADHD, diabetes, and so on), the general normal behavior of the child, and so on (Drugli, Nordahl, 2016). 

At an elementary school level, kids are still discovering who they are, and who they want to be. This means that it is important for teachers to tell the parents how the pupil is behaving, whether it is good or bad behavior. However, at this level the teacher must take in consideration that the behavior of a child in a school setting, differs from the behavior the parents see in their child at home. This often makes for disagreements, and/or one offended party (Drugli, Nordahl, 2016). In moments like this, it is important not to forget that emotions need to be laid aside to come to the best conclusion. However, this disagreement and “on guard” attitude is a blockage in the communication flow.   

 

What needs to be Improved 

Parents and teachers need a good enough understanding towards a child’s needs in their learning process. Which means the teachers and parents would have to be on the same page throughout the child’s upbringing. Some schools blame the parents at home for not spending enough time throughout the child’s schooling and learning, while the parents at home blame the school for lack of information and bad learning guidance for their own child (Lilleindset, 2019). This shows that teachers and parents have different opinions on the child’s needs. This is something that must be improved to create better communication between the school and home, and for those two parties to come to an agreement. 

When teachers call a child’s parents for misbehaving actions it wouldn’t be pleasant news for a parent, and as Andrew McCormick stated, “Children don’t connect an error in their behavior from 9:00 am to a stern parent lecture at 4:00 pm.” Which points out that this might not be a good solution to teach a child, and at the same time the communication between the teacher and parent gives a negative impact. A pupil’s behavior is contextual. If there is a behavior in your class that you don’t like, it’s your responsibility to fix it.  This approach makes you the authority figure in the classroom (McCormick, 2015). 

Some parents would have this bad feeling once a teacher tries to reach out to them, in the thoughts of “oh no, what did the kid do?” Which can portray how a parent think of school in a negative way. Having a communication policy that asks teachers to contact parents monthly, say, would subvert parent’s expectations that a phone call from the teacher means trouble at school (Lanagan, 2015). 

 

An Overview of the Available Digital Tools and what Problem each of them Addresses 

Blog 

A teacher can start a blog to convey information and communicate. That allows a two-way communication system between parents and teachers, where parents can keep up with what’s happening in the classroom and teachers can connect with the families. When parents have questions, they can ask through the blog or read already published information. That makes it simple for parents to help their children with school when they know what’s going on in the respective classes. 

Email 

Communication with e-mail between parents and teachers is common way to communicate, which is used all over the world. This method is used by many because parents are already used to using e-mail daily. In the past, office staff would spend hours every two weeks typing and photocopying a school newsletter (Kathleen Morris, 2019). Today we have the easy option to use e-mail instead. By using e-mail, you can save a lot of time and it allows for a two-way communication where teachers can answer the e-mail. In addition, e-mail is more reliable in the way that it’s much harder to lose the information.  

Social Media 

As social media is getting bigger, and many parents use social media every day, it becomes more of a viable option for communication in schools. Social media is an excellent avenue to explore when considering how you can ‘meet parents where they’re at’ (Kathleen Morris, 2019). Rather than trying to make something new that requires much effort, communication can go through something that’s already in use. Social media is good for communicating both ways, but it can cause problems. For instance, there could be cases where not all parents use social media. Additionally, it’s easy for the information to get into the wrong hands. 

Apps 

In today’s social climate, waiting for even a couple of hours to receive a return email can be considered rude, and it can be difficult for teachers to keep up with the constant need for communication (Matthew Lynch, 2017). With different apps the communication process between teachers and parents can be easy and quick. For example, there are many communication apps with a feature that can translate into different languages (Kathleen Morris). The problem can be to get everyone to use it, but by using good communication apps the two-way communication will be improved.  

 

Sources  

Drugli, M.B. Nordahl, T. (2016) Forskningsartikkel: Samarbeidet mellom hjem og skole. Utdanningsdirektoratet. Obtained from: https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/samarbeid/hjem-skole-samarbeid/samarbeidet-mellom-hjem-og-skole/innledning/ 

Edsy (2017, 13. January) 7 Great Apps for Parent-Teacher Communication. Obtained from: https://medium.com/@Edsys/7-great-apps-for-parent-teacher-communication-61a7e6184cf2 

Helgøy, I., & Homme, A. (2015). Hjem–skole-samarbeid for et godt læringsmiljø. Evaluering av lokale hjem–skoleprosjekter og gjennomføring av forsterket hjem–skolesamarbeidObtained from: https://uni.no/media/manual_upload/Rapport_2-2015_Helgoy_og_Homme.pdf 

Lanagan.L (2015, 17. November) What Can Be Done To Improve Parent-Teacher CommunicationKQED News. Obtained from: https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/42715/what-can-be-done-to-improve-parent-teacher-communication 

Lilleindset, I. (2019). Det vanskelige samarbeidet (Bachelor’s thesis, NTNU.) Obtained from: https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2610321/no.ntnu%3ainspera%3a2316138.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 

Lynch, M. (2017, 11. July). The tech edvocate’s list of 11 school communication apps, tools and resources. Obtained from: https://www.thetechedvocate.org/tech-edvocates-list-11-school-communication-apps-tools-resources/ 

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Information Flow Between Parents and Teachers

For this group project, we want to explore how parents with kids in 1.-7. grade communicate with the teachers. We are interested in this topic because we’re curious to see how parents keep themselves updated with their kids’ activities in school. It would be interesting to see how we can make this information flow better.