1.1 Exploration through literature search

Documentation of the literature search


Topic question:
How does technology and social media affect socialization between young adults?

Get a better understanding of how young adults socialise using technology

Topic in detail:
We want to explore how young adults socialize using technology and social media. We want to explore this situation because technology and social media has a big role in many people’s lives, especially young adults. The group we are exploring are young adults between the age of 18-25. We want to research how socialization between young adults has changed because of the development of technology.

Young adults, socialization, social media, Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitch, Discord, Youtube, activities, events, happenings, sharing information, online societies, information flow, social network, social networking, spare time, communication, interaction, gaming, community, influencers, devices, internet, chat, bully, forum, picture sharing, facetime/video-chat, commenting, likes, browsing, toxic behavior.

Combining keywords:
online interaction, socialization through internet, cyberbullying, online communities, social forums, online events.

Broader terms:
socialization between young people, communication via social media between young people, social communities online, technology affecting the socialization.

Narrower terms:
socialization between young adults in Norway, communication via social media between young norwegian adults, online communities in Norway, online interaction between young norwegians on technological media. 

Nature of literature:
Different social media (For example: Instagram, Facebook, Messenger, Snapchat, Discord, Twitch, Youtube), internet, publisher works, journal articles.

Informations sources:
Articles from Google Scholar and regular Google, Groups/Pages on Facebook/Twitch/Instagram/Snapchat.


The group did some online research on Google and Google Scholar to collect information from different sources about our topic. Before starting to research on the web, we defined our topic question and goal first. Then we came up with keywords together and used these to search for different sources for information. To find relevant links we used several of our keywords in our searches, often combining different keyboards. Here are the specific keywords we used to find our 15 specific sources: 

  1. Impact of social media on young adults
  2. Cyberbullying (Scholar)
  3. Sosialisering teknologi
  4. Sosialisering over nett
  5. Online interaction between young adults (Scholar)
  6. Disadvantages of online societies
  7. Hvordan påvirker sosiale medier unge voksne
  8. Teknologi og sosialisering
  9. Press på instagram
  10. Sosiale medier
  11. Mest brukte sosiale medier
  12. Snapchat security
  13. Body language social media


We chose our sources by first reading the title to know the relevance of the article. Then we read the abstracts or first section of the articles to get to know what the text is all about, as well as the conclusion. After this we discussed in plenary which links and articles we thought were most relevant to our topic. At the end we had 15 links we thought would fit our topic based on the different links content. 


We eliminated links based on which were the least relevant to our topic. When we started writing on the summary, we already had a couple of links more than we needed. Then we just started writing using some of the links. Eventually we had used 10 links and then dropped the ones we hadn’t used. 


Literature review:

Social media is applications and websites that creates and share content, and help people connect. With today’s technology devices we can use social media whenever we want, and wherever we want. It has also given us a new way to communicate, both in our personal life and in work-context. All the technology devices, such as smartphones and laptops, and social medias makes it easy to communicate across borders (Ida Aalen og Gunn Enli, 2018). The most common social medias are Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, WhatsApp, Snapchat and Youtube. Facebook are the most popular one of these with 2,27 billion users, secondly comes Youtube with 1,9 billion users and third comes WhatsApp with 1,6 billion users (Hans-Petter Nygard-Hansen, 2019).

Socialization via technology has become more popular and important over the last decade, and has changed how young adults communicate with each other at all times. This flow of communication has helped diversify culture, values and ideas, and can be considered a valuable resource for socializing among all ages, especially younger adults. However, with the evolution of technology comes more challenges that weren’t previously a concern (Cappelendamm.no, 2008).

Some challenges of online-socializing using technology are isolation and addiction. With media personalized to you available all the time, it can be easy to get lost in a world in which everything revolves around your interests and values. One can often sit for hours browsing or scrolling as pastime, which is often one way communication (Elsevier, 2017).

One of the bigger challenges of online-socializing is being able to mask one’s intentions easier. With online chatting one can’t perceive another’s tone or non-verbal communication, for example body language. It makes it very easy to hide what you’re feeling or really mean. This leaves everything up for interpretation, which can often lead to misunderstandings. On the other side of the spectrum, people are using the fact that they’re hidden to bully. (Susan Tardanico, 2012).

Bullying has always been an issue. It’s only become more of a challenge when the people bullying can’t be directly identified in person. There is always an opportunity to bully or be mean online, with the increasing popularity of portable connections to the internet, for example smartphones. Smartphones have access to almost every social media platform available, making it hard to avoid attention. Different platforms offer different challenges regarding personal privacy (Slonje, Smith, 2008).

An example of an app that can be very “privacy breaching” is Snapchat. The app has a feature called snapmap. This function collects information about where you are located at all times when using the app. This information is shared with all your friends. Many other apps and websites also collects different information about you and your device. This information is possible for others to find and can contribute to making people feel watched (Tove Marks, 2019).

Instagram is a platform which is heavily centered around posting pictures. This can create pressure among young adults to feel they have to post something regularly. This can also create pressure around getting enough likes on your photos (Sunde, Tveit, Gudvangen, 2015). 

On the other side of the spectrum social media and technology not only contain challenges but also opportunities. It has given us the opportunity to socialize with others without meeting them in person. Kids today learn how to communicate, interact and socialize with others through mobile network. (Telia.no, 2017). Social medias allows us to interact with each other around the clock.


Berntsen Rudi (2017) Endringer i sosialisering – fra eventyr til digitale læremidler. Retrieved from: https://ndla.no/subjects/subject:3/topic:1:55163/topic:1:168398/resource:1:1552 

Cappelendamm.no. (2008, 31. januar). Sammendrag kapittel 7. Retrieved from https://individogfellesskap.cappelendamm.no/c196525/artikkel/vis.html?tid=290280 

Elsevier (2017) Social media use and perceived social Isolation among young adults in U.S. Retrieved from: https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(17)30016-8/fulltext 

Hans-Petter Nygard-Hansen(2019, 4 mars). Topp 20 sosiale medier og apper for 2019. Retrieved from: https://hanspetter.info/topp-20-sosiale-medier-og-apper-2019/.

Ida Aalen og Gunn Enli(2018, 14 may). Sosiale medier. Retrieved from: https://snl.no/sosiale_medier.

Jensen, Christine. (2007, 12. juni). Vi sosialiserer på nett. Aftenposten. Retrieved from: https://www.aftenposten.no/norge/i/mrQ5g/Vi-sosialiserer-pa-nettt,

Kvittingen (2017) Ensomme og mye på sosiale medier. Retrieved from: https://forskning.no/kultur-media-barn-og-ungdom/ensomme-og-mye-pa-sosiale-medier/360585

Mymsitblog (2016) The advantages and disadvantages of virtual communities established through social networking sites. Retrieved from: https://mymsitblog.wordpress.com/2016/08/21/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-virtual-communities-established-through-social-networking-sites/ 

O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804. Retrieved from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/4/800.shor

Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying?. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 49(2), 147-154. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x

Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 434-445. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397308000701

Sunde, Tveit, Gudvangen (2015) unge føler instagram-press-opprettar fleire profilar. Retrieved from: https://www.nrk.no/sognogfjordane/unge-foler-instagram-press-_-opprettar-fleire-profilar-1.12256754 

Susan Tardanico(2012, 30 april). Is social media sabotaging real communication? Forbes.com. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/susantardanico/2012/04/30/is-social-media-sabotaging-real-communication/#54b644af2b62

Telia.no. (2017, 17 august). SLIK ENDRER TEKNOLOGI DET SOSIALE LIVET. Retrieved from https://www.telia.no/magasinet/slik-endrer-teknologi-det-sosiale-livet/

Tove Marks(2019, 24 june). How secure is you snapchat information? VPNOverview.com. Retrieved from: https://vpnoverview.com/privacy/social-media/snapchat-privacy-settings/ .


Dette innlegget ble publisert i 1. Empathize. Bokmerk permalenken.