Exploration through literature

Exploration through literature 



We have chosen to write about electric scooter system for students and how it affects the lives of students and the general public in the town surrounding the campus, also in the way it affects the environment. 

We had differently composed search words so we might find different articles about electric scooters on campus and public areas and what ways that they have affected transportation and if they are a good thing for students to have the ability to use to get around instead of buss and other ways of public transportation. 


 We used three search engines: Google search, Google scholar and Bing 

We decided to find literature about Electric Scooters in campus. Specifically, how it would or will affect the lives of students and teachers alike and if the Implementation of this kind of transportation would go for the better or worse.  

We also decided to find literature about how much the implementation of these transportation devices would cost for the schools or for students, if they decide to buy one for their own use.  

2 Search 

The reason we used only three keywords in the search is because considering the way search engines are built, they are generally looking for the selected words and applying most relevant article, or website according to it, so if we only use these selected words, we are hoping that the search engines find relevant articles about electric scooters in campuses. 

When we searched for “electric scooter campus” in google search we got 11,800,000 million results. While that’s quite a lot the most relevant results ended up in Scooters for sale, videos about schools using these scooters and articles about electric scooters in school campuses. There were also some websites that offered to sell these scooters.  

When we searched for the same keyword in Google Scholar, we ended up getting mathematic articles about how different types of transportation vehicles such as golf carts and scooters. We also got some relevant articles that had information about electric scooters in a campus. Most of these articles were quite mathematic, but there were also a good number of relevant articles. Google scholar found 4500 articles with the keyword “Electric scooter Campus”. 

The last search engine we used word the keyword “Electric scooter Campus” was in Bing.com. Bing had 86 300 000 different links, and the first ones weren’t relevant since they were ads. Under the ads they had some videos about electric scooters in a college campus, some images about scooters in campuses and top 10 list-articles on the best scooters for different occasion. Bing promoted mostly articles that encouraged purchase, and that was not what we were looking for with the keyword. 

The second keywords we used to search with were “Electric scooter university”. Google search, again found some scooters for sale, articles about how the scooters affect, the lives of students and the environment. Google mainly found articles about how the electric scooters affect lives of students and people in general. This time google found 22,500,000 million different links.  

Google scholar also got an increase in search results. This time it found 20,300 result, and again with similar results, mathematic articles about how the electric scooters work, different types of analytic articles that were about the electric scooters, and different types of schematics and research about electric scooters. Some links were relevant as in how they would affect lives of students and teachers, but they were not on the first result page.  

Bing also had similar results as previous, most of the links were ads, some videos and Electric scooters for sale and other services that were about the electric scooters. This time however, Bing.com was a little more reliable with, showing articles that were about the lives of students and people who would get affected by the implementation of electric scooters and not only websites that wanted to sell these scooters  

3 Selection 

We selected 4 articles that fit our goal. They were mainly from google seeing as Bing.com is usually filled with paid promotion is not trustworthy. The articles from google scholar are fantastic but the relevant ones required us to pay for them, and we are not doing thatSo, the 3 we chose to talk about are from google, we checked the background from the publishers and they have a pretty good reputation so we are confident in using them as our sources. 

Three of them are from google and one is from google scholar. These articles talk about different things. About the positive and the negative effects on the implementation of electric scooters, how the electric scooters affect the environment and academic research about these scooters in how they affect the environment. 

4 Evaluation  

The first link if from The Chronicle of Higher Education. To summarise the article: they were quite negative towards the implementation of these electric scooters. Their key points were that, these scooters have swarmed the school campusesthey are also quite popular so there are quite a lot of them. (Quintana, 2019)

There were a lot of people who left them laying in the middle of the streets, so they had to make specific parking areas, if the person using the transportation device is not able to park the scooter in the specific area, they will get fined. 

They also did some digging on injures caused by these scooters and, there were about 250 people according to the article. This article shows how the implementation of these scooters will affect the lives of people in campuses, however, they there is also some positives even if the article was against it. They said that these bikes were widely available, and are effective means of transportation for short distances, if there is a parking spot near the desired location. The parking requirement would certainly be a requirement for this kind of transportation. 

So, in conclusion this article said that if implemented, these scooters would be easy to access through the app and easy to find because of the parking spaces.  the parking spaces could also be a bit of a negative if placed incorrectly or if there are too few of them. The implementation of these bikes could also be a negative outcome if the campus gets oversaturated with the scooters.  

The second article is from the Verge, and they say that the Electric Scooters are not as climate friendly as we thought. The article says that generally the scooters are more environmentally friendly than most cars, but there are other methods of transportation which is “greener”. They say that the production, transportation, maintenance and upkeep of these scooters quickly add up in polluting earth. They say that if you look at the life cycle analysis of the dock-less scooter industry, which means looking at all the emissions that has to do with the electric scooters.  

They say that the production of these transportation devices is not sustainable. They produce materials such as the lithium-ion battery which is very damaging for the environment. The manufacturing process and shipping which is mainly from China to a city thousands of kilometers away, and then charging.  

The study verge was talking about, concluded that driving a car was still worse, but taking the bus was better than using these scooters. The study also said that with all these factors into the fraction, a car would use 400 grams of C02, while the Electric Scooter would use grams of C02. While the electric scooter halves that usage, it is still a significant amount of C02. A bus is more environmentally friendly than the Electric scooter. The reason the C02 emission per mile is high on these scooters is because their life cycle is so short. If these scooters could live function longer without the increase of manufacturing costs, they could be a good alternative to driving. If five people used five different Electric scooters, it would be more damaging to the environment than five people in a single car.  

So, to summarise the facts in this article, the production costs of the Electric Scooters are not environmentally friendly since their life span is too short. 200 grams of C02 per mile from an electric scooter is not a sustainable form for transportation. If the life span could get longer, without the increase in manufacturing costs or rather emissions, they would be a good alternative, but not as of today.  

The last article is from the guardian and they ask the question if a city can cope with electric scooters. They say that the electric scooter is an easy way of transportation but not a safe way. They also gave some examples of people using these scooters in a very unsafe way. They said that over 100 cities started using these E-Scooters and the number of injuries has started piling up. They have even said that there are some deaths from electric scooters 

The guardian says that these Scooters are risky and unnecessary, pushed by tech investors. The guardian reports angry pedestrians who complain about scooters that are strewn across the pavements. The scooters could result in a hazard for blind people and for people in wheelchairs. The Scooters are also used a lot illegally by people who ride them over the alcohol limit.  

So, to summarize the article from the guardian they had mostly negative points about the E-scooters, they said that they are a potential hazard to ongoing pedestrians and an unsafe way to travel. They talked about a good number of injuries including a death. They concluded that the electric scooters are not a good way to travel. 

In conclusion the electric scooter would affect the lives of students, teachers and people in general in a negative way. From these articles we can see that the scooters can be a health hazard, on school campuses they usually are oversaturated in number, and they are not good for the environment. People have been injured and killed by using these Electric Scooters. If used irresponsibly they could also harm others for example riding a scooter under the influence of alcohol. 

These scooters promised an environmentally friendly way to travel around both the city and schools but resulted in a safety hazard for both the people using the people surrounded by them. In theory they could be a good alternative to driving but as they are today, they are neither a good solution for transportation nor an environmentally sustainable alternative to driving. 


Quintana, C. (2019). On Campuses, Electric Scooters Meet Speed Bumps. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.chronicle.com/article/On-Campuses-Electric-Scooters/245757

Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis

Longo, M., Hossain, C. A., & Roscia, M. (2013, December). Smart mobility for green university campus. In 2013 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis



What is the design goal of the cultural probe?

to  learn more about food habits and philosophies of 20–30 year olds 

What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

the probe is made with a camera to document and take pictures of the food they eat, a journal to document what you think about a person trough what they are eating, a colour pallet to colour the colour pallet of the plate you eat off at home, a placemat to eat on top off take a new one every time you eat and sirkle around four different mood faces that are on the placemat, and envelopes with instruction.

What inspiration did the design team get from the probe
they found out that food are a place for playfulness and humor, there are deep habits when eating outside of your home like eating ate the same places, those who participated found it hard to judge other people off their eating habits.
Experimenting with cultural probes redefined what research is and can be. It created an interesting relationship between designers and participants: They felt like they were given a gift (hence the importance of a well designed probe kit) and gave back by participating in the activities in a generous and personal way. The types of insights we got were varied and opened various discussions.
design a probe for your project:
what is your design goal? who users?
to be environmentally friendly the users are students.
what is probe made of ? (artifacts & tasks)?
plastic, rubber, lithium batteries and aluminium
how to you plan to follow up your probe?
we are planing to run a survey once a week to get information about how they function in a student society


how distribute

how / when do you contact users?

i would use a facebook group

how / when do you deliver probe?

 i would have a pickup point on campus, would have them come pick them up through a day we have design methods 

how/ when do you collect the probes

i would have a delivery point on campus  and would collect after a week of the probes being with the students on the day we have design methods 



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