Testing

User testing

These are the most important concepts to our product. 1 is highest priority 5 is lowest, but it does not mean that they are  

  • The helmet must act like a helmet, and still must protect the head. 
  • The lights must indicate well enough to inform the drivers and pedestriansIf the drivers do not see the blink light he would not brake down and therefore it is important that these lights must be easy to see and understand. 
  • The using the electronic parts of the helmet not be annoying or hard for the user. Making the electronic parts in the helmet easy to understand and use.  
  • The sound horn must be able to alert pedestrians but also the user cannot be annoyed whilst using sound horn.  
  • The helmet should be comfortable to wear for extended periods of time. About 30 minutes. 

 

The Tests 

Test 1. The helmet must act like a helmet, and still must protect the head witch it dose we have done some impact tests while a user was wearing the helmet they said it protects well and the cables and such inside the helmet dose not damage the user on impacts.

Test 2. The lights must indicate well enough to inform the drivers and pedestrians. If the drivers do not see the blink light, he would not slow down and therefore it is important that these lights must be easy to see and understand. To Test this we had a Tester use the helmet while riding a E-scooter and one of us in a car to see if we noticed the signal light too the right witch we did but it was a little hard to see so we need to switch to brighter and stronger lights so they work also in daylight since they are only visible in the later time of the day when it is dark outside. And since the signal lights are on auto, we need to setup a button or motion system so the users can turn the lights on or off in the direction they are going.

Test 3. The helmet should be comfortable to wear for extended periods of time. About 30 minutes. This test was easy to get information on because we and the users did wear the helmets for a extended period 10-15 minutes and noticed that the helmet is a little small and uncomfortable so we need to add a feature to tighten or loosen the helmet around the head and a bigger chin wrap.

How should these be tested? 

  • We would have to conduct some sort of user test with users. We should make a stress test and a test in functionality. The first part would be an interview to see if the users look at this helmet as safe or not from the first glance. This is to check what the users first impressions are. First impressions are always important, if the user does not feel comfortable from the start it is not likely that the user will use the product.
  • The second test should be a user test in functionality where we give clear instructions in what they must achieve but not explain how. After they feel like they completed the tasks we interview them where we ask how they did the task, why and did they feel like the helmet worked for the purpose. This is the test where we get the answers to our concepts. 

We got 3 students that were willing to take the interviews and the test, they have not seen the helmet before and they do not know what to expect, just that they will test a helmet for functionality and safety.

Testers: Tor, Martin, Ingrid 

Pros with the helmet

  • Does light up and make it safer with the lights if functioning properly 
  • The Sound horn does make sense and gives a good auditory warning if a scooter rider has the helmet on and chooses to use it. 
  • The blinker lights work as a concept and will help to inform the drivers that the user will cross the road. 
  • Break lights informed pedestrians and drivers that the scooter is breaking down 
  • The headlight works as intended but should change the color from green to white. 
  • The helmet has shock proof padding, so it can protect the users head if hit in a collision.

Cons with the helmet 

  • The horn sound is annoying for the user 
  • Blinker lights did not have a button to toggle them on or off 
  • The driving light is green, not a great color to light up your surroundings 
  • Must run on a power bank  

 

IMPROVEMENTS: 

  • Make the sound horn have a better sound that alerts people better without being annoying to the user. We can also mask the sound from the inside of the helmet, so the sound is not as sharp for the user of the helmet 
  • We will have to make either a button or some other function to turn on and off blink lights/turn lights  
  • Change out the helmet driving lights to white. So, the helmet could light dark spaces like asphalt better. 
  • We should also change the way the helmet is powered. Batteries could be a better alternative since it more convenient than the power bank, or even better have both alternatives available than just a power bank.

Testing: Tor, 21

Keep in mind that we tested our user with the first prototype we had so we had to make questions about our prototype

 

The first glance

 

Tor is a student at HIOF in his first year. He is taking a bachelor’s in informatics. He is 21 years old. When he first saw the helmet, he chuckled and said that it was funny looking. Then he picked it up and examined it. he looked at the sides of the helmet and inside and said that the electronics looks crude. We asked why it looked crude and he answered because the cables go everywhere, they are taped together with duct tape. Then we asked Tor if the helmet looked save if used in a normal environment and asked him to clarify for us, and he did say yes since it is still a helmet and a bright one at that, which would help people notice that an e-scooter rider is driving along.

After that we asked Tor to turn on the helmet. He did just that and his first reaction was laughter. We asked him why he was laughing, and he answered because the helmet as a concept was ridiculous. We asked Tor if he had the option to use such a helmet would he use it and why. He did say yes, because he liked the helmet and he liked the idea of how he could use blinkers to indicate where he was going to drivers without effort.

 

What how why, The test:

 

We asked Tor put on the helmet and turn it on. When the helmet was on Tor, we asked him to ride a couple laps around HIOF to check the helmet comfort, and to see if drivers and pedestrians could see the blink lights and break lights. Keep in mind that the prototype we are testing does not have every feature we intended such as buttons to turn off and, on the blinkers, since we don’t have a button to activate or deactivate the lights. The same goes for the sound horn and the brake light. Since the prototype was so primitive, we had to test the visibility and the utility of the blinkers. We tested the lights in a scenario where they would be used. So Tor took a sharp left turn and we checked to see if the helmet actually indicated that he was going left. The light was certainly strong enough to see that there was an orange

blinking light. However, for some drivers this could be seen as nothing, so to further indicate that the blinkers actually are blinkers, we should increase either the size or the amount of the orange LED lights. The brake light was understandable, but we could also increase the size of the light, so the LED light could have a better range.

 

Results

 

The user said that helmet was comfortable, at least when he used it and did not see a problem with wearing the helmet in longer periods of time. When the user had the helmet on, we tested out the features we implemented. The user did not see the blink lights, or the break light. He did however see the front light, though he said that the lights were a little high up and therefore did not illuminate the ground. When Tor heard the sound horn, he said that the sound was loud and annoying, specially to him because it was right on top of his head. We did not ask a random driver to see if the blink lights worked, but we did have one in our group go to his car and see if he would react to someone turning a corner with the helmets blink lights and see if him, an average driver could react and respond to it. that to which he could.

Finally, the sound horn did make a loud enough sound for the pedestrians to hear and to be reacted by, but keep in mind that the sound horn is loud for the user of the helmet. The helmet safety and sturdiness were also tested by hitting the helmet with the tester knuckles a couple of times. Since the helmet withstood the hits, we assume that the helmet is safe for use. The front light was also a little high up according to Tor.

 

Conclusion

 

In conclusion for the interview and test with anonymous participant Tor, we must make the blink lights bigger or wider to increase the visibility. The same goes for the break light. We must put the front lights a little lower and change the color from green to white. We must dampen the sound horn sound for the user of the helmet. Add buttons to the lights so the helmet can have real functioning lights, and finally add some alternative power sources to the helmet so it will not rely on a power bank alone.

 

Testing: Martin, 24

Martin is a typical student at HIOF which lives about 2 km from the school. He is really into new electrical transportation devises, but not limited only to the e-scooters.

His first impressions was surprisingly positive. He said it wasn’t really a pretty sight, but after all it is a prototype and it has a lot of potential.

Results

We conducted the same testing as before with Tor. Martin’s feedback from the test-results didn’t differ too much from Tors. Martin also found it comfortable, the lights worked and gave him much more visibility for his surroundings.

Conclusion

These test results pretty much gives the same conclusion as stated above. The blinkers need to be wider and the front light bigger. Either add buttons to control the blinkers or even better; a rather technical, but totally doable gyroscopic solution where he could bend his head the direction he wanted to blink.

Testing: Ingrid 21

The first glance

She looked at the helmed and laughed because of the color and how it looked with the lights and how it looks inside with all the cables that are taped together and are covered with just some shock pillows that were inside the helmet from when we bought it.

What how why, The test:

We asked Ingrid to take ride around HIOF to check the comfort of the helmet and if other people such as pedestrians and drivers could see her easily with the back light front light and signal lights. The front and back lights are visible but it can be hard to see the signal lights if its not dark outside so we will need to get some stronger and brighter lights and program and hook up some buttons to control the lights on the helmet since now the helmet is very primitive so the signal lights go in a loop and the back and front lights just stay light up with no other motion like the back light getting brighter when you break with the e-scooter.

Results  

 The user said the helmet was a bit tight and the chin wrap was too little for comfort so we should make the helmets chin wrap and size more adjustable so it is more one size fits all so its not like the helmet only fits a couple of people and restrict the market and safety of users who would want a helmet like this. Lights where a little weak such as the signal lights but all lights all around should maybe get an upgrade some reflexes would also make an improvement for pedestrians and drivers to spot an e-scooter rider easier in both day and night light. The horn is annoying and will at least need an button for control and a much stronger sound because now the only one who can hear it is the user of the helmet just maybe scrap the horn all around since it can obscure the users sense of what is around them like if a car is coming around a corner that the user cannot hear because of the horn.

Conclusion

These tests have given us the same info from the three that have conducted the tests that the lights are too weak and need buttons, the helmet is small for some and fits right for others so some kind of adjustable chin straps and head strap would make it better for all users so it can fit their head form. And the lights need to become brighter and stronger so they work in daylight and nighttime also change the green light in front to a white light that can light up the road, so it works more as a driving light.

 

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E-Scooter Helmet Prototype

Prototype

The prototype is build with a BMX helmet some LEDs a buzzer and a Arduino board that we have written some code to get the buzzer to make a small sound to simulate a horn two of the LEDs are coded to blink to simulate signal lights a back light to be a break light and two lights in front to be a notifier for the user that the helmet is on and to be a driving indicator to other people in witch way the E-scooter driver is heading. we have spray painted it pink to make it bright and easy to see. we have also done some light tests on shock to find out if the helmet will prevent damage to the head if the user fall or get into a accident. The helmet also sits well on the head so it feel snug and protective.

Since the video presentation file is too big for the WordPress library we have uploaded it to Dropbox here

Pictures of the prototype:

 

 

 

 

 

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Scenario and storyboards 

SCENARIO 1

Per Reidar is 39 years old and he is using an E-scooter every day to travel to and from work. He is generally quite afraid to crash while riding the E-scooter but still tend to do some risky maneuvers if he is late for work. Today he is in a hurry and does a risky sharp turn to the right and he ends up almost colliding with a car that would injure him. He is a little shaken by this, but he rides off anyway to work. When he is finished with work, he picks up a new helmet that offers not only head protection, but also, break light, turn signal lights, airhorn, and a headlight. With this helmet, now he can finally give signals that he will take right or left turn and inform car drivers that turn is indeed happening. If Per Reidar has to brake, the drivers will also be informed that he is doing that. Per ended up behind four pedestrians used his airhorn, so he could pass them. He arrived home safely, and Per told his wife how cool his new helmet is.

 

 

SCENARIO 2

Karen Kul is 25 years old

She lives in a countryside town, she uses her E-scooter to work and regular commuting around town. She has no other choice then to signal by hand where to go, and potentially loose balance and crash. But things are changing…

 

Today she got her new helmet that has lights like brake, driving and signal lights and a cool horn witch she can use to make people aware that she is driving near them and today on the way to work she feels much safer than ever before because she can indicate where to turn without endangering herself.

 

And when she got to work totally unharmed a man comes up to her and says if it had not been for her awesome helmet she he would have crashed into her with his Toyota Celica. That did not happen because he noticed her helmet with the blinkers immediately.

 

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Idea Brainstorming for E-scooter Safety

We started a 30 minute long timer and started to brainstorm ideas that could affect E-scooters in a positive way towards safety. this is what we came up with:

Special helmet for E-scooters, it can have some features such as a turn signal on the back and front of the helmet since, e-scooters tend to turn corners quite quickly and this signal could help give drivers and people information in where they are heading. 

General lights Front lights for better and safer driving in the dark, break light for cars and other scooters behind so they se when the user breaks so a crash can be prevented and signal lights so people know where the user is going so driving become safer and smother.

App – connected through bluetooth and could give the possibilities for gps tracking and directions as well as locking the scooter in place. Universal, if the scooter has bluetooth which they do, in most cases.  It would have a simple and appealing design. Easy to add new functions (could be gps speed, battery status, you name it) 

Not all of these ideas are great, but we wrote everything down. We think that a helmet could show most potential out of all of these, if not, maybe we can join up and make another brainstorm.

 

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Probes

Probes

Probe 1: «Beskrivelse»

Probe 2: «Beskrivelse»

Probe 3: «Beskrivelse»

Probe 4: «Beskrivelse»

Probe 5: «Beskrivelse»

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Empathy map

We selected Empathy map because we want to know what det users emotions are and how they can help make a better product. With the help of what the users feel. 

We used pictures of people that were injured and not injured by e-scooter driving and its environment to learn what people from the outside would feel from what experiences they see have happened to other people and maybe they have some insights themselves about e-scooters.  

Generally e-scooters are a health hazard witch we have learned from our user interview and expert interview, and they are a environmental danger because they break often and the batteries don’t last very long so the e-scooters often need repairs and often cheaper to make new once than fix the broken once.

 

   

The definition of the problem: We know from research that many people get injured when riding e-scooters. We think designing a product that reduces the health hazard.

Our users need more security while riding e-scooters and our designed product will help reduce life threatening situations and accidents by giving the user more visibility from their surrounding elements, such as pedestrians, cars, bikers etc.

 

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E-Scooter Expert Interview

We are interviewing an expert who has a lot of knowledge in E-Scooters. There are not a lot of electronic scooters in Halden, so we must interview an expert in a bigger city such as Oslo. Since we are interested in finding about experiences related to health, we have decided to interview a person who has good knowledge about health-related issues regarding E-scooters. A good candidate could be a person who has experience in transportation safety or something similar, example of this could be a person who works in Statens Vegvesen 

In total we interviewed two people, one is an expert, and the other is a person who has ridden these scooters for an extended amount of time, and quite often, making him a good candidate to get user experience from.  

The person we chose to interview wanted to stay anonymous. But he has a good amount of knowledge within transportation in Oslo including E-scooters. This is a man in his fifties, working for Vegvesenet in Oslo. The other person we interviewed is a student who uses an escooter for transportation quite frequently 

 

 

 Where? 

Over skype at evening.  

 How was the interview conducted? 

We had one asking questions 

One observing  

Third one taking notes  

 

What was the theme of the interview? 

The theme of the interview was to focus on the user experience using el-scooters, either good or bad. 

It was very neutral, each side were polite, but we were only interested in the questions. So, it went by quick   

 

Why was the theme chosen? 

The theme was chosen because of the possibilities it could bring students in the way of transportation to make it easy for everyday use.  

 

What have we learned through the theme?  

We have learned that the e-scooters are not as environmentally friendly that we first thought, because they break easily so they are mass produced and they run on lithium batteries that don’t last very long. Pluss little regulations on them like you can drive them under the influence of alcohol and can be driven on sidewalks in high speeds and on roads.   

 

Questions for the expert in road security in Oslo (vegvesenet) without the answers:

Q: Over the year, these Electric Scooters has become a very popular method of transportation, is this new wave of transportation a good development for the bigger cities or just a health hazard?  

Q: why it is a health hazard 

Q: why are they so unsafe?  

 

Questions for the expert user of El-scooters 

Q: Have you ever ridden an electric scooter before? If yes, how was it? if no then why didn’t you? 

 if the person says yes, we ask what experience of emptions did you feel while riding it? 

Q:  You’ve given quite a lot of information already but considering your own user experience, is there something you would like to see improved with the technology, or the experience itself?  

 

Questions for the expert in road security in Oslo (vegvesenet) 

Q: Over the year, these Electric Scooters has become a very popular method of transportation, is this new wave of transportation a good development for the bigger cities or just a health hazard?  

A: while I can see that these electric scooters can be more convenient than cars, they also come with a good amount of risk because these scooters are built without much safety in mind. Injuries related to these scooters rise. So, I believe they are a health hazzard yes. 

Q: why it is a health hazard 

A: people ride it irresponsibly, under the influence of alcohol, and these things are generally unsafe to ride, with no safety measures. 

Q: why are they so unsafe?  

he said that there are not enough regulations and laws yet about these scooters and therefore they are so risky. If there were laws and regulations about these scooters, then it would be more beneficial for the general public to use these electronic scooters more safely.  

 

 Questions for the expert user of El-scooters 

Q: Have you ever ridden an electric scooter before? If yes, how was it? if no then why didn’t you? 

 if the person says yes, we ask what experience of emptions did you feel while riding it? 

A: I’ve ridden different el-scooters for the better part 2 years now, I think. While riding an el-scooter you get a feeling of freedom and being one our nature and with your surroundings. It’s something different then biking and other electronic transportation devices, in my opinion its better. More stability, better control.  It’s a good feeling to have the possibility to go anywhere and anytime you want, assuming the battery is sufficiently charged. Its practicalities are quickly discovered by the user because of its small form factor and its portable characteristics. You can basically take it with you anywhere. 

Riding an el-scooter makes you more aware of your surroundings, especially around busy streets and around campus. In my opinion it’s a good thing to practice your reflexes, on the other side it does requires your full attention to avoid any accidents with pedestrians. They can be quite unaccountable! And I think that’s the reason there have been quite a lot of negative reports about these relatively new devises and because concerning lack of coaching from the government and the exploding amounts of el-scooters suddenly releasing overnight in the big cities 

 

Q:  You’ve given quite a lot of information already but considering your own user experience, is there something you would like to see improved with the technology, or the experience itself?  

A: It can be quite difficult to lock them up, if you go somewhere for example the mall or work, you would need a space to put it If you lock it in a bicycle stand, it will stand out and attract attention because it’s an easy prey for thieves. It has no key, at least not a physical one. A chip with GPS or some other device to make it more secure would be nice. 

 

 Analysis and summary of findings with quotes 

 At first, we chose to just interview an expert in El-scooters, but since we only got answers in how el-scooters affect the city or community in a specific area and not the actual experience around it, we also chose to interview someone who is arguably an expert in these scooters, mainly a person who has used one for transportation for about 2 years. We thought that maybe that person could maybe give better insight in the actual experience in the use of these scooters.  

Since the first person who was interviewed was expert in transportation on roads in Oslo, we chose to ask him question on a little broader scale such as, are they a new wave of transportation or a health hazard. Whatever he answered, we wanted a broader understanding on the experience of el-scooters for the general population. We observed from the interview that even though he said that it is convenient for the general public, but in his experience, he said that injuries have gone up since the implementation of these el-scooters. 

The second interview we had, was to the expert user and we narrowed the questions more to him and his experiences to these el-scooters. If there is something, we can take from the interview is that, his experience was overall good from these transportation devices. He told that his experience was of “freedom and convenience”. To summarize the expert opinion from road security. 

  

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Exploration through literature 

 

INTRODUCTION 

We have chosen to write about electric scooter system for students and how it affects the lives of students and the general public in the town surrounding the campus, also in the way it affects the environment. 

We had differently composed search words so we might find different articles about electric scooters on campus and public areas and what ways that they have affected transportation and if they are a good thing for students to have the ability to use to get around instead of buss and other ways of public transportation. 

  

 We used three search engines: Google search, Google scholar and Bing 

We decided to find literature about Electric Scooters in campus. Specifically, how it would or will affect the lives of students and teachers alike and if the Implementation of this kind of transportation would go for the better or worse.  

We also decided to find literature about how much the implementation of these transportation devices would cost for the schools or for students, if they decide to buy one for their own use.  

2 Search 

The reason we used only three keywords in the search is because considering the way search engines are built, they are generally looking for the selected words and applying most relevant article, or website according to it, so if we only use these selected words, we are hoping that the search engines find relevant articles about electric scooters in campuses. 

When we searched for “electric scooter campus” in google search we got 11,800,000 million results. While that’s quite a lot the most relevant results ended up in Scooters for sale, videos about schools using these scooters and articles about electric scooters in school campuses. There were also some websites that offered to sell these scooters.  

When we searched for the same keyword in Google Scholar, we ended up getting mathematic articles about how different types of transportation vehicles such as golf carts and scooters. We also got some relevant articles that had information about electric scooters in a campus. Most of these articles were quite mathematic, but there were also a good number of relevant articles. Google scholar found 4500 articles with the keyword “Electric scooter Campus”. 

The last search engine we used word the keyword “Electric scooter Campus” was in Bing.com. Bing had 86 300 000 different links, and the first ones weren’t relevant since they were ads. Under the ads they had some videos about electric scooters in a college campus, some images about scooters in campuses and top 10 list-articles on the best scooters for different occasion. Bing promoted mostly articles that encouraged purchase, and that was not what we were looking for with the keyword. 

The second keywords we used to search with were “Electric scooter university”. Google search, again found some scooters for sale, articles about how the scooters affect, the lives of students and the environment. Google mainly found articles about how the electric scooters affect lives of students and people in general. This time google found 22,500,000 million different links.  

Google scholar also got an increase in search results. This time it found 20,300 result, and again with similar results, mathematic articles about how the electric scooters work, different types of analytic articles that were about the electric scooters, and different types of schematics and research about electric scooters. Some links were relevant as in how they would affect lives of students and teachers, but they were not on the first result page.  

Bing also had similar results as previous, most of the links were ads, some videos and Electric scooters for sale and other services that were about the electric scooters. This time however, Bing.com was a little more reliable with, showing articles that were about the lives of students and people who would get affected by the implementation of electric scooters and not only websites that wanted to sell these scooters  

3 Selection 

We selected 4 articles that fit our goal. They were mainly from google seeing as Bing.com is usually filled with paid promotion is not trustworthy. The articles from google scholar are fantastic but the relevant ones required us to pay for them, and we are not doing thatSo, the 3 we chose to talk about are from google, we checked the background from the publishers and they have a pretty good reputation so we are confident in using them as our sources. 

Three of them are from google and one is from google scholar. These articles talk about different things. About the positive and the negative effects on the implementation of electric scooters, how the electric scooters affect the environment and academic research about these scooters in how they affect the environment. 

4 Evaluation  

The first link if from The Chronicle of Higher Education. To summarise the article: they were quite negative towards the implementation of these electric scooters. Their key points were that, these scooters have swarmed the school campusesthey are also quite popular so there are quite a lot of them. (Quintana, 2019)

There were a lot of people who left them laying in the middle of the streets, so they had to make specific parking areas, if the person using the transportation device is not able to park the scooter in the specific area, they will get fined. 

They also did some digging on injures caused by these scooters and, there were about 250 people according to the article. This article shows how the implementation of these scooters will affect the lives of people in campuses, however, they there is also some positives even if the article was against it. They said that these bikes were widely available, and are effective means of transportation for short distances, if there is a parking spot near the desired location. The parking requirement would certainly be a requirement for this kind of transportation. 

So, in conclusion this article said that if implemented, these scooters would be easy to access through the app and easy to find because of the parking spaces.  the parking spaces could also be a bit of a negative if placed incorrectly or if there are too few of them. The implementation of these bikes could also be a negative outcome if the campus gets oversaturated with the scooters.  

The second article is from the Verge, and they say that the Electric Scooters are not as climate friendly as we thought. The article says that generally the scooters are more environmentally friendly than most cars, but there are other methods of transportation which is “greener”. They say that the production, transportation, maintenance and upkeep of these scooters quickly add up in polluting earth. They say that if you look at the life cycle analysis of the dock-less scooter industry, which means looking at all the emissions that has to do with the electric scooters.  

They say that the production of these transportation devices is not sustainable. They produce materials such as the lithium-ion battery which is very damaging for the environment. The manufacturing process and shipping which is mainly from China to a city thousands of kilometers away, and then charging.  

The study verge was talking about, concluded that driving a car was still worse, but taking the bus was better than using these scooters. The study also said that with all these factors into the fraction, a car would use 400 grams of C02, while the Electric Scooter would use grams of C02. While the electric scooter halves that usage, it is still a significant amount of C02. A bus is more environmentally friendly than the Electric scooter. The reason the C02 emission per mile is high on these scooters is because their life cycle is so short. If these scooters could live function longer without the increase of manufacturing costs, they could be a good alternative to driving. If five people used five different Electric scooters, it would be more damaging to the environment than five people in a single car.  

So, to summarise the facts in this article, the production costs of the Electric Scooters are not environmentally friendly since their life span is too short. 200 grams of C02 per mile from an electric scooter is not a sustainable form for transportation. If the life span could get longer, without the increase in manufacturing costs or rather emissions, they would be a good alternative, but not as of today.  

The last article is from the guardian and they ask the question if a city can cope with electric scooters. They say that the electric scooter is an easy way of transportation but not a safe way. They also gave some examples of people using these scooters in a very unsafe way. They said that over 100 cities started using these E-Scooters and the number of injuries has started piling up. They have even said that there are some deaths from electric scooters 

The guardian says that these Scooters are risky and unnecessary, pushed by tech investors. The guardian reports angry pedestrians who complain about scooters that are strewn across the pavements. The scooters could result in a hazard for blind people and for people in wheelchairs. The Scooters are also used a lot illegally by people who ride them over the alcohol limit.  

So, to summarize the article from the guardian they had mostly negative points about the E-scooters, they said that they are a potential hazard to ongoing pedestrians and an unsafe way to travel. They talked about a good number of injuries including a death. They concluded that the electric scooters are not a good way to travel. 

In conclusion the electric scooter would affect the lives of students, teachers and people in general in a negative way. From these articles we can see that the scooters can be a health hazard, on school campuses they usually are oversaturated in number, and they are not good for the environment. People have been injured and killed by using these Electric Scooters. If used irresponsibly they could also harm others for example riding a scooter under the influence of alcohol. 

These scooters promised an environmentally friendly way to travel around both the city and schools but resulted in a safety hazard for both the people using the people surrounded by them. In theory they could be a good alternative to driving but as they are today, they are neither a good solution for transportation nor an environmentally sustainable alternative to driving. 

 

Quintana, C. (2019). On Campuses, Electric Scooters Meet Speed Bumps. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.chronicle.com/article/On-Campuses-Electric-Scooters/245757

Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis

Longo, M., Hossain, C. A., & Roscia, M. (2013, December). Smart mobility for green university campus. In 2013 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis

 

https://medium.com/@catherinelegros/designing-cultural-probes-31f2c62b9dcf

What is the design goal of the cultural probe?

to  learn more about food habits and philosophies of 20–30 year olds 

What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

the probe is made with a camera to document and take pictures of the food they eat, a journal to document what you think about a person trough what they are eating, a colour pallet to colour the colour pallet of the plate you eat off at home, a placemat to eat on top off take a new one every time you eat and sirkle around four different mood faces that are on the placemat, and envelopes with instruction.

What inspiration did the design team get from the probe
results?
they found out that food are a place for playfulness and humor, there are deep habits when eating outside of your home like eating ate the same places, those who participated found it hard to judge other people off their eating habits.
Experimenting with cultural probes redefined what research is and can be. It created an interesting relationship between designers and participants: They felt like they were given a gift (hence the importance of a well designed probe kit) and gave back by participating in the activities in a generous and personal way. The types of insights we got were varied and opened various discussions.
exercise
design a probe for your project:
what is your design goal? who users?
to be environmentally friendly the users are students.
what is probe made of ? (artifacts & tasks)?
plastic, rubber, lithium batteries and aluminium
how to you plan to follow up your probe?
we are planing to run a survey once a week to get information about how they function in a student society

exercise

how distribute

how / when do you contact users?

i would use a facebook group

how / when do you deliver probe?

 i would have a pickup point on campus, would have them come pick them up through a day we have design methods 

how/ when do you collect the probes

i would have a delivery point on campus  and would collect after a week of the probes being with the students on the day we have design methods 

 

 

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