Test

 

 

  • 5.1 Test

    5.1 Test

    - Publisert den 12/11/2019 av Sun With Face

    Prototype testing


    This section of our blog will cover our findings in the correlation to testing of our prototypes done by both us and other participants. We have been doing thorough testing of the Adobe XD project and have tried to integrate as many functions we deemed necessary to give a glimpse into what our learning platform could provide both teachers and students alike. With a teacher controlled platform it enables them to monitor who's actually doing things in class and to decide where the different game modules can be used. They also have the admin rights for the curriculum and are able to add what they want to the different modules and have an information mark that will let them know how to use it. For the students it will be more like Canvas in which you will see what tasks you have completed in what subject and what's remaining.

    Testing is our chance to learn what our users can get out of our solution. How will they benefit from it and what can we learn from their feedback? This is what the test mode is for. Getting constructive feedback on our prototype and learning what needs to be done to make our product better. This is our chance to make empathetic gains for the people we are designing products for. We want to know more about what different people think about the product, why do they think the way they do and how do they feel this product could be relevant to them. The reason for our extensive questioning is in order to help refine our prototypes and solutions. We will learn more about our users and through their opinions be granted a better view of what needs iterations.

    With our prototype we want to test:

    1: User friendliness/user acceptance
    2: Do interface testing for our graphical interface
    3: The integration of such a platform in class
    4: The core functionality of our game modes (in this case being the quiz)

    The main focus we want to have is on the user friendliness and how the graphical interface feels for them to use. As the Adobe XD prototype is much more of a visual prototype than it is an actual prototype with proper functionalities, this is even the more reason observe and learn from our participants reactions and viewpoints. We've been testing it several times ourselves and have tried to spot the flaws in it, but our eyes are not the ones we're supposed to please.

    Before we initiated the testing process with people, we wanted  to have a plan on how we were gonna make them test our prototype. We wanted to use the "Think aloud technique", which is a method in which the participants will verbally be explaining what they are doing or thinking out loud during the testing of the product. This is a relatively easy way of gathering data and helps us understand the though process of fresh users. We will be on the sideline, only talking if talked to and making notes of what the person is saying. We asked of them to play around with the Adobe XD prototype after telling them that it's designed to be a learning platform with integrated modules for different types of classroom activities for example quizzes. Without telling them much more than that they're able to put it together themselves and get less biased starting point. We will be there to help them if they got any questions and are ready to answer what they would need of information about our prototype during and after their testing process. As well as alleviate any questions they might have about functionalities that are or aren't there. We are there to show not tell. The information they get from us and the scenario down below is the only context they will have for testing process. We will be keeping this scenario relatively short as it is a reiteration of previously made scenario from 3.2.

    Isabel is a 25 year old girl from Sarpsborg and he dreams of working within games and film/tv production. She wishes for more games and fun activities in class to make subjects more engaging for her as she tends to daydream a lot if she gets bored during lectures.

    This is the role we want our participants to relate to, try to view things from Isabel's point of view and we will be acting as the teacher kind of as we have the answers to hopefully all the questions they might have about the prototype. Only one or two of our group members will be explaining and acting as the teacher, while the two others will be pure observers of the ongoing testing process. Our observers will be tracking the time of our participants and more focus on what kind of body language they have, if any. We know what we have included and what he have not included in our prototype, as it is not a fully completed prototype certain functions will not be available. Adobe XD is rather limited with its functions and therefore some of them are just there visually but not available for showcasing through XD. For the testing process we made a list of what we wanted them to do with our test:

    1. Testing both the student and teacher interfaces seeing what they had to offer

    2. Clicking on different buttons to see where it led and get a better understanding in how to look up different material

    3. Try the quiz we integrated in the prototype


    Test vår prototype her: Adobe XD


    Legg igjen kommentar på bloggen om dere vil gi oss feedback på hva som var bra eller dårlig ved vårt produkt. All funksjonalitet er ikke lagt til. Det er beregnet for å gi et innblikk i hvordan det skal se ut for lærer og elev. Enkelte funsjonaliteter er ikke mulig å benytte seg av i Adobe XD, f.eks. drag and drop for achievements og spillmoduler så det er ikke laget interaktive artboards til dette.

    Testing Evaluation Report


    We asked of them after their testing to focus the feedback on the graphical interface setup and on how user friendly they thought this prototype was as these were our main functionality focuses for our prototype. We performed the prototype testing in school for the most authentic experience possible for a learning platform such as ours. With the exception of one test which was done via email. Our participants had this to say about our product after testing it with Adobe XD:

    Person  1:

    Person 2:

    Person 3:

    Person 4:

    Person 5:

    1.Introduction

    2.Goals and hypothesis – what are the goals for testing and hypotheses that you want to test out?

    3.Mockup description – a description of your solution

    4.Participants – which were the participants in testing? how you evaluated that those participants are relevant for evaluating your solution

    5.Task and scenarios – which were the tasks and scenarios that the users had to test your solution? Why the tasks where important? How did you evaluate the competition of tasks? How did you evaluate the testing?

    6.Results – What were the results of testing? Make a summary based on the evaluation technique explained above.

    7.Recommendations – What were some of the recommendations

    8.Conclusion – what was the general conclusion and future plan for your work

    The whole process of testing is a way for us to iterate our design. Completing the full process of design thinking is what makes for good design as it establishes a good connection between the user and the product and through their feedback enables the iteration process which is fundamental for great design.



     

  • 4.1 Prototype

    4.1 Prototype

    - Publisert den 29/10/2019 av timek

    You should create a look&feel prototype of your idea. The prototype should be high-fidelity, meaning that it should look finished to the user. It could be a  mockup of a graphical user interface using e.g. Adobe XD.

    You should create a video-prototype, that demonstrates your concept in a clear way for your audience. This can also be called a role-prototype. The video should showcase the problem and how your idea solves this problem. it should be not more than 3 minutes long. Look at the examples presented in class.

    Add a description of your look&feel prototype including pictures. Add a link to your video-prototype as well.

    Prototype tankeprosess


    En prototype er en velkjent måte å utforske og utrykke designalternativer for interaktive prosjekter. Prototyper er fremstilt av våre ideer, en materialistisk fremstilling av våres ideer. Det finnes ulike typer for prototyper, low-fidelity og high-fidelity. Dette handler om kvaliteten og hvor langt igjen det er å gå til et ferdig produkt. Low-fidelity prototyper er mindre ferdige prototyper som bare skal fremvise hvordan produktet/tjenesten fungerer, mens high-fidelity er mye mer grundig jobbet med og krever mye tid i forhold (er nesten et ferdig produkt). I vår oppgave vil vi benytte oss av high-fidelity prototype for å kunne vise frem tjenesten vår på en mest mulig "ferdig" måte.

    Vår oppgave er en nettbasert/spillbasert tjeneste og av den grunn for å gi en realistisk visning av en eventuell prototype må vi benytte oss av det programmet for å kunne tilby en troverdig visuell prototype til våre brukere. Det er mange ulike verktøy man kan bruke for å fremstille prototyper, blant annet en hel haug digitale verktøy, fysiske verktøy og interaktive verktøy. Før vi begynner arbeid med digitale verktøy vil vi skrive ned og tenke på hva som trengs på vår nettside. Denne må vi lage gjennom bruk av et digitalt verktøy ettersom at det er nettside med integrerte spill som er vår ide, hvert fall for vår high-fidelity prototype. Vi kommer til å bruke Adobe XD for å kunne fremvise hvordan en eventuell interaksjon mellom en bruker og vår tjeneste er. Grunnet vårt valg av ide, blir vi mer rettet mot high-fidelity prototyper for å kunne fremvise hvordan ideen vår fungerer på en mer grundig måte. Nedenfor er ideen vår fra 3.1 sin Ideate.

    A website with small games for each step in the design thinking process, used for classroom exercises in Designmetoder

    En nettside med små spill for alle trinnene i designtankegang prosessen. Dette er veldig spesifikt til vårt fag designmetoder, men er mulig å tilpasse til andre fag ved Høgskolen, hvis dette var ønskelig. For å kunne lage noe slikt må vi tenke gjennom hva hver enkelt del av emnet kan være. Vi må kunne gi de kreative og lærerike måter å være i kontakt med faget på, og det er nettopp dette spillene vi velger ut må ha fokus på: kreativitet og læringsutbytte. Spillene må være tilpasset hva faget handler om og tilby måter for vår bruker å lære nye ting om emnene gjennom våre spill. Brukeren vår er det viktigste, vi må tenke på hvordan de erfarer interaksjon med en prototype. Hvilken rolle kan prototypen spille i våres brukers liv? Hvordan kan vi implementere den og hvordan skal den se ut?

    Før vi kan begynne med våre prototyper må vi finne ut av hvilke spill vi kan ha for de ulike delene av designmetoder? Nedenfor noterer vi ned alle ideene vi kunne tenke oss kunne være en god ide for et spill til de ulike delene av designmetoder, men for våre prototyper vil vi ikke fremvise de ulike spillene for enkelt del av faget designmetoder. Vi vil være selektive og velge ut ideene vi synes er best, som gir en best mulig representasjon av hva vi tenker er en god brukeropplevelse. Dette gjelder vår fremstilling i Adobe XD (high-fidelity). Grunnet likheter mellom flere av modulene nedenfor så velger vi og ikke fremvise alle i Adobe XD.


    • 1. Empathize: Scoreboard (fleste spill). 10 poeng


      1.1 Literature search - et spill som gir deg poeng basert på søketerminologien din og valg av nettlesere, jo mer spesifikt; jo bedre. Her blir du quizzet på hvordan man søker opp gode kilder. 4 poeng

      1.2 Expert interview - her vil du få et sett med spørreord (hva, hvem, hvordan, hvorfor, etc.) og typiske setninger med "fill in the blanks", f.eks. "blank" kan påvirke persons hverdag? Her kan du fylle inn med ulike spørreord for å kunne generere spørsmål lettere. 2 poeng

      1.3 Cultural probes - en sandbox inspirert verktøykasse som lar deg lage cultural probes. Om det er papir i form av skjema, bokser, lapper, etc. er ikke nøye, flere formater kan benyttes. Her vil man få poeng basert på hvor avansert proben er, jo mer de gjør ut av den jo høyere poeng får dem. 4 poeng


    • 2. Define: Kahoot! inspirert quiz. 15 poeng


      2.1 Define your research questions - vil her gi deg tre valg til å begynne med, dette gjelder de metodiske tilnærmingene: empathy map, affinity diagram og/eller content analysis. Her vil det (når du trykket start) gi deg tre valg, hvor du har ubegrenset tid. Da velger du den uttrykksformen du mener passer best til ditt bruk, og så videre vil du få opp eksempler på ulike stiler av de gitte metodene. Etter disse er vist, vil du så få spørsmål som spør etter kjennetrekk ved stilen du har valgt. 15 poeng


    • 3. Ideate: Tidsbasert brainstorming (gruppeaktivitet) og tidsbasert bildequiz (gruble.net inspirert). 15 poeng


      3.1 Generating ideas - essensielt bare en klokkefunksjon som hyler når tiden er over. Skal bare hjelpe å holde flowen gående under brainstorming, tempoet må holdes. Må slå av slumreknappen på skjermen når den hyler (innen 10 sekunder) eller så får man ikke poeng. Når man trykker start får man muligheten til å skrive inn sin problemstilling. Første en gjør er og sette seg ned å taste inn kjennetegn ved problemstillingen/tema (10 min). Så er det How might we spørsmålene, minst 5 må fylles inn før 10 min er gått. Etter det får en 10 minutter på seg til å brainstorme ideer relatert til problemstillingen, gjøres på sticky notes format på skjermen. Siste 10 minutter blir brukt til å sortere sticky notes.  5 poeng

      3.2 Personas, storyboard og scenarios - Her vil det være fire bilder på hvordan dem kan se ut, og spillet baserer seg på å velge riktig format og hvilken av dem som ser best ut. Altså at vi vil hive inn ulike personas, storyboard og scenarios eksempler  og dem som er best vil gi poeng. 10 poeng


    • 4. Prototype: Quiz. 10 poeng


      4.1 Prototype - vil her få en test på dine kunnskaper om prototyper. Det vil være både multiple choice og "fill in the blank" oppaver, men her har du all tiden du trenger. Er ikke lov å jukse, selvfølgelig.


    • 5. Test: Simulering. 2 poeng hvis du finner easter egg commanden; samler poengsummen (total 52 poeng, egentlig 50).


      5.1 Test - en simulering som viser hvordan publikum vil respondere til din prestasjon så langt. Alle scorene fra tidligere spill vil bli tatt hensyn til her og det du kan gjøre i dette spillet er å skyte publikum hvis du gjorde det dårlig hvis de "buuuuuet" på deg eller taste inn /flex command i tastefeltet (kun tilgjengelig til spillere med mer enn 40 poeng).


    Prototypen vår skal ha to ulike sider: en for lærere og en for elever. Læreren skal kunne kontrollere og selv velge hva moduler som er tilgjengelig for elevene på hvilke tidspunkt og styrer hvilke spill som er der, hva tid man har på seg med mer. Dette gjør det mulig for læreren å holde nettsiden oppdatert over tid, hvis pensum skulle endre seg og bli oppdatert eksempelvis. Hun skal da kunne se hvem som har gjort hva, bestemme hvilke emner som er aktive, kan velge hvilke spill som skal være aktive i gitt emne og bestemme belønningsstruktur gjennom trophies og lignende belønningsstrukturer. Det skal være en form for læringsplatform hvor aktiv deltakelse i timen skal gi et læringsutbytte.

    Prototype sketch/mockup (fyll inn arbeidet vi har gjort i Adobe underveis)
















     



     

    Prototype Adobe XD (fyll inn vår ferdige Adobe prototype med link)





    Test vår prototype her: Adobe XD


    Legg igjen kommentar på bloggen om dere vil gi oss feedback på hva som var bra eller dårlig ved vårt produkt. All funksjonalitet er ikke lagt til. Det er beregnet for å gi et innblikk i hvordan det skal se ut for lærer og elev. Enkelte funsjonaliteter er ikke mulig å benytte seg av i Adobe XD, f.eks. drag and drop for achievements og spillmoduler så det er ikke laget interaktive artboards til dette.

    Videoprototype (ikke bare fremvisning av Adobe XD screenshare, vise en bruker i kontakt med den, filmes på skolen i klasserom eller grupperom)   


    Videoprototypen skal vise publikum hva og hvordan vår nettside tilbyr en løsning på vår brukers problem. Vårt publikum blir studentene i designmetoder ved Høgskolen, og vi vil fremvise en student sin interaksjon med vår prototype for vår videoprototype. Hvilket problem tar prototypen vår for seg og hvordan løser den det? Dette skal vi fremvise ved bruk av vår videoprototype

  • Designmetoder 2019

    Designmetoder 2019

    TEAM SOLUTION - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av signelh


    Våre oppgaver:


    1.1; Gruppen bestemte seg for å undersøke nærmere rundt hvordan inneklima påvirker livskvalitet og læreevne til studenter og undervisere...

    Les mer
    1.2; Hvordan påvirker inneklimaet livskvalitet og læreevnen til studenter og undervisere ved Høgskolen i Østfold...

    Les mer
    1.3; Målet med denne pakken er å gjøre studentene mer bevisst på klima og hvordan det kan påvirke studiehverdagen..

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    2.0; Ut i fra de forskjellige metodene: empatikart, tilknytningsdiagram og innholdsanalyse, valgte gruppen å lage et tilknytningsdiagram for å formidle tidligere funn...

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    3.1; Gruppen har fått i oppgave å finne 3 ulike løsninger som kan løse problemet gruppen har kommet over. Problemet omhandler skolens inneklima...

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    3.2; Våre personas, scenarios og storyboards...

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    4.0; Våre prototyper i Adobe XD og videopitch...

    Les mer

     
    5.0; Våre brukertester...

    Les mer

     

    Gruppen består av:
    Signe Haugen, Christine Guttormsen, Aleksander Carlsen,

    Hallvard Eskeland Dahle, Andreas Dreng Kristoffersen.

  • From idea to prototype

    From idea to prototype

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den november 4, 2019 av cmjensse



    From the idiate process we created our idea an appstore for teachers with a forum where they can discuss and recommend apps among themselves. In addition to this we wanted to include the pupils in the process by giving them access to the app store with the ability to suggest apps and leave reviews.

    We started by brainstorming functionality that we wanted for our app store. We used a black board to conceptualize the feel of our app, with the different pages that were necessary. For each page we discussed how we could implement the functionality we wanted. Having a visual wireframe representation of the app helped us create a more solid plan and make it easier to not forget something and to not create something with flawed user experience.



    We used Adobe XD to create the actual prototype, because it’s easier and faster to implement the functionality we wanted on Adobe XD then on paper. We also tried Sketch but Adobe XD felt more intuitive since we have experience from other Adobe programs. In Adobe XD you can easily link pages together, this made it easy to show what happens when someone clicks a button in the app, which is important because we want the prototype to be high fidelity and testable. Adobe XD also makes the prototype look more like a real app store than when you use a pen and paper.



    As a starting point we knew the user had to log into our app, we planned to let the user login using something similar to “feide login”. For the prototype we have created two different login buttons to open the app in teacher or student mode. This would usually happen depending on the account login.

    When the teacher logs in the frontpage for apps is the startpage. This page contains a list of featured apps where the teacher can click to view the page for one app. We wanted to combine the app store with a community were teachers could discuss apps and teaching methods. To make the community accessible at all times the frontpage also includes a discussion part where relevant discussions appear. The relevancy of the discussion and featured apps is based on the account and earlier searches and downloaded apps.



    From the front page the teacher can view one of the featured discussions or view other discussions by clicking one of the courses/categories on the bottom of the page. The teacher can also enter the front page of the forum by clicking the “Community” button at the very bottom. To view an app the teacher can either search/browse or click on of the featured apps. On the single app page the teacher can view ratings, mentions in the community and have the opportunity to add a review.



    The teacher can also add the app to a folder for later use, download it or push it to a user group. A group is usually a classroom or some other predefined group. When the teacher pushes the app to a group the app will be downloaded on the users device the next time it connects to the school network or possibly any network. If a teacher works at a school who does not support the “push to all”-functionality he or she can send a reference link to the schools IT manager wich again can install the app on the iPads on behalf of the teacher.



    We wanted to have a “pupil version” of the apps too, where pupils can send in app suggestions to the teacher. These app suggestions could be apps that already are in the app store, and apps that are not in the app store.



    We also want the pupils to be able to write reviews of the apps, therefore they also need to be able to browse all the apps in the app store. The part that the pupils doesn't need is the community part of the app store. There is also some other functionality we didn’t want to have in the “pupil version” like the Download and Push button. Pupils can also suggest app that they think should be available in the app store for both teachers and pupils.



     

    Here is the video prototype of our app-solution:



    Here you can test the prototype:

    Test our prototype!

    Screenshots from our prototype:



     

  • Our Cultural Probe

    Our Cultural Probe

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av ludvigbh


    • What is your design goal?
      To find out what the user has learned in a day.
      How do they feel about their use of Norwegian?

    • Who are your users?
      Adult refugees in Norway.

    • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

      • Artifacts

        • Notebook

        • Pencil

        • Table (a sheet of paper)



      • Tasks

        • In the evening

          • Write down their use of newly learned words or phrases.

          • Write down your favourite word you learned or used today.

          • Put on a yellow star sticker for x amount newly learned words.

          • Circle around "emoji" that represent how they generally felt while speaking Norwegian that day.

          • Write down a goal for the next day. If the goal for the day was completed put up an extra sticker
            Goal examples: Better expression, Learn more phrases \ words, engage in conversation in Norwegian.



        • During the day

          • After a conversation in Norwegian fill out how you felt you mastered it on a scale from 1-5.

          • Comment about what went well in the conversation or what you want to improve on.







    • How do you plan to follow-up on your probe?
      Collect the probe in person (if possible) and thank them for doing the tasks.
      Ask them if they want to be informed about the findings of the data in the probe.
      If yes ask them how they prefer to be contacted.


    The results:



    Some pictures from the first person's probe:



    We can see that she was having a great time learning Norwegian and was quite happy. We also thought that she was still a beginner based on the newly learned words that she wrote. We can guess that she is a hard-working student and likes learning the language.

    Some pictures from the second person's probe:



    The second person was even more satisfied with his Norwegian and happier. We think that's because she spoke more Norwegian and maybe used the words she has learned correctly and with confidence. We also believe that she is an ambitious and positive person.

    Some pictures from the third person's probe:



    The third person is interesting. Her first day was not so good as we can see in the first picture. She had trouble or difficulty writing a text as she explained and wanted to learn more about writing a text. Thankfully, she was happier on her third day and we think that a teacher helped her with her problem.

    Surprises?

    What surprises us is that 2/3 students either don't have any goal for the following day or that they somehow forgot/don't want to share their goals with us. Even though they are the same students that are having a great experience learning the Norwegian language as we saw earlier.
    On the other hand, the third person, who is not having a so good experience as the others, wrote down her desired result/s for the following day (but in the wrong place).

    However, what can be deduced from this is that it is possible that sharing future plans is not desirable for a large segment of adult learners, or simply because they see it boring. In both cases, we believe that we should not ask this question again in future projects.

    No one has used stickers too.

    Inspirations?

    There will always be students who need help with learning new things (reality). Even if the number is small, we have to do something to make it easier for them to learn and to understand faster. That's why, we are inspired to use technology to create something useful and helpful (like a chat app for smartphones) for everyone, even for smarter people.

  • Han kunne være nådeløs

    Han kunne være nådeløs

    DIXIT TACITUS - Publisert den 8. oktober 2019 av fro

    Hvem var egentlig Jacques Chirac som Frankrikes president? Fotoillustrasjon: Colourbox.com



    KRONIKK. Frankrikes president i årene 1995-2007 Jacques Chirac ble gravlagt 30. september, 86 år gammel. Franske medier er i full gang med å skjønnmale hans ettermæle, slik det er påpasselig å gjøre hver gang en president går bort. Sist gang dette skjedde var med president François Mitterrand i 1996. Neste gang blir det trolig med Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, som er 93 år og er den eldste tidligere fransk president som ennå lever.

    Ingen kommentator klarer å forholde seg nøytralt til Chirac. Noen beskriver ham som en ekte statsleder og franskmann, mens andre stempler ham som presidenten som fikk velgerne til å miste enhver tillit til politikk og til presidentembetet.

    Begge versjoner kan stemme. Jeg vil på min side hevde at han være gaullismens siste ektefødt representant og kanskje gaullismens siste mohikaner.

    Det er rørende å se hvor mange sympatierklæringer som strømmer fra kjente og ukjente etter at nyheten om Chiracs bortgang spredte seg. Dagligdags politiske kynisme viker unna for et hav av følelser. Hvorfor?

    Fordi Chirac ansees av mange for å være den siste franske president som opplevde gaullismen på nært hold. Hans karriere begynte på 1960-tallet mens de Gaulle satt som president for å ta slutt førti år senere da han forlot presidentrollen i 2007.

    Han ble statssekretær for økonomi og finans i ung alder. Så fikk han ministerposter under de Gaulles etterfølgere, først Georges Pompidou - han ble bl.a. en populær landbruksminister som forsvarte franske bønder med nebb og klør mot Brussel -, så Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, hvor han ble statsminister i to år før han sa opp med brask og bram i 1976.

    Parisere husker ham som byens ordfører mellom 1977 og 1995. En generasjon franskmenn vokste opp med Chirac, først som opposisjonsleder på 1970-tallet, så som statsminister mellom 1986 og 1988, før han ble valgt som president etter to mislykkede forsøk i 1981 og i 1988. Franskmenn elsker berg-og-dal livsforløp.

    Chirac vil først og fremst huskes for sin franskhet. Han var en høy og pen mann som lett kunne skru på sjarmen. I og utenfor Frankrike symboliserte han de beste og de mindre gode sidene ved å være fransk. Han var jovial, nysgjerrig, morsom og var beryktet for en grenseløs appetitt for mat og kvinner.

    Men han kunne også være impulsiv, utålmodig, nådeløs og løgnaktig. Han kom uansett tett i kontakt med franskmenn. Mange som stilte i kø foran Elysée-palasset for å hedre ham en siste gang hadde sitt eget minne om et uforglemmelig møte med Chirac, hvor de følte seg fullt og helt sett og hørt.

    En slik folkenærhet er en sjelden vare i et politisk system som preges i høyeste grad av hierarki. To år etter å ha blitt valgt til president sliter fremdeles Emmanuel Macron med å riste fra seg byråkrat- og elitestemplet.

    Macrons folkelighet virker ofte kunstig. Det er derfor forståelig - selv om det er ufortjent -, at mange franskmenn anser Chirac som den beste presidenten Frankrike har hatt under den Femte republikk sammen med de Gaulle.

    Der ligger ett av Chiracs mange paradokser. Selv om han var i utgangspunktet et produkt av Frankrikes elitesystem, klarte han over tid å knytte bånd til det rurale Frankrike. Den årlige landbruksmessen i Paris ga han stadig anledning til å pleie imaget som én som stod folket nær.

    For dagens franskmenn, som er desperate etter å ha en statsleder som skjønner dem og «det virkelige landet,» er dette nok til å glemme at de lenge hatet den samme mannen for hans politikk eller hans personlighet.

    Mye kan derfor tilgis ham til tross for et liv fullt av selvmotsigelser. Hvordan kunne man ellers skjønne at den samme mannen som solgte den kommunistiske avisen L’Humanité på gata i sine ungdomsår flere tiår senere kunne klage over lukten av innvandrerne som bodde i samme oppgang som såkalte etniske franskmenn?

    Men jeg begynte denne teksten med å omtale Chirac som gaullismens siste mohikaner. I hvilken grad treffer sammenligningen med de Gaulle? Jeg tror man bør skille mellom utenrikspolitikk og innenrikspolitikk.

    Utenrikspolitisk har Chirac til en viss grad levd opp til gaullismens grunnleggende forventning om at en statsleder skal forsvare ideen om et selvstendig Frankrike.

    I likhet med de Gaulle forsøkte Chirac å maksimere Frankrike globale plass med de midlene han hadde til rådighet. Riktignok levde de to i helt ulike utenrikspolitiske epoker. For de Gaulle handlet det om skape Frankrike et større handlerom i et bipolært system som var ledet av Sovjetunionen og USA, der Frankrike kun var en mellomstor makt som de facto måtte stå bak USA i krisetider.

    For Chirac handlet det derimot om å navigere Frankrike ut av blokkavviklingen og om å hindre at verden skulle bli unipolær, med et USA som stod igjen som eneste gjenværende supermakt etter Sovjetunionens kollaps.

    Der de Gaulle bruke et allsidig bilateralt diplomati mellom Øst og vest, anskaffelsen av atombomben og en ubegrenset dose av frekkhet, brukte Chirac EU og multilateralismen for å øke Frankrikes handlefrihet, samt litt av den samme frekkheten.

    Det er derfor primært «det multilaterale Chirac» som hedres i mange land i dag, dvs. mannen som forkastet ideen om at det skulle komme en konflikt mellom sivilisasjoner og som forsvarte det globale kulturmangfoldet.

    En slik humanisme hindret derimot ikke at Chirac hadde et tett forhold til ledere som Ben Ali i Tunisia, al-Gaddafi i Libya, Bongo i Gabon eller Arafat. I likhet med de Gaulles lyktes han å sette Frankrike på kartet. Det var tilfellet med Frankrikes høylytte nei til USAs ulovlige invasjon av Irak i 2003, landets militære rolle under Balkan-krigene og gjentatte støtteerklæringer til en to stats-løsning i konflikten mellom Israel og Palestina.

    I likhet med de Gaulle var Chiracs bestrebelser utad likevel ikke alltid vellykket. Chiracs nei til Irak-krigen var modig, men hindret ikke Bush-administrasjonen til å overkjøre FN-systemet. Frankrike ble usatt for systematisk French bashing og europeerne ble splittet.

    Det samme kan sies om hans engasjement i klimaspørsmålet eller om han EU-politikk. Talen i Johannesburg i september 2002 var kanskje visjonær, men den forble i det store og hele kloke ord.

    Når det gjelder det andre gikk Chirac - i likhet med de Gaulle - gjennom en lang prosess som førte ham fra en harnisk opposisjon til EUs integrasjonsprosess på 1970-tallet til fullt og helt å omfavne en Union som han definerte som en føderasjon av nasjonalstater tidlig på 2000-tallet.

    De Gaulle klarte aldri å skape det statsbaserte EF han ønsket seg. Tvert imot endte han opp i en forsvarsstilling som skadet Frankrike.

    Chirac opplevde litt av det samme etter 2004 da det handlet om å sikre Frankrikes innflytelse i et EU med over 25 land eller da han mislyktes i å få franske velgere til å støtte EUs nye traktat i 2005.

    Det franske nei lammet Unionen idet EU ble utvidet østover og svekket Frankrikes stemme. Det ødela også presidentembetets prestisje på hjemmebane. Men Chirac ble i 12 år Frankrikes ansikt utad i en verden som hadde begynt å tvile på Frankrike globale innflytelse.

    Hva med innenrikspolitikken? I hvilken grad opptrådte Chirac som en gaullist og hva skal dette bety?

    Gaullismen var i utgangspunktet en form for pragmatisk politikk framfor en ideologi. I så fall har Chirac vært en paradoksal gaullist. Gjennom sin karriere var han en politiker uten reell ideologisk overbevisning. Han tok mange snuoperasjoner og gikk fra å være konservativ og EU-fiendtlig på 1970-tallet til å bli ultra liberal og euroskeptisk på 80-tallet, for igjen å bli mer kritisk til liberalismen og klar EU-tilhenger på 2000-tallet.

    Han var primært opportunist og lot seg ofte rive med og manipulere av rådgivere som kunne hjelpe ham med å vinne og som skadet hans rykte på lengre sikt.

    Som politiker hadde Chirac en grenseløs energi som han brukte for å erobre makten. Han svek og ble sveket, men overlevde takket være en utrolig tro på seg selv. Denne troen hjalp i mindre grad etter at han kapret presidentposten.

    Han var flinkere til å få makt enn til å beholde den. Hans første mandat ble ødelagt av en håpløs avgjørelse om å oppløse nasjonalforsamlingen - han tok en «Cameron» -, mens det andre ble revet i stykker etter at han tapte avstemningen om EU i 2005. Mellom 2005 og 2007 ble Chirac for de alle fleste persona non grata.

    Det ble verre senere. I 2011 fikk ble han dømt til to års betinget fengsel for korrupsjon og maktmisbruk for perioden han var ordfører i Paris. Han var den første tidligere president som noensinne ble kjent skyldig i kriminalitet siden marskalk Pétain i 1945.

    Tilsammen ble han en allmektig fransk president i kun 5 av de 12 årene han satt på den republikanske tronen. Resten av tiden besatte han bare presidentembetet.

    Flere mente at han skulle ha gitt seg i 1997 eller i 2005. De Gaulle gikk av på dagen i 1969 etter en tapt folkeavstemning om reformen av regioner og senatet fordi han ikke lenger hadde franskmennenes tillit. Slik var ikke Chirac.

    I dag hylles Chirac som landsfader. Det har ikke alltid vært slikt. Riktignok klarte han å forene den franske høyresiden to ganger. En første gang uten sentrum med opprettelsen av partiet Samling for Republikken (RPR) i 1976 og en andre gang sammen med sentrum og de liberale med stiftelsen av Unionen for en folkebevegelse (UMP) i 2002.

    Han hadde nasjonen bak seg når han forsvarte grunnleggende prinsipper. Vi har nevnt Irak-krigen.

    Han ble også den første presidenten som i 1995 torde å erkjenne Frankrikes ansvar i deportasjonen av jøder i Frankrike under andre verdenskrig. Dette fulgte han opp. Han nektet til enhver tid å inngå allianser med det ytre høyre.

    Men Chirac splittet også Frankrike. Som statsminister under Mitterrand mellom 1986 og 1988 rev han i stykker viktige sosiale fremskritt som var blitt oppnådd siden 1981.

    Verre ble det i 1995 da han lovte velgerne at han ville gå løs på de sosiale ulikhetene i landet hvis han ble valgt til president, for å innføre en ny innstramningspakke seks måneder senere. Millioner av franskmenn inntok gatene. Verst var det i 2002 da han ble gjenvalgt mot lederen for Nasjonal Front Jean-Marie Le Pen med over 82% av stemmene - mange kom fra venstresiden-, for like etter å utnevne en ren høyreregjering.

    Han valgte å snu ryggen til det politiske kaoset landet hadde vært på randen av.

    Før vi feirer videre den avdøde presidenten bør vi ikke glemme at president Chirac - i likhet med president Mitterrand -, deler et ansvar for å ha skjøvet Frankrikes problemer foran seg, dels pga. handlingslammelse og dels pga. konservatisme, og for ha latt Nasjonal Front vokse på folkets misnøye.

    Reformer ble utsatt, statsgjelden og arbeidsledigheten fortsatte å stige og spenningene som rev landet i stykker ble aldri håndtert.

    Hans etterfølgere gjorde ikke bedre. Konsekvensen ble at franske velgere kom mer og mer på avveie og at Nasjonal Front igjen kom til andre omgang av et presidentvalg i 2017.

    Jacques Chirac klarte kanskje å være gaullismens arvtager gjennom sin utenrikspolitikk. Men i innenrikspolitikken har han vært gaullisten som gravla gaullismen.

    8. oktober  2019 publiserte AreaS medlem Franck Orban en kronikk i Dagbladet om tidligere Frankrikes president Jacques Chiracs bortgang og hvordan man skal vurdere hans mandat som president mellom 1995 og 2007.

  • Idea Brainstorming for E-scooter Safety

    Idea Brainstorming for E-scooter Safety

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den oktober 21, 2019 av tadaso

    We started a 30 minute long timer and started to brainstorm ideas that could affect E-scooters in a positive way towards safety. this is what we came up with:

    Special helmet for E-scooters, it can have some features such as a turn signal on the back and front of the helmet since, e-scooters tend to turn corners quite quickly and this signal could help give drivers and people information in where they are heading. 

    General lights Front lights for better and safer driving in the dark, break light for cars and other scooters behind so they se when the user breaks so a crash can be prevented and signal lights so people know where the user is going so driving become safer and smother.

    App – connected through bluetooth and could give the possibilities for gps tracking and directions as well as locking the scooter in place. Universal, if the scooter has bluetooth which they do, in most cases.  It would have a simple and appealing design. Easy to add new functions (could be gps speed, battery status, you name it) 

    Not all of these ideas are great, but we wrote everything down. We think that a helmet could show most potential out of all of these, if not, maybe we can join up and make another brainstorm.

     

  • 4. Prototype

    4. Prototype

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den november 19, 2019 av martho

    Look and Feel prototype


    The prototype of our parent-teacher app was made in Adobe XD.



    The first the user is met with when opening the app is the login page. Here they have the choice of logging in as either a teacher or a guardian. The next step is to choose their affiliation, which school they belong to. There will not be a way to make an account through the app, for security reasons. The username and password will then be made and handed out by the school. There will also be an option to remember the login, so that it won't be time-consuming for the user.

     



    If you choose to continue as a guardian and have several children going to the same school, you'll have the option to choose which child's page you want to view.

     



    Continuing as a guardian, a feed will be displayed. Not only can teachers can give updates on special events or give reminders, but parents can ask general questions that aren't child- or appointment related.

     



    As a guardian you can also view your personal mailbox. Here you can chat personally with the main teacher(s) of your child's class, and ask questions related to your child or an appointment.

     



    Continuing as a teacher, an identical feed to a parent's will display. Teachers can give updates, but also answer parental questions. Not only teachers can answer the questions, but other parents too if they have the correct info.

     



    The teacher can chat individually with each parent of the class if needed.

     

    Video prototype


    View the video here.

  • 4. Prototype

    4. Prototype

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av Benji

    We started the prototype process by making a brainstorm map. We did this to figure out what is functional for the high fidelity product we're going to make. The first thing we did was to brainstorm on a paper, to see our different ideas, and see which will be good to work furter on.



    Next, we made a wireframe of a smartphone to figure out the structure and give us a more visual way to see how the layout and function of our solution would turn out. By using the wireframe we figured out the function of the app and how many pages and functions we needed to apply. Then the following questions appeared:


    • Do we need an artifact function?

    • What will the ghosts look like?

    • How do we catch the ghosts;

      • Videotape them?

      • Do you tap on them in the AR function?

      • Use something similar to Pokemon balls?



    • How does the map work?

    • Will there be a tracker?

    • Realistic ghost?

      • From the timeline of the fortress/ museum?





    Then we started to make the mockup by using Adobe XD to see how the finished product would behave.




    The Homepage/ starter page.


    The game has three different buttons for the functions:


    Game button


    Map button


    Stat button




    How the gams looks like.



    How the game looks like when a ghost appears.


    The game is a AR function, so when you see a ghost on the screen you need to catch them.


    With the artifact you only need to press them to get them.


    If you want to use artifact to catch ghost u can press the red A button.


     

    How the map looks like when you push the "Map" button


    The map show you where, you are in the museum.


    Blue dots are where the ghost are, they can move.


    The red dots are where there are artifacts hidden in the fortress they can help you catch the ghost that are hard to get.




    How the stats side looks like when you push the "Stats" button



     

    Link to Video prototype:


    Videoprototype Malin og Benjamin

  • 3.2. Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    3.2. Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den oktober 22, 2019 av Mohamed

    Persona for 1st person:


    Name: Lisa.
    Age: 23.
    Education: Bachelor in informatics (first year).
    Location: Halden.

    Bio: Lisa is a student who loves to technology, sports and music.
    Needs/frustrations: Lisa is frustrated about not having many attendees with the same interests for her favorite sport. She needs a solution to share her events with many people.
    Motivations: Lisa is interested in volleyball practices, and wishes to form a student team to play matches against other universities.
    Goal: Her goal is to form a volleyball team to win the upcoming championship in Østfold.
    Psychographics: Kind, funny, athletic.
    Behaviouristics: Loves excersizing at the gym, chat with friends and play music.

    Scenario:


    Lisa has no plans after school on a tuesday and wants to host a volleyball practice. Lisa is at the cafeteria and walks towards a TV displaying a calendar with events happening around the school. She sees that there are only events of parties and football on the calendar, which makes her want to create an own event for her sport. On the bottom of the TV there's a QR-code that she can scan with her phone to download the WhatsUp app for creating and registering for these events. She scans this QR-code with her camera and recieves a window with the app download from the AppStore. After having downloaded the and opened the app, she logs in with her Feide username and password. After logging in she sees the calendar with the different dates and events, but instead she clicks the create event button at the bottom left. A new window pops up where she can fill in information about the event she wants to create. The data she needs to fill in is: title, description, location, time and a date via a date-picker. After she has entered all this data, she clicks the create event button, and recieves a confirmation that the event has been created. After this she looked up from her phone to find her event showing up on the calendar on the TV. Now all she has to do is wait for notifications to pop up on the app when people registers for her event.

    Later that day she's in the gym practicing serving methods with a volleyball by herself, when she suddently hears many footsteps and voices approaching. She turns around and sees many students dressed in training outfits, who had seen and registered for her event. Lisa then greeted all of them and assigned groups of 3 for practicing serving techniques. She smiled broadly and was so happy because of the posibilities that WhatsUp gave her for gathering students for volleyball practicing.

    Storyboard:


    Press the arrows on the left and right side on the storyboard to switch between the different frames. Click the middle of the frame for bigger and more clear versions of the frames.
    Incase the presentation of the storyboard fails to load, please view the storyboard at the following link.


    Lise sees a TV-screen in the hall, with a calendar. She sees that it is available as an app and scans the QR-code.


    Then she get to download the application in AppStore.


    She signs up in the app through FEIDE.


    At the homepage/landing-page in the app is a calendar with events.


    Lise wants to play volleyball and clicks on Create Event to make her own event. Her she can plot in all the information about her event.


    When Lise is finished creating an event she it pops up a box with confirmation of the event.

    Persona for 2nd person:


    Name: Petter.
    Age: 21.
    Education: Second year economics student.
    Location: Halden.

    Bio: Petter is originally from Trondheim, but moved to Halden for his studies. Petter likes to hang out with his friends, and like investing in stocks.
    Needs/frustration: Petter thinks it’s too much hassle finding events that he cares about, and needs a way to access different social gatherings without stressing.
    Motivations: Relaxation and having fun with friends.
    Goal: Get a more stress free weekday with increased social activity.
    Psychographics: Handy, funny, relaxed, athletic, engaged.
    Behaviouristics: Likes everything related to economics.

    Scenario:


    Petter is sitting in his couch at home on a friday afternoon. He wants to check if there any events happening around the school later in the evening. He already has the WhatsUp app downloaded on his mobile, as he manually downloaded it via the AppStore earlier. After logging in with his Feide information, Petter sees all the events happening in the calendar. He then spots an event named Stocks, and clicks on it for more information. After reading the description of the event, he decides to press the sign up button. He then receives a new window with confirmation that he's signed up for the event, and closes the app after this.

    Later that evening, Petter meets up with the rest of the attendees at A4 Remmen. They start discussing about recent stock changes for big companies like Apple and Google, followed by watching a movie about crypto currency and how to purchase bitcoin. Petter is amazed of how easy it was to find other people with the same interests in such a short notice.

    Storyboard:


    Press the arrows on the left and right side on the storyboard to switch between the different frames. Click the middle of the frame for bigger and more clear versions of the frames.
    Incase the presentation of the storyboard fails to load, please view the storyboard at the following link.


    Petter is at home, and is bored. He therefor opens the app; WhatsUp.


    He logs in using his FEIDE-account.


    On the landing page in the app is the calendar with an overview for all the events this month.


    He clicks on an event he finds interesting, Stocks, and sees more detailed information about this particular event.


    He signs up for the event and gets a pop-up-window with confirmation about his signup for Stocks.


    Petter is on the Stocks-event having a great time getting new friends, while discussing finances.

  • 5. Test

    5. Test

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den november 18, 2019 av Tora Magnusson

    Testing Evaluation Report:


    What functionality / form / concepts are important to test? Make a prioritized list!

    1. Need/Importance

    2. Functionality

    3. Location of the TV-screen


    How should these be tested?

    • Do you participate on events at your school? Why/why not?


    Show our mockup a video of the prototype/app in Adobe XD.

    • How big do you think the need/importance of this app is?

    • Does it exist an app like this at your school?

    • What would you think about this app if it existed on your school?


    Let them test the prototype in Adobe XD themselves(take screen record while they're testing, maybe also sound record if allowed).

    • How do you think the app is to use?

    • What functions do you miss?

    • What functions could be improved?


    (We borrows a TV-screen with wheels from hiof)
    We show the mockup our TV-screen with the calendar at one of the entries at school. Using the wizard of oz method to switch forth and back between this month and the next month.

    • Where do you think this screen should stand?

    • (What do you think about having wheels on the stand for the TV-screen.)

    • What functions do you miss?

    • What functions could be improved?


    Design a user test for your mockup(s). Think about participants, tasks, method.

    Tasks:

    • Look through the calendar and the different existing events.

    • Sign up for an event.

    • Find your own events(My events) after signing up for an event.

    • Make an event.

    • Check out your own events(My events) again after making one.

    • Sign of an event.

    • Log out.


    After conducting tests with X users this are our test results:

    • Do you participate on events at your school? Why/why not?

      • p1: no, because it is on wednesday which is my only day off.

      • p2: no, it is so much else going on, and Halden is far away when I live in Sarpsborg.





    • How big do you think the need/importance of this app is?

      • p1: always late info on facebook, easy to miss out on events. Nice with WhatsUp where you can sign up for events, then you know how many else is going on each event.

      • p2: a lot of posters at school, you don't recognise them any more.





    • What would you think about this app if it existed on your school?

      • p1: I think it would be great, you get a better overview and it is easier to plan a month ahead in time instead of to days ahead as with facebook.

      • p2 thinks the same.





    • How do you think the app is to use?

      • p1: nothing extra, easy and nothing unnecessary. 

      • p2: easy, few buttons, don't have to go through several buttons to get where you want.





    • What functions do you miss?

      • p1: Maybe that it could be a specific color for the events arranged by Halden student society, so it is easier to see them and highlight them from all the other events. Also, have different categories, like yellow color for partys and green color on sports events etc. To make it easier to see the events that is interesting for you.

      • p2 agrees with p1, but also would like to be able to se the week numbers.





    • What functions could be improved?

      • p1 & p2: no one, everything is quite easy to use and understand.





    • Where do you think this screen should stand?

      • p1: it should stand at the main entry at the school. Easier to look closer and catch our attention.

      • p2: I agree, when we walk through f.ex. Vrimle(where they usually have stands etc.) we don't even bother to look on the things they're showing us.



  • After-SKuL seminar 29.11: En introduksjon til nyere praksisteori

    After-SKuL seminar 29.11: En introduksjon til nyere praksisteori

    SKuL – Skole, kunnskap & lærerutdanning - Publisert den 18. oktober 2019 av Hilde Wågsås Afdal

    Å forstå samfunnet og utdanning som sosiale praksiser: En introduksjon til nyere praksisteori


    Tid: 29. november kl. 11.30 - 15.00. Vi starter med felles lunsj.

    Påmelding

    Sted: Fredriksten Hotell

    Om seminaret: Praksis blir ofte brukt i hverdagsbetydning som å gjøre noe eller øve på noe, og forstås i motsetning til teori. I nyere praksisteori er begrepet mye mer grunnleggende. For å forstå samfunn og menneskelig handling må man begynne med sosiale og materielle praksiser. Å gjøre teori og å forske er en sosial praksis - det samme er alle andre samfunnsmessig aktiviteter. Menneskelig handling forstås ikke primært som individuelle valg eller som strukturelt betinget, men som aktiv deltagelse i sosiale og materielle praksiser. Seminaret er en introduksjon til nyere praksisteori, slik den formuleres av bl.a. Schatzki, Nicolini, Gerardi, Latour, Engeström i tradisjonen Wittgenstein, Taylor, Giddens og Bourdieu.

     

    Foredragsholder/seminarleder: Professor



    Geir Afdal, professor II ved avdeling for lærerutdanning, HIØ

     

     

  • Prototype - Smart Card

    Prototype - Smart Card

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den november 7, 2019 av idamle

    Our idea consists of an app, and a prepaid creditcard called the Smart Card. The app is not connected to an already excisting bank account, or credit card. After registrering in the app the user will receive a card by post. The card will work as a prepaid creditcard, where the user will have to transfer money from their personal bank accounts and over to this card. It will work similar to a gift card, with greater options for controlling your spendings.

    In the app you have the option of setting limits for how many times you can use the card, and you can see your spending habits. This is over a period of seven days. Each limit lasts seven days after activated. So you can choose to only be able to use your card a certain amount of times during the next seven days.

    When first registrering the user have to verify themself with electronic ID, such as Bank ID.  And later when logging in, they have to add a personal four digit code which have to be entered everytime upon login. This is because security is very important for the user, and have to be taken seriously.

    _______________________________________________________

    We went with a very colorful theme for our app, and this is because colors are great for catching the eye, and creating a exciting theme. We want the users to be excited when using our app, and we want it to be nice to look at as well.

    We started our prototype process by talking about what we think is important to have in our prototype, how can we make it fun and easy for the user to want to use it. We worked together with Adobe XD, and made some first drafts. At first we didn´t focus that much on things like security, but made that a much bigger part of the app in our final version. We also changed the design severalt times. Some of our group members wanted the app to be very plain, and only focus on the functions, and other groups members wanted the app to be very colorful and fun. We decided on the more colorful version, with the option of toning it down if needed.

    It was very fun to try out adobe XD, and see our idea coming to life. I think it was a great learning experience, and really helped us being creative.

    See our prototype here and our prototype video  here






    Before we decided on this theme we also tried out several different other looks. But we found that both of these looks (under) was too colorful and too distracting. But it was a good process to create several different themes, and then decide together what we think would look the best for the end user.



    We think that overall our prototype is easy and understandable for the user, and we hope that we can get helpful insights and feedback from our testing.

    We have also made a prototype for our credit card, and the idea is that we are going to print it out, and make a real life tangible prototype of this aswell.



     

     

  • Generating ideas

    Generating ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den oktober 22, 2019 av karinltr

    Brainstorming for HMW-questions(problems statements):


    We set off 30 minutes to write down HMW-questions related to our problem that the group decided to work on in our “define” process, which is problems surrounding class size.

    We sat down together as a group and wrote down as many HMW-questions on post-it cards as each of us could and decided on which one to work with. How we did this will be described below with pictures:



    First we decided on how much time we wanted to give ourselves on the brainstorming session, which ended up being 30 minutes. Then we wrote down as many HMW-questions as we could on post-it cards. After the 30 minutes, we gathered the cards and read them out loud to each other.



    Thereafter each of us picked our own best three cards which resulted in five bigger groups, and discussed these five groups of problement statements within the group and selected the best one of each group together.



    Finally, the five of us voted for our favorite out of the five HMW-questions we had. These were:

    1. HMW broaden our teaching methods to fit large classes?

    2. HMW get online lectures?

    3. HMW reduce the anxiety to ask questions to the lecturer during class?

    4. HMW deepen the relationship between the lecturer and the students in a bigger class?

    5. HMW make a bigger class size advantageous?


    We ended up choosing the fourth one: HMW deepen the relationship between the lecturer and the students in a bigger class? 

     

    Generating solutions based on our HMW-question


    After having chosen an HMW-question, we needed to come up with possible solutions to solve the problem statement. To do this, we decided to make a Lotus Blossom Diagram with post-it cards with different shapes to divide the different levels of the diagram. With this method, we first came up with 8 themes to the HMW-question as shown on the picture below, we tried to make these themes as relevant to the HMW-question as we could, but was still open to as many ideas as possible:



     

    Then we came up with 8 solutions to each of these 8 themes, again we tried to be open to any ideas without straying too far from our themes. We picked out 1 theme and gave ourselves roughly 10 minutes to generate 8 solutions related to the chosen theme. We repeated this 8 times and ended up with 8 themes and a little less than 64 solutions as some of our themes were less broad than others thus harder to generate solutions for:



    Results from Lotus blossom diagram

    Problem statement: How might we deepen the relationship between the lecturer and the student in a bigger class?

    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Set a limit on the amount of students in a class.

    • Solutions:





        • Put in a smaller group.

        • Penalize late attendance.

        • Offer online lectures.

        • Strawpoll.

        • Less impactful lectures.

        • Only the best students joins.(best grades)

        • More lecturers => More lectures.

        • Smaller lecture halls.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Personalized conversations with each student.

    • Solutions:





        • Canvas chat.

        • Email.

        • Letters.

        • Phone calls.

        • Post-it feedback after lectures.

        • Live stream.

        • Meetings.

        • Skype








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: 1-on-1 Meetings.



      • Solutions:

        • Coffee.

        • Online chat.

        • After class.

        • Video chat.

        • Email.

        • Group Room.

        • Supervision.

        • Teachers office.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Rewards for participation from lectures.

    • Solutions:





        • Monthly best student.(Reputation)

        • Lecturer hosting competition in class.

        • Cake from lecturers.

        • Waffle stand.

        • Point per answer.(Competition)

        • Better grade.

        • Free tickets for cinemas.

        • Coupons.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: More lecturers in class.

    • Solutions:





        • Student Assistants.

        • Teacher assistants.

        • Hire more lecturers.

        • Divide bigger classes.

        • Online lecturers.

        • Volunteers.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Actively using names of the students.

    • Solutions:





        • Nametags.

        • Group assignments.

        • Rules(making sure they call out names when speaking).

        • Roll attendance in class.

        • Kahoot quiz.

        • Facts about yourself in class.

        • Digital group chat in class(where you can see names).

        • Practical tasks in class.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Digital during class.

    • Solutions:





        • Snapchat.

        • Skype.

        • Facebook group.

        • Anonymous chat function.

        • Canvas discussion.

        • Facebook group chat.

        • Lecturer question platform.

        • Livestream.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Theme: Use personality quizzes in classes.

    • Solutions:





        • Tell about each other in a group chat.

        • Quizzes about each other.

        • New quiz platform.

        • Kahoot.








    ______________________________________________________________

    Selecting solutions

    After working with the lotus blossom diagram, the group ended with 8 themes and solutions related to each theme. Before the group decided on which 3 solutions to work with further into the project, we had a short discussion about the themes as we all were leaning towards this one theme: Digital during class.

    Now that we decided on which theme to explore, we had another discussion on what method to apply on this project to decide which solutions to work with. The method we chose to apply is the Post-it voting, and the process will be described below:



    These are the solutions related to the theme that the group chose to work with, we wrote these solutions on a new post-it cards in order to proceed to the next step of this method which is shown above.



    Thereafter we had a short recap of each solutions and briefly discussed each of these solutions, after finishing our recap and discussion, each of the group members voted on the solution they found the most interesting and rationale. We used stickers on the post-it cards to mark our votes. The voting resulted in these 3 solutions:

    • Anonymous chat function, 3 votes.

    • Livestream, 1 vote.

    • Lecturer question platform, 1 vote.


    Conclusion on the Ideate phase

    Throughout this phase of the design thinking method: Ideate - generating ideas. The group ended up with: 

    1 problem statement: HMW deepen the relationship between the lecturer and the students in a bigger class?

    1 Theme: Digital during class.

    3 solutions:

    • Anonymous chat function.

    • Livestream.

    • Lecturer question platform.

  • Education

    Education

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 10, 2019 av Gubben

    We want to explore how lecturer is conveying information to the students (bachelor) in a classroom. We want to explore this because it is a relevant subject to us as students and there is many different factors that affects how a student interpret the information given by lecturer.

  • Information flows in context

    Information flows in context

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 10, 2019 av karinltr

    Document in your wordpress blog:


    • Questions / Goal: How is the lecturer conveying information to the digital media students in the classroom? Find literature describing "lecturer student" conveying information in a classroom.

    • Keywords: Information, lecturer, students, teaching, interpret, classroom, receive, learning, styles, improve, "digital media", differences,

    • Combining keywords:
      - I want to find literature on "differences between lecturer and students" (Lecturer  AND students AND differences)
      - I want to find literature on "challenges and difficulties when lecturer are conveying information to digital media students" (...........................)
      - I want to find literature on "how to improve this spesific situation/problem" (...............................)
      - I want to find literature on "what tecknology solutions have already been developed to solve this particular problem" (.........................)

    • Determine nature of literature: 

    • Select information sources

  • Cultural probes

    Cultural probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av karinltr

    Choose an example cultural probes and find out:


    • What is the design goal? Who are your users?


    How students best learned from lectures.

    Students and teachers (professors)

     

    • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?


     

    • How do you plan to follow-up your probe?

  • Define your research question

    Define your research question

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av asiankid

    Which method we chose and why

    We had three different methods to choose between: affinity diagram, empathy map and content analysis. The purpose of using one of these methods is organizing all the information we have gotten through our literature search, interview/observation and cultural probes. By doing this, we can group recurring problems and see what would be more relevant to take a closer look at and focus on moving forward with our project.

    An affinity diagram is the organized output from a brainstorming session of a large amount of information. We chose this method over the other ones because it was the easiest and most fitting way to organize the information we have gathered. The content analysis method does not fit for sorting the information that we have gathered in this task and is harder to do properly. An empathy map would also not fit that well, as our information is not directly from one person's point of view, but rather more generalized. Hence, we chose to do an affinity diagram. 

     

    How we applied the method

    After the group decided on a method to use, we gathered data from the previous assignments (literature search, expert interview/observation and cultural probes). In order to complete this task we needed to find problems surrounding our problem statement. As stated above, we used data from the previous assignments and found problems related to our problem statement. The type of affinity diagram we decided to do, is parallel clustering. We wrote these problems down on cards and spread them out randomly after they had been generated. 



     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Then, we looked at the problems written on the cards to find patterns and relations between these problems, in order to group them together. After sorting these problems we grouped them into three categories(from left to right in the picture below):



     

     

     

     

     

     

     


    • Language barrier.

    • Educational background.

    • Class size.


    After categorizing our problems into these three groups, we wrote a short description of these categories(from left to right in the picture below):



     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    • Language barriers can create misunderstandings and difficulties.

    • Different educational backgrounds make it harder for the lecturers to adapt.

    • A bigger class size will affect the lecture in a negative way.


    Finally, we discussed within the group which one of these categories we would like to focus on going forward in this project. The end result of this task will be presented further below.

     

    The result of our affinity diagram

    A more structured overview of the problems we wrote down and their relations and groupings.



    Student/lecturer in lectures

    • Language barrier.

      • Miscommunication.

        • Lecturer speaks bad english.



      • Nowegian students struggle with english courses.




     

    • Educational background.

      • Transition from high school to university.

        • Different environments.



      • Different backgrounds and experiences.

        • Different years.

        • Different studies.






     

    • Class size.

      • Less contact with lecturer.

      • Decreased participation in bigger classes.

      • More distractions.

        • People gaming/watching series.

        • Late attendance.



      • Anxiety to present in front of class.




     

    Definition of our problem

    We want to focus on problems surrounding the size of the lectures. Our users need more direct communication with the lecturer because bigger class size makes the students feel disconnected from the courses and its teachings.

  • Literature Search

    Literature Search

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av asiankid

    1.1 Exploration through Literature Search


     

    • Questions / Goal: How is the lecturer conveying information to the bachelor students in the classroom? Find literature describing "lecturer student" conveying information in a classroom.

    • Keywords: Information, lecturer, students, teaching, interpret, classroom, receive, learning, styles, improve, "digital media", differences, communication, class, class performance, teaching skills, attendance.

    • Combining keywords:
      - I want to find literature on “the main characteristics between lecturer and students conveying information in class" (Lecturer  AND sophomore AND characteristics AND class).
      - I want to find literature on "challenges and difficulties when lecturer are conveying information to digital media students" (lecturer AND students AND challenges).
      - I want to find literature on "how to improve this specific situation/problem" (lecturer AND students AND problem AND improvements).
      - I want to find literature on "what technology solutions have already been developed to solve this particular problem" (communication AND lecturer AND sophomore AND junior). 

    • Determine nature of literature: online scientific paper, reports, 

    • Select information sources: Google Scholar


     

    Documentation of the literature search

    The first step towards the preparation was to find a goal for our literature search. Then we had to find suitable keywords: (Information, lecturer, students, teaching, interpret, classroom, receive, learning, styles, improve, "digital media", differences, communication, class, class performance, teaching skills and attendance). They make it easier for us to make sure we are searching for the relevant sources and information about our topic. We decided to mainly use Google Scholar as our search engine. We found out that we actually had to swap out and change some of the keywords as they did not help us find the information we were looking for.

    We are searching for four different subjects:

    1.  The main characteristics between lecturer and students conveying information in class.

    2. Challenges and difficulties when lecturer are conveying information to digital media students.

    3. How to improve this specific situation/problem.

    4. What technology solutions have already been developed to solve this particular problem.


     

    We decided to search in English as that gives us a lot more articles than we would get searching in Norwegian. Using our key words, we found about 15 different sources that we found relevant for our research. Out of the 15 sources, we picked out the 11 most relevant to use for our literature review.

    1. Effective teaching methods and lecturer characteristics a study on accounting students at university malaysia.

    2. The impact of student perceptions and characteristics on teaching evaluations: a case study in finance education.

    3. The Role of the Lecturer as Tutor: Doing What Effective Tutors Do in a Large Lecture Class.

    4. Teaching international students: Improving learning for all.

    5. Effective teaching in higher education.

    6. Delayed sleep and sleep loss in university students. Journal of American College Health

    7. International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International education

    8. Additional evidence on the relationship between class size and student performance. The Journal of Economic Education

    9. Examples of Academic Challenges in College. (Website)

    10. Technology to support learning.

    11. Technology in support of collaborative learning.


    We picked out these 12 because most of them were scientific papers and they reflected our goal for the literature search in a good way. 

     

    Literature review

    Information flow between lecturer and student.

    Main characteristics

    Lecturers in universities have 3 main tasks. Teaching, researching and management, and all information flow from the lecturer to students have these 3 tasks as their baseline. Most lecturers have had the pleasure and opportunity to teach students one to one and could therefore directly adapt their teaching methods to that person’s needs. Now imagine standing in a traditional university lecture setting with everywhere from 30-500 students and try to convey and teach with the same precision to all students. To achieve that purpose, a lecturer must consider all instructional choices in a way that allows all students to understand and to be intrigued in the subject.  

    A lecturer therefore needs to find instructional choices that proves to effectively make and understanding between the lecturer and the students concerning the course. Effectiveness in the way a lecturer is conveying information is entirely estimated in relation to the lecturer’s goals of teaching (Brown, Atkins, 1988), which again depend on the context of teaching. Methods of teaching used in lecturers differs from subject to subject (Osman, Jaidi, Mohidin, Lim, 2009). For example, a lecture which has a sole purpose of providing a solution to a problem can be considered an effective lecturer if the goal of the lecture is to simply convey information. Another goal of a lecture can be to help make the students develop a solution to a problem and if the lecture is structured to merely deliver to solution it may be regarded as an ineffective lecture.

    Now it is easy to see that effective teaching is a very intellectual and socially demanding task and requires a successful lecturer to have a set of skills. First and foremost a lecturer needs to have a deep sense in the subject being taught, being intelligent. They need to be progressive, indirect, to draw attention to errors and not directly to the mistake and therefore make a learning experience out of it. He/she needs to be reflective when it comes to problem solving and at last, needs to be encouraging to the students (Wood, Tanner, 2012). With these skills in place and an understanding of the group of students a lecturer can put in place the right instructional choices to achieve an effective lecture.

    There are many instructional choices and measures a lecturer can choose between when conveying course information in a lecture. These measures are the characteristics of an information flow situation from a lecturer to students. The first and obvious one is to help students learn from the lectures directly from the information. There are also a lot of ways a lecturer indirectly conveys information. By helping students learn from smaller groups, helping students learn from laboratory sessions, helping students learn from private studies. As a lecturer you can also convey information by other indirect methods to helping the students learn that information by themselves. This by improving their reading, improving their writing and most importantly, to help them improve their problem-solving and problem-solving strategies and tactics (Brown, Atkins, 1988). In many cases the indirect information flow can be a lot more efficient than direct one.

     

    Challenges encountered/what needs to be improved

    International students are more common in the society since 1995. The amount of non-EU students in English speaking countries has risen from 100,000 in 1995 to 195,000 in 2004 (Caroll & Ryan, 2005, p. 4). Some benefits of studying abroad, is to gain intercultural experience, studying different languages and other opportunities(Andrade, 2006, p. 132). One of the challenges that occurs within a lecture, is that the lecturer has to adapt to meet the students needs and different educational backgrounds due to a diverse set of students that includes both national and international students(Caroll & Ryan, 2005, p. 5). 

     

    Making use of quizzes and personality tests can help the lecturer get a better idea of the students and their educational backgrounds as well as their behavior, which will help the lecturer have an easier time adapting to the diverse set of educational background among the students. Getting a clear idea of how many international students there is and who they are, as well as building a closer relationship with them, will lead to a better understanding of their educational background and needs. Also getting feedback from the students after lectures, making use of websites like “menti.com” to get feedback can help the lectures make changes to their lectures and adapt to the students.

     

    Another major challenge while studying abroad is the language barrier and different English speaking and writing capabilities. Students find it difficult interpreting information given by the lecturer as intended(Andrade, 2006, p. 135). 

     

    The lecturer being more prepared for diverse language English capabilities in lectures, by using more visuals and text to help conveying the information as intended can be a solution to this challenge. Also, helping the students prepare before lectures by informing them about the lecture´s topic beforehand will be beneficial in this situation as it gives the students a better idea and more time to learn the curriculum.    

     

    Another common challenge students face is lack of sleep. This affects their mood, concentration and motivation during lectures(Lack, 1986, p. 105), which results in difficulties interpreting informations given by the lecturers. This can also lead towards depression. A solution to this problem, is better time management and planning by the students to avoid unexpected events and to make the most use of the day. Another reason why lack of sleep is a challenge, is bad habits such as using digital media right before going to bed, that may result in excessive use and become more time consuming than expected.

     

    A fourth challenge is the size of the class, as it can affect students´ performance and relationship with the lecturer. A smaller class leads to a closer connection between the student and lecturer, which will result in increased participation of the students in class. Furthermore, less students in the same lecture will make it easier for a lecturer to stay on schedule(Douglas & Walker, 2004, p. 326). 

     

    In order to solve this problem, though potentially problematic for the economy of the university, the government could make a maximum limit of students per lecture, to avoid lectures with hundreds of students. This would then require more lectures and also possibly more lecturers for the same courses.

     

    Lastly, a students interest and motivation towards a course will play a major role in interpreting information from the lecturer( Freidman, 2019). Many studies include several compulsory courses, some that certain students might find uninteresting. This will make an impact on both the students and lecturers motivation to receive and give information during lectures. 

     

    Having less compulsory courses within a study and more elective courses, will result in a more flexible study and exciting for the students, but making sure the students take enough courses to fill the requirements for their bachelor is important. Also, keeping the lectures more engaging with different ways to hold lectures, using more physical activities or practical tasks in lectures will make it more exciting. Involving the students by holding quizzes such as “Kahoots” at the end of each lectures as a repetition and a competition, will keep the students more interested and give them something to look forward to each lecture.

     

    Digital tools

    There is some available digital tools such as “Canvas” and “StudentWeb”. Also at the Østfold University College in Norway they use other digital tools for other purposes than just strengthening the information flow between students and lecturers, these are “TP:Timeplan”(Østfold University College, 2019) which keeps tracks on a students schedule and “TP:Rombestilling”(Østfold University College, 2019).

     

    “Canvas” is a digital tool that focus on keeping an information flow between student and lecturers outside of the classroom regardless of time and place. However the digital tool does not guarantee effective learning, as it sole purpose is to make an easy communication way between student and lecturer. Furthermore it can be very misleading if the lecturer is not familiar with the tool, also technical issues might occur, hindering the information flow.

     

    “StudentWeb” is another digital tool that the students of Norway use over the course of their studies. Instead of focusing on the information flow between students and lecturers, the tool helps the students go through necessary procedures when applying to a new study or starting a new semester, such as paying semester fees and picking elective subjects. In addition the tool also keeps tracks of a students grades throughout the course of their study.

     

    References

     

    • Main elements/characteristics of my information flow situation


     

     

    Mohidin, R., Jaidi, J., Sang, L. T., & Osman, Z. (2009). Effective teaching methods and lecturer characteristics a study on accounting students at universiti malaysia sabah (ums)'. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 21-29.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Zaiton_Osman/publication/267224708_Effective_Teaching_Methods_and_Lecturer_Characteristics_a_Study_on_Accounting_Students_at_Universiti_Malaysia_Sabah_UMS/links/5ccbece6299bf11c2a3d2580/Effective-Teaching-Methods-and-Lecturer-Characteristics-a-Study-on-Accounting-Students-at-Universiti-Malaysia-Sabah-UMS.pdf

    Worthington, A. C. (2002). The impact of student perceptions and characteristics on teaching evaluations: a case study in finance education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 27(1), 49-64.

    https://srhe.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02602930120105054

    2012 W. B. Wood and K. Tanner. The Role of the Lecturer as Tutor: Doing What Effective Tutors Do in a Large Lecture Class. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2012 The American Society for Cell Biology.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292071/

    Atkins, M., & Brown, G. (2002). Effective teaching in higher education. Routledge.

     

     

    • Challenges encountered in the information flow and



    • What needs to be improved


     

     

    https://books.google.no/books?hl=en&lr=&id=n7BPRGgdzGcC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=lecturer+AND+students+AND+challenges&ots=vc-kV7qzyB&sig=0T_XpZ1UC8E0yeUtAy_U61AvJRI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=lecturer%20AND%20students%20AND%20challenges&f=false Search keywords: lecturer AND students AND challenges

    Carroll, J., & Ryan, J. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching international students: Improving learning for all. Routledge.

     

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Leon_Lack/publication/19343116_Delayed_Sleep_and_Sleep_Loss_in_University_Students/links/00b495255d0de36a1d000000/Delayed-Sleep-and-Sleep-Loss-in-University-Students.pdf 

    Lack, L. C. (1986). Delayed sleep and sleep loss in university students. Journal of American College Health, 35(3), 105-110.

    Keywords: sleep AND students AND lecturer

     

    https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1475240906065589 Search Keyword: Teaching AND International AND Students

    Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International education, 5(2), 131-154.

     

    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3200/JECE.35.4.311-329

    Arias, J. J., & Walker, D. M. (2004). Additional evidence on the relationship between class size and student performance. The Journal of Economic Education, 35(4), 311-329. 

    Keywords: class size university

     

    https://www.theclassroom.com/examples-academic-challenges-college-14490.html Search Keyword: university students challenges in a classroom

    Freidman, A. (2019). Examples of Academic Challenges in College. https://www.theclassroom.com/examples-academic-challenges-college-14490.html

     

     

    • An overview of available digital tools and what problems each of them addresses.


     

     

    https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/design-thinking-new-innovative-thinking-for-new-problems

     

    https://www.nap.edu/read/9853/chapter/13

     

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166497297000175

     

    Østfold University College. 2019. Rombestilling. https://tp.uio.no/hiof/rombestilling/

    Østfold University College. 2019. Timeplan.https://tp.uio.no/hiof/timeplan/

  • Cultural probes

    Cultural probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den oktober 8, 2019 av larscb


    • What was the goal of the probe? Who are the users?

    • Get insight in students experiences with the university and its lectures. From this, we hope to find out more about students ́ opinions on their lectures and how they can be improved.  

    • The user of these probes are bachelor students at Østfold University College. We picked out 5 students, who we thought would be good representatives for a bachelor student.


     

    • How you thought the probe would help you achieve the goal?

    • By having the students share their experiences with the lectures at the university college. By doing different tasks, we can get them to open up and give personal opinions on how well information is conveyed by the lecturer in lectures.


     

    • Describe the probe artefacts and tasks


    The probes were delivered in a plastic folder with a pen and a set of stickers.

    • Probe 1: “Draw your school day”. This probe consists of a piece of paper to draw on and a pen and the user will be asked to draw one drawing of what a normal day at school looks like for them. The main purpose of this probe, is to ease the users mind and make the experience less formal.

    • Probe 2: “Write down 3 bad and 3 good experiences which have occurred in your lectures”. This probe consists of a paper with the task and space to answer, and a pen. By letting the users complete this task, we can gain insight on both good and bad experiences within the lectures.

    • Probe 3: “Rank your experiences with the following services: student assistants, lectures, lecturers, advisors and canvas”. This probe consists of paper with services and stickers. The main goal of this probe is to learn more about the students ́ behaviour towards different services, both within and outside of lectures, at the university college.  

    • Probe 4: “Map of classroom (where do you prefer to sit in a lecture)”. This probe consists of a map and a pen to mark your location, and its purpose is to learn more about students ́ behaviour and involvement in lectures. 


    Instruction page




     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Probe 1 example:



     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Probe 2 example:



     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Probe 3 example:



     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Probe 4 example:



     

     

     

     












    Collage




     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    What was most insightful or inspirational?

    Probe 1, the drawings were most inspirational as this was a very open task and it forced the users to come up with their own creative solutions. 

    Probe 4 was insightful since we saw a clear pattern in where students like to sit in their lectures.

    1. What surprised you the most?


    Two out of five people rated Canvas as good, and one rated it neutral. This surprised us as we had thought students’ opinions on this would be more negative.

    We were also surprised about the small differences in opinions of where the students prefer to sit in lectures. Most students prefer to sit in the front half of the auditorium but not in the first couple of rows.

    1. What probe results will help you with future designs?


    All probes give us some kind of information about what we should consider when it comes to designs, 

    Probe 1, we get some kind of insight of what the students school day looks like. 

    Probe 2, we can use the information given from the participants which is a bit open to write what you think is good and what is bad. 

    Probe 3 gives us information about what the participants think about the current services that the University College offers. 

    Probe 4 gives us some insight on where most students likes to sit in the classroom which we can see a pattern in. 

  • 3.2. Personas, Scenarios, Storyboards

    3.2. Personas, Scenarios, Storyboards

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den november 18, 2019 av martinlh

     

     

    Scenarios:

    1: Ole is an elementary school student. He is sitting in the classroom, and listens to the teacher who introduces a new tool to be used during math lessons: a kahoot- like math block game. Ole, and every other student in the class, got a set of blocks together with a screen that's supposed to read the QR- code on the blocks. A teachers displays the game on a big screen, and the screens connect to it. The screen displays the first task: 16. The students are supposed to make an arthimetic calculation that results in the number 16. Ole decides to answer with 4 x 4. That was one of a few right answers. A little green light on his screen appears, and he gets points for choosing the right answer.

    2: Tone is teaching at an elementary school. Today, she wants to try out a new tool for teaching mathematics. When the lesson start, she hands out a set consisting of blocks and a screen to each student. Then, using a big screen, she displays a game. Tone makes sure that every student is connected to the game by the wireless feature of their screens, and then starts the game. The first task is displayed on the screen. She watches the students as they figure out the solution. She asks the students for the right answers, and after hearing what they have to say, she displays all the possible solutions on the screen.

     

     

  • 3.1 Generating ideas

    3.1 Generating ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 24 - Publisert den november 18, 2019 av victorwn

    Starting the project

    When starting on the IDEATE process I figured that taking a step back to the empathy phase would give me a clearer view of the problems. After doing this I started brainstorming, asking myself "How can i...?".  I created a mind-map were i wrote down my ideas.

    The mind-map


    After brainstorming..

    After taking some time to write down the "How can I...?" questions, I began thinking of possible solutions. After getting a clearer overview I choose three solutions that I found interesting.
    I ended up with the following solutions:


    • A control-panel that let's the teachers controll the pupils iPads. Mainly turning them on and off, and open/give access to different apps.

    • An integrated iPad in the desk, remotely controlled by the teacher.

    • An AI who directs pupils to relevant apps and helps them stay focused.

  • Project topic

    Project topic

    Designmetoder Gruppe 24 - Publisert den november 12, 2019 av designmetoder

    The project topic

    The subject evolves around tablets as a learning tool in elementary school. How has the information flow changed between student and teacher in elementary school after the introduction of tablets (iPads) and other personal techonological platforms?

  • Har du en ORCiD?

    Har du en ORCiD?

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 18. november 2019 av Torunn Skofsrud Boger



     

    ORCiD (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) er en internasjonal standard for unik identifisering av forskere. Har du en ORCiD-identifikator er den knyttet til forskningsaktivitet din, og ikke institusjonen du er ansatt ved, og den kan derfor benyttes i hele forskerkarriéren din.

    Gjennom denne identifikatoren blir forskningsresultatene dine knyttet til deg uavhengig om du skifter navn, bosted eller institusjonstilknytning. På denne måten blir du som forsker ikke forvekslet med andre, selv om f.eks. særnorske skrivemåter kan gi ulike utslag i ulike publikasjoner, spesielt internasjonalt. Dette fører igjen til at det blir lettere for andre å finne fram både til arbeidet ditt og deg som fagperson.

    ORCiD vil sikre at resultater ikke kobles til feil person, og kan i tillegg forenkle søknadsprosesser knyttet til forskningsprosjekter, rapportering og analyse av resultatene.

    Du kan enkelt skaffe deg din egen ORCiD ved å registrere deg her: https://orcid.org/register

    Mer informasjon om ORCiD finner du hos ORCid , på Forskningsstøttesidene , ved å henvende deg til Forskningsenheten eller biblioteket.

     

     

  • 3.1. Generating Ideas

    3.1. Generating Ideas

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den november 11, 2019 av martinlh

     



     

    We put together the math contest and multiplication blocks idea.



    Our ideas:

    - Arcade math game

    - Math twister

    - Whack a mole math game

    - Multiplication- blocks

    - Visual calculator

    - A math contest game

     

     

     

     

     

    After working with developing our idea presented on the picture above, we realized that it became too similar to Osmo, which is another tangible math game that comes with an app. The two of us met and discussed what we could do further. We didn't have much time, and we were only two, so we wanted to choose something simple enough to develop in a short period of time. So we decided to start working with another idea that we got that evening.



    We begun prototyping a battleship math game, which turned out pretty good, but after a supervision, we've decided to continue working on developing a more tangible tool.

    A battleship game app for windows/ android/ ios with several game modes:

    - a multiplication mode, where the students have to write the right answer to the multiplication problem in the multiplication table to bomb the spot.

    - a random mode with multiplication/division/ addition/ substration.The app randomly generates math problems that have to be correctly answered to bomb the enemy ships.

    At our supervision, we were adviced to develop a more tangible tool, so we continued to work with our previous idea.





    We've decided to make a game similar to kahoot, where the kids are supposed to answer mathematical questions by placing blocks on a screen that reads the qr- code, and then checks if the answer was right.

     

     

  • Konspirasjonsteorier om Disney

    Konspirasjonsteorier om Disney

    - Publisert den 17. november 2019 av intkomm



    I 1923 ble The Walt Disney Company grunnlagt av brødrene Walt- og Roy Oliver Disney. Det er i dag et av verdens største medie- og underholdningsselskaper. Siden grunnleggelsen, har det oppstått en rekke konspirasjonsteorier rundt Disneys animasjonsserier, fornøyelsesparker og mannen bak det hele, og jentene i Creeps har valgt å ta for seg en håndfull av de.






    I dagens episode snakker jentene i Creeps om konspirasjonsteorier rundt The Walt Disney Company. Konspirasjonsteoriene omhandler hvordan Disney egentlig fikk ideen til animasjonsserien «Phineas og Ferb», hvem som kan være Elsa og Annas lillebror, døde levninger på Disney World, Pirates of the Caribbean og hvorfor Disney lagde animasjonsfilmen Frozen.

     

  • 1.1 Litteratursøk

    1.1 Litteratursøk

    - Publisert den september 9, 2019 av designmetoder

    1.1 Litteratursøk


    Hvordan kommuniserer eldre med helsevesenet? 

    Nøkkelord: Eldre, pensjonister, nettverk, helsevesen, kommunikasjon, trygghet, respekt.

    I denne delen av oppgaven skal vi finne litteratur som kan gi oss mer informasjon om emnet vi har valgt, nemlig "hvordan kommuniserer eldre med helsevesenet?". Vi vil prøve å finne forskning og tall som kan støtte opp og gi oss et litt klarere bilde av problemstillingen.

    Vi ønsker å finne litteratur fra artikler, undersøkelser, nyhetssider og forskning ved å benytte oss av google, og google scholar. Om nødvendig vil vi også bruke intervjuer med fagpersoner, observasjoner og spørreundersøkelser.

    I denne delen av oppgaven har vi søkt etter stoff med google og google scholar. Vi startet med å søke på noen av nøkkelordene vi har brukt ovenfor.

    Forberedelse
    Før vi gikk i gang med denne oppgaven, så diskuterte vi innad i gruppen hva vi ønsket å få ut av dette litteratursøket. Vi snakket om hva vi ønsket å få ut av litteratursøket, og skrev ned ulike nøkkelord som er sentrale i vår problemstilling. Her bestemte vi oss for målet med søket. Som nevnt ovenfor er nøkkelordene vi bestemte oss for å bruke eldre, pensjonister, nettverk, helsevesen, kommunikasjon, trygghet, respekt.

    Søk
    I denne fasen benyttet vi oss av nøkkelordene og prøvde å lese så mye litteratur som mulig, men samtidig ikke kaste bort mye tid på kilder som ikke er relevante for vår oppgave. Vi prøvde oss på flere ulike nøkkelord og prøvde å finne så presise kilder som mulig. Vi ville gjerne få litt tall på ulike spørsmål vi hadde, som f.eks hvor mange bruker data av eldre? Hvor mange har telefon? osv.. Altså finne ut litt om de teknologiske ferdighetene til eldre i Norge i dag.

    Utvalg
    Her valgte vi de kildene som gav oss den informasjonen vi trengte, og utelukket de som ikke gav oss det vi trengte. Vi valgte kildene våre ved å lese tittelen for å vurdere relevansen av artikkelen, og deretter leste vi innledningen for å vite hva teksten handler om, og deretter konklusjonen. Dette gav oss et godt inntrykk av hvilke artikler som var relevante og ikke. Vi fant blant annet ut at 820.000 i Norge har svake IKT-ferdigheter og at fire av ti mellom 75-79 år har aldri brukt internett.(SSB). Dette er kilder og informasjon vi ikke ville vært foruten i arbeidet med oppgaven, og som er med på å sette ting litt i perspektiv.

    Evaluering 
    Denne fasen brukte vi på å granske kildens troverdighet og dens brukbarhet. Nå vet vi at kilden har den informasjonen vi trenger, men er den sikker og kan stoles på? Er kilden relevant til vår oppgave?

    Sammendrag:
    Vi lever lengre i dag enn det vi gjorde 100 år tilbake, men det betyr nødvendigvis ikke at vi er friskere eller behøver mindre medisinsk hjelp. Mange av de eldre i dag har en eller flere kroniske sykdommer som derfor gjør det nødvendig med aktiv helsehjelp. I tillegg til fysiske behov knyttet til sykdom og aldring, behøver mange eldre at informasjons- og følelsesmessige behov ivaretas. Kommunikasjon er en avgjørende faktor for hvordan helsetjenesten oppfattes. Ikke alle eldre har familie og venner som de kan lene seg til eller prate med. Men det er veldig viktig at deres følelsesmessige behov blir ivaretatt om ikke like viktig som de fysiske behovene.

    I 2017 var det om lag 42 000 personer, 67 år eller eldre som var registrerte beboere på instutisjon (ssb).  Flere av de eldre føler seg tiltaksløs og har behov for mye oppfølging. Anne Kristin vie, Fagdirektør offentlige tjenester og helse, fortalte i et intervju at det å bo på sykehjem kan sammenlignes med det å være gjest hjemme hos noen. «Mange er i en situasjon der de må be om hjelp til det meste. De ønsker å være høflige, takknemlige og ikke til bry. Det kan være vanskelig å kommunisere egne ønsker eller klage muntlig, sier hun» (Dagbladet, 2017). Innbyggerundersøkelsen (DIFI) viser at nordmenn er minst fornøyd med sykehjem blant offentlige tjenester. En annen undersøkelse av DIFI viser også at de eldre på sykehjemmene er misfornøyd med flere faktorer innen kommunikasjonsforholdet (DIFI). Blant annet det å bli hørt og deres påvirkning, samt de ansattes evne til å informere om behandling. I Norge blir det ikke gjennomført regelmessige forbrukerundersøkelser angående oppholdet de eldre har på sykehjem. Kun halvparten av kommunene i Norge, rapporterer at de gjorde brukerundersøkelser for 2016, ifølge tall fra SSB (Kostra). Dette tyder på at det må gjøres tiltak for å bedre kommunikasjonen mellom pasient og helsevesenet, da det kan oppleves vanskelig å kommunisere muntlige klager og det er mangel på spørreundersøkelser.

    Sykehjemmene er underbemannet og sykepleierne forteller at de ønsker å slutte i jobben. Det viser en nova rapport fra 2016. Så mange som halvparten av sykepleierne som deltok i undersøkelsen svarte at de ønsket å slutte. 77 prosent peker på tidspress og 67 prosent mener det er for få sykepleiere på jobb (Nfs, 2016).Det er ofte en sykepleier som har ansvar for flere pasienter på engang og flere føler at de ikke strekker til. Sykepleier, Vigdis Jarness Reisæter, fortalte i et intervju at henne sluttet i jobben, da hun følte hun ikke hadde nok kapasitet til å gi pasientene den omsorgen de har krav på. (NRK, 2018) Det er flere pasienter som opplever at det er vanskelig å kontakte sykepleiere når de trenger hjelp, antakeligvis fordi de ikke strekker til.  Dette påvirker kommunikasjonen mellom pleier og pasient. Det kan være vanskelig å få noen form for relasjon og trygghet til sykepleierne når de ikke strekker til, noe som er vesentlig for kommunikasjons nivået.

    Teknologien er i stadig utvikling og vi ser flere funksjoner teknologien kan bidra i samfunnet, helsevesenet er ikke et unntak. Vi har i Norge har vi blant annet nettstedet «helsenorge.no» som er den offentlige nettbaserte helsetjenesten i landet. Der kan det innhentes informasjon om egen helse og andre tilgjengelige tjenester. Mange eldre har ikke kunnskap nok eller erfaring når det kommer til teknologien vi har i dag. De bruker fortsatt aviser, brev og fakturaer. Likevel ser vi at eldre som bruker teknologi er i vekst og dette bør derfor utnyttes. Tidligere i år ble det utviklet et digitalt rapporteringssystem som skal bidra til at pasientene blir involvert i egen behandling. Det norskutviklede rapporteringsystemet, GotTeatIt, er et elektronisk støtteverktøy der sykdom og behandling systematisk registreres over tid (Marit Resell, 2019). Verktøyet ble testet ved revmatologisk avdeling og fikk mye positiv respons. Ni av femten svarte at pasientene fikk økt sykdomsforståelse (Marit Resell, 2019) GIT, har bilde visninger av kroppen som kan gjøre det lettere å forstå enn forklaringen til en lege. Leger kan i tilfeller glemme hvem de prater med, og bruke faglige ord og begreper som gjør at informasjonen ikke blir oppfattet. Hvorvidt slik teknologi vil bidra til økt kommunikasjonsnivå for den eldre generasjonen er vanskelig å si da dette systemet ble testet av personer i alle aldre. Men de i spørreundersøkelsen ved revmatologisk avdeling svarte 66% at det forbedret i stor grad (eller svært stor grad) relasjonen og kommunikasjonen mellom pasient og sykepleier (Marit Resell, 2019). Likevel er det viktig å være kritisk til den teknologiske utviklingen innen dette felte spesielt med tanke på hvordan det kan påvirke pasient-sykepleier-relasjonen. Likevel er det viktig med ny teknologi med tanke på utfordringene som er og vil møte oss i fremtiden.

    Med en digitalisert hverdag så er det mange eldre som også faller utenfor samfunnets kriterier om forståelsen for det digitale. De eldre som får digitale plattformer i gave eller anskaffer dette selv, har også problemer med å forstå produktet. Selvom de kanskje får litt grunnleggende hjelp fra familie og bekjente. Det å kunne ha kontakten med familien over skype, eller ha muligheten til å ha et innblikk i familien via sosiale medier, kan være et ønske de eldre vil ha utifra det å ta i bruk de digitale plattformene. Ha muligheten til å følge med på nyheter, som blir mer og mer digitalisert. Ved å skape en trygghet for de eldre som skal ta i bruk de digitale plattformene, så burde man ha en offentlig tjeneste som hjelper de å forstå. Kanskje gi denne muligheten på eldresentre som en aktivitet for de eldre, så de får en bedre forståelse. utifra en studie gjort av SSB så har 820.000 svake IKT-ferdigheter. I Norge har fire av ti mellom 75-79 år aldri brukt internett.(SSB)

    De eldre faller utenfor det raskt voksende digitale samfunnet. Det er mange som ikke klarer å holde følge med utviklingen, mange offentlige tjenester digitaliserer seg. Det at de eldre trenger hjelp til å betale regninger, ha en økonomisk oversikt, bestille legetimer, få informasjon over status på pensjonutbetaling fra NAV, kan være et problem for de eldre uten hjelp. Dette har blitt nevnt i en artikkel fra NRK. (NRK)

    Det har blitt et samfunnsproblem at de eldre faller utenfor har kronikkforfatteren Steinar Søstenby skrevet i en artikkel i NRK, han har derimot også skrevet, "Når stadig flere offentlige tjenester blir digitale, får det store konsekvenser å stå utenfor. Derfor må det offentlige også ta ansvar for opplæring og støtte" (NRK).

    Det å kunne innføre et kurs for de eldre, til å få en bedre forståelse. Kan være til stor hjelp. Et kurs som repeterer, individuell oppfølging, ha en kontaktperson der hvor de eldre har muligheten til å stille de ''dumme'' spørsmålene. Dette kan styrke livskvaliteten til de eldre, hvor de kanskje kan føle at de ikke blir forlatt, eller glemt i samfunnets utvikling. fra en forskning av Nasjonalt senter for e-helseforskning, forteller de at "Nå viser resultatene fra et forskningsprosjekt at for å få eldre til å bruke teknologi mer, må det godt tilrettelagt opplæring til." (forskning.no)

    Norske myndigheter ønsker å styrke den digitale kompetansen i Norge, vises det i en rapport fra DAMVAD (DAMVAD). Hvis dette kan implementeres i hverdagen for de eldre, som en aktivitet, så kan det være at kompetansen kanskje vil øke, å at tryggheten ved å bruke digitale verktøy vil hjelpe til at de eldre ikke føler at de blir satt utenfor samfunnets utvikling. Hvor da igjen dette kan hjelpe til at de eldre får en bedre tilværelse i sin egen hverdag, når de er på et eldresenter. Det å innføre individuell oppfølging kan også øke tryggheten til instutisjonen de er på, å de eldre har en egen kontaktperson, som de kan gi få en forståelse og en trygghet rundt ved det å være digitalisert, og det å ha noen de kan føre en samtale med på usikre hverdager.

    Litteraturliste:

    DAMVAD, 16.01.2015, Tiltak som kan bidra til å øke befolkningens digitale deltagelse og kompetanse, Hentet fra:
    https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/88b4acf5209b4a15b43580ff557e2ebe/tiltak_digital_deltagelse.pdf

    Mali. A. Arnstad, 2017, fredag 28. juli 2017 - 04:00, Derfor er det viktig med god IT-opplæring for eldre. Hentet fra:
    https://forskning.no/nasjonalt-senter-for-e-helse-forskning-partner/derfor-er-det-viktig-med-god-it-opplaering-for-eldre/332193

    Steinar Søsteby, https://www.nrk.no/ytring/den-digitale-julen-er-ikke-for-alle-1.14349840

    NFS, 17.08.2016, Underbemanning er selvforsterkende,nfs.no.
    Hentet fra:
    https://www.nsf.no/vis-artikkel/3031850/539416/Underbemanning-er-selvforsterkende

    Brage L. Jor m.fl, 07.11. 2018, Sykepleier sluttet på grunn av underbemanning, NRK. Hentet fra:
    https://www.nrk.no/norge/sykepleier-sluttet-pa-grunn-av-underbemanning-1.14283218

    Tine faltin, 11.10.2017, Forbrukerrådet slår alarm om Norske sykehjem, Dagbladet. Hentet fra:
    https://www.dagbladet.no/mat/forbrukerradet-slar-alarm-om-norske-sykehjem---halvparten-lar-ikke-de-eldre-komme-til-orde/68769243

    DIFI, 2017, Hva mener brukerne om sykehjem. Hentet fra:
    https://www.difi.no/rapporter-og-statistikk/undersokelser/innbyggerundersokelsen-2017/hva-mener-brukerne/sykehjem

    Marit Johanne Resell m.fl, 2019, Digital selvrapportering kan gjøre pasienten mer involvert,bachleroppgave hentet: https://static.sykepleien.no/sites/default/files/pdf-export/pdf-export-78018.pdf?c=1566197435

  • The impact of digital tools on mathematical education

    The impact of digital tools on mathematical education

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den september 10, 2019 av vegarhan

    The impact of digital tools on mathematical education



    • How do simple tools help in learning mathematics? 

    • What different digital tools are available? 

    • What are the advantages and disadvantages with digital tools at elementary schools? 

    • How is the information flow in traditional elementary schools? 


     

    Keywords: 

    Elementary school 

    Mathematics  

    Digital tools 

    Education  

     

    Combining keywords:  

    Digital tools AND mathematics AND education 

    Digital tools AND mathematics AND elementary school 

     

    Search engine:  

    scholar.google.com 

    google.com 

    reserachgate.com

     

     

     

  • Testing process

    Testing process

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den november 14, 2019 av idamle

    We want to test the usability of our prototype, and the feeling of it. We want to see if our app and “credit card” is easy to manage for the user, and if it´s easy to understand.

    There are not many big functionalities of our prototype, however there are many small ones that function together as one. We want to see the “big picture” and how the user and our prototype can function together.

    We will use two different scenarios, one where the user is at the store and using the prototype for guidance. And the other when the user is at home planning their week and their budgets

    We want to create some tasks for the user to complete while trying our prototype. For example, in our prototype app you can set limits for how much money you can spend at a certain store. We when want the user to try to follow the instructions of the app, and only spend that amount of money.

    We will have a total of three testers, which we will chose from some of our student homes. Considering only students live there, it will be the perfect testing group.

     

  • Personas

    Personas

    - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av alexanfo

    Personas

    Persona 1



    Scenario 1

    Ingar er 73 år gammel. Han sitter mye hjemme alene.

    Han har sykdommen diabetes, å dette har gått utover følelsene i bena hans.

    Ingar har vanskeligheter med å gå, han sliter også å komme seg opp å ned av stoler og sofaen for å kunne bevege seg rundt i hjemmet sitt.

    Han har arbeidsskader i ryggen som er med på å skape smerter når han beveger seg.

    På grunn av diabetesen så er det livsviktig for Ingar at han har full oversikt over når han skal ta medisinene sine. Men han synes at det er vanskelig å gå ut i medisinskapet for å se over hvor mye medisin han har. Og det å måtte finne frem permen sin hvor tidspunkt på medisinen skal være.

    Han kan ofte glemme å ta de, siden han sover en del på dagen og kan bli litt distre.

    Ingar husker at han har en legetime snart, men han husker ikke helt tidspunktet han skal være der igjen.

    Ingar kjenner på kroppen at han ønsker ikke å reise seg opp å bevege seg bort til telefonen for så å sitte i lang kø for å høre med resepsjonen på legesenteret sitt, når tidspunktet på timen var igjen.

    Han vurderer og bli hjemme fra legetimen, siden det er mye smerter i kroppen hans og den belastningen det er å bare reise seg opp å gå bort til telefonen, og ikke minst reise helt til legesenteret. Kun for en samtale med legen.

    Ingar får besøk av datteren sin, som har vært og anskaffet et nytt produkt til ham, som skal hjelpe han i hverdagen.

    Ingar ser på produktet sitt, det er en tablett og en liten rundt ting med knapper på, Kan ligne på et lite egg.

    Datteren forteller at denne kan du koble opp i mot nettet her i huset hans, å tablett kan kobles til tv ’en hans. Denne lille egg lignende saken, kan brukes som en fjernkontroll til tabletten,

    Hva som skjer på tabletten kan Ingar se på tv ‘en sin. Han kan manøvrere rundt på tv ‘en sin, med den fjernkontrollen han har fått med.

    Datteren forteller at inne på denne tabletten, så har Ingar full oversikt over legetimer, medisiner og kontaktinformasjon.

    Ved å bruke fjernkontrollen så kan Ingar styre seg inn på siden som er om legen hans, der kan han trykke på «send SMS» hvor han får opp flere ulike meldings forslag som han kan sende til legen sin. Som f.eks. «fornye resept», «Bestille legetime» etc.

    Ved å bruke den medfulgte lille fjernkontrollen så kan Ingar velge hvilken melding som skal bli sendt.

    Under knappene SMS, e-post, ring. Så er det en kalender, der kommer informasjonen fra legen hans rett inn, som også minner han på når legetimene hans er, og når medisinene hans skal bli tatt.

    Resepten hans viser han hvor mange tabletter eller sprøyter han har fått tildelt fra resepten hans, men Ingar selv må huske på å slå inn på informasjonen hver gang han har tatt medisinen sin, eller så vil produktet stadig vekk minne han på at medisinen har fortsatt ikke blitt tatt.

    Hvis denne meldingen ikke blir fjernet og Ingar ikke trykker inn at han har tatt medisinen sin, så vil det gå en automatisk melding til hjemmesykepleien at Ingar ikke har tatt medisinen sin i dag. Da vil hjemmesykepleien komme hjem til han og hjelpe han med dette.

    Når Ingar er ute av huset, så har han muligheten til å kunne ta med seg den lille fjernkontrollen, han kan feste den i nøkkelknippet sitt så han ikke mister den.

    Denne er en liten utgave av tabletten han har hjemme. Den har ikke all informasjonen som tabletten har, men den har knapper han kan trykke på hvis det skulle være krise. Han kan kontakte familie og alle de andre instansene Ingar benytter seg av.

    Den er også utstyrt til å kunne minne han på at medisiner skal bli tatt, og når legetimene kommer.

    Den er også utstyrt med mikrofon og høyttaler, hvor Ingar kan spille inn en talemelding til instansene skulle han trenge hjelp.

    Hvis han trykker fort på den samme knappen 3 ganger, så vil det bli sendt en automatisk melding til hjemmesykepleien og familie. Denne funksjonen skal være der i forhold til krise, meldingen vil bli sendt når det har gått 10 sekunder.

    Hvis det skulle være at Ingar har klart å trykke feil så kan han trykke på en annen knapp som da kansellerer meldingen.

    Ingar har fått opplæring i produktet av sin datter som har fått opplæring fra helseinstituttet.

    Ingar føler seg nå trygg og kjenner at han har full oversikt over legetimer, når han skal ta medisinene sine. Han kjenner at uansett hvor han er så har han direkte kontakt med alle instanser og familie han benytter seg av.

    Nå kan Ingar ligge i sofaen og navigerer med den nye fjernkontrollen sin på tabletten på tv, uten å måtte påføre smerte i kroppen ved å reise seg opp å vandre rundt i huset, når han selv ikke ønsker dette.

    Storyboard 1



    Persona 2



    Personas 2: 

    Randi er 34år, jobber som sykepleier/hjelpepleier. Hun er kontaktperson for flere eldre pasienter på hennes avdeling og har som ansvar og kartlegge pasientenes behov, oversikt over pasientenes medisiner og kartlegger kognitiv atferd.

    Scenario 2:


    Pasient tilkaller hjelper med tablet fordi pasient trenger hjelp til å fornye sine medisiner, Hjelperen reiser hjem til pasient og hjelper pasient med å ringe til lege og bestille ny legetime via tablet. Hjelper kjører deretter pasient til legekontoret for sin legetime hvor pasient får utskrevet sine nye medisiner.


    Storyboard 2

     

    Persona 3



     

    Scenario 3

    Astrid er 78 år og bor alene.

    Hun må få kontaktet legen sin angående en utgående resept. Før pleide hun å komme seg ditt på egen hånd, men i senere alder har dette blitt vanskeligere. Hun har blitt svakere i kroppen og er redd for å falle og slå seg på veien.

    Hennes nærmeste familie bor langt unna og har også vanskelig for å komme å hjelpe henne ofte. Hun vil heller ikke ha hjemmesykepleier, fordi hun da vil føle seg hjelpeløs.

    Målet hennes er å få fornyet reseptene sine på en enklest mulig måte uten å måtte dra til legen. Samtidig som hun vil ha kontakt med legen om nødvendig. Hun vil også få tak i medisinene sine på enklere måte en å hente dem hos legen eller på apoteket.

    Som en løsning på dette har vi en helse tablet. Dette er en tablet som kun har fokus på helse.

    Der kan man for eksempel kan booke time hos legen, og bestemme om den skal være i person eller online. Man vil også kunne se reseptene sine og fornye dem. Det vil også være mulig bestille hjemmesykepleier om dette også skulle være ønskelig.

    Storyboard 3

  • The deciding process

    The deciding process

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den oktober 27, 2019 av idamle

    After our ideate process we were left with three very good ideas. We then sat down together, and talket about the pros and cons of each of the ideas, and which one of the ideas we wanted to work with further.

    Our first idea was the "basic food and clothing package", which would function sort of like "Adams Matkasse". The second idea was an app for showing what and where the user spends their money, to give the user greater insight in their spendings. The third and final idea, was the Smart Card. The Smart Card is an app, and a card similar to a gift card. The idea is that you can transfer money onto this Smart Card, and manage the card and your spendings in your app.

    The reason for why we chose the Smart Card idea is because we feel that it´s more helpful for the students. We can see from the data we have previously gathered, that students make a lot of unnecessary buys and maybe we can help them by "forcing" them to limit their spendings through the Smart Card app. It might be easier to limit your spendings and managing your budget, if you have som actual limits you have to pay attention to.

    When you can see the numbers on a screen, and it becomes more tangible, it´s easier to acknowledge.

     

     

     

     

  • Generating Ideas

    Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den oktober 18, 2019 av idamle

    As a group we sat down and startet coming up with as many ideas as possible. We wrote each of the ideas down on sticky notes. One idea for each sticky note. We came up with many ideas, but we could see that most of the ideas was an app of some sort.



    All group members then gave each of the idea points from 1-5, and then we sorted them based on which idea had most/least points. We then chose the top three ideas to work with more.





    The first idea we came up with was a service to provide the basics like food and clothes”. This could be something similar to “Adams Matkasse” where students could buy a start-up package with food and clothes, and maybe other basic items.

    The second idea was an app for showing students what they spend their money on, and where. The idea behind this is to make students more aware of their spending’s, and maybe help changing bad habits.

    The third idea in our top three was an app for showing students how much they could’ve saved if they followed a set budget.

    Later we decided that we wanted to remove the third idea, and swop it out with something more creative and fun. We came up with the idea of a student bank card, which is connected to an app. In the app they can set a limit for how many times they can use the card in certain stores. For example, they can only use the card in Rema 1000 four times a month, which would force them into planning and maybe buying food for the whole week.

    They could also set a limit for take-out shops, or clothing stores for limiting their own spending, and again forcing them to remove bad habits. We could also see this card having different possibilities, such as micro save where a small set amount is transferred to a savings account each time you use the card.

    We will later go through these three ideas, and decide together as a group which one of these we will want to go ahead and work with more closely.

     

     

  • Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den november 12, 2019 av omarnc

    Our first Persona, Scenario and Storyboard:

    Persona1-edited



    While Ibrahim was on his way back home, after a very long day, he came across a lovely restaurant and decided to take a rest and eat. He sat down and opened the menu to see what the restaurant offers.

    A few minutes later he read a really weird Norwegian word and didn't quite understand what it does mean. He couldn't ask for help because no one was sitting near him. Ibrahim then remembered that he saw an advertisement a few days back about a cool app that lets people connect to each other easily and for free.

    So he downloaded the app straight away and opened the chat to ask about the word "brus". Fortunately, there were many helpful people online and they all explained very well what does it mean. Some sent pictures of sodas so he was 100% sure that he understood the word correctly after seeing the images.

    Finally, he ordered a meal and was very happy because of the app that helped him.

    -

    Our second Persona, Scenario and Storyboard:

    Persona2-edited



    After school, Lara decided to go to a nearby kiosk and buy a newspaper so she could practice her Norwegian language. Because her teacher encouraged her to do so a few days earlier.

    She just found an interesting magazine and decides to buy it. Lara couldn't wait until she reaches her home to start reading, so she sits down near a park and begins to read for the first time in a foreign language to hers.

    After a few moments, she comes across a very strange word that she didn't learn it in school. It's time to get some help from others, said Lara. So she downloads a cool app that many of her friends gave an outstanding review about in the past days, and starts chatting. Many people are online, I am so lucky, said Lara. They are very helpful and begin to explain what the word "gjeld" means in English as well as Norwegian. She understood immediately the meaning of the new word because she knows English very well.

    Later she decided to give the app 5 stars because "it's very worth it" she said.

  • 4. Prototype

    4. Prototype

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den november 5, 2019 av Tora Magnusson

    4.1. Prototype off the Design project with Adobe XD.


    We have named our product WhatsUp, and it’s an app that will be able to download for all students at HIOF college university. The app is small but has important functionality. The user will first have to login with his or her Feide details before accessing the calendar.

    View event, sign up and sign off:
    Once the user is viewing the calendar, he or she can switch between months at the top, or click on a specific day to see a list of all the events happening on that day. After this, the user can click on any of the events registered on that day to receive more information about that event. When viewing full details of an event, the user can either sign up for the event, or go back to the main calendar. If the user signs up for an event, he or she will receive a confirmation that they are signed up. After the confirmation of signing up has been closed, one can then sign off for the event if no longer interested. In addition to this, the user can click on "My events" to see all the events he or she created, as well as which events they have signed up on. 

    Register event:
    Once the user is viewing the calendar, he or she can switch between months at the top, followed by creating an event. The user then has to fill in details like event name, description, date, time, location. After clicking create, the user gets a confirmation that the event is registered along with its details. In addition to this, the user can click on "My events" to see all the events he or she created, as well as which events they have signed up on. 

    The app: Link to the pictures with better quality (not sorted in correct order).

     

    There will also be a TV outside the cafeteria at the university that displays a calendar for all the events happening in the current and next month. The TV will switch between these two months automatically every 15 seconds, going from October to November and vice versa. In addition the TV will advertise the app by having a scanable QR-code that sends one directly to the AppStore for download.

    TV screen:

     

    Link for better quality.

    All the windows from the App and TV in Adobe XD:



    Link for better quality.

     4.2. Video prototype of the Design project:


    Link to the video.

  • Literature Review Summary

    Literature Review Summary

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Main elements/characteristics of my information flow situation

    When attempting to teach Norwegian to young-adult refugees, a good teacher is what most people would consider. But what if there was better and faster ways to teach a new language? 

    Studies have proven to us multiple times, that being engaged in physical tasks helps learning. This is because when we are active, our brain is working much harder. It’s also memorizing the things we see and experience, much better. In other words, it’s recommended that you change the way you learn, with being more physically active when trying to learn something. 

    Some teachers are well experienced with teaching, and knows what works and what doesn’t. However, only the best teachers know how to engage students into making the learning process more fun. That way, it will be more exciting for them, and they will often feel the motivation to work harder. This is because we like experiencing getting better at something we are trying to achieve. 

    When learning a new language, it’s important to use it as much as possible. And if you don’t have too much time to use it in your daily life, there are several apps like Duolingo which provides push notifications and reminders on your phone, to make sure you do your daily language exercises. Using it every single day, is one of the most efficient ways to learn a new language.

    Challenges encountered in the information flow

    The drop-out numbers for adult refugees may have several reasons. These are refugee adults, who possibly have children witch gives them a financial aspect. 

    Academic challenges like, cultural dissonance, language barriers, fear or distrust of authority figures, fear of speaking in class and lack of academic support at home may be some of the biggest, and most obvious challenges for an adult refugee learning norwegian. 

    cultural dissonance causes lack of interest in learning the norwegian language, it causes discomfort or confusion, by people in the midst of a change in their cultural environment. This is relevant for the people who come to norway as a refugee, because they come from countries with a different culture and different expectations set to them. This makes people uncomfortable, and may cause them to not want to be a part of that culture if they feel rejected. 

    Language barriers can be underestimated. for example if you are a norwegian student learning english, you have a lot of references to use. The student can use movies and TV-shows as a learning tool, and when you watch people speak english you get a better idea of how to form your sentences in english, appose to just learning the words translated. Learning how to form a sentence in a different language like norwegian can be a difficult task, if the refugee don’t have a norwegianspeaking reference to follow in terms of what you see, when a person is learning english, and has an endless supply of movies and TV-series. 

    The learners have financial obligations leading them to take part-time jobs, witch can prevent the learners from doing school work, and resting for the next school day. These part-time jobs are uselie due to children at home, and they dominate the learners sparetime.

    What needs to be improved

    First of all, Norwegian teachers should understand that their students come from many different backgrounds and ages, and not all of them are of equal learning abilities or have the determination to learn. Some of them want to learn the language as fast as possible so they could get to work or to continue studying. Others, just don’t care at all about the whole learning process or the outcome of the Norwegian course. The result of this is that those students who don’t care, don’t wish, or simply don’t want to make an effort to learn the language as effective as the others, will eventually, negatively affect them. 

    There is one simple solution to what should be done here. Students have to be sorted into the classes they deserve. For example, a class dedicated to hardworking and serious students, and another class for students who like to have fun and play most of the time.

    Second, It would have been really nice and more helpful if the teachers were multilingual. Sometimes no matter how hard you try to explain a word to someone, it never makes sense until it is translated into their mother language, or a language they know well. It is not necessary, but it would make learning the language easier. 

    An overview of available digital tools and what problem each of them addresses.

    Currently the best digital tools for learning norwegian according to norskbloggen.no and lifeinnorway.net (17.09.2019) is Memrise, Babbel, Nemo and Duolingo. How you access the guides differ, they all have free and paid models. These are all apps which can be used both on apps on a smartphone or a website on a computer, which make them easy to use on the go.

    Memrise is an app that uses memorization and visual techniques as its learning component. Memrise is made to fit into a busy day as a supplement to a language course. It is meant for being used whenever you have a free moment in your day so you stay fresh on the language you are learning. This app also has a goal to make the learning experience feel more local as opposed to make you learn the language in a strict formal way.

    Babbel also aims at making your conversational skills in the new language better. They try to be up to date with the current way of speaking to each other, this makes the learner speak more naturally. They also want you to speak correctly. Babbel also offer review sessions of words and sentences you have already learned, but in new contexts so that you can reinforce and refresh your memory of your knowledge.



    Duolingo is one of the most known language apps on the market, it’s a good app with a whole bunch of languages available for learning, but most importantly; its free. Duolingo claims themselves that using their app is the best new way to learn a language. Its designed to be a fun and addicting experience, it also gives you immediate grading which is good compared to waiting for a grade to know what you have to improve on, wasting valuable learning time. 

     

    Babbel costs money after the first course and memrise works with a subscription fee. The one drawback is that duolingo is inherently free, but you can only do so much of a course before you have to wait, unless you want to pay for duolingo plus which removes ads.

    All of the apps mentioned are best used as a supplement for language courses, as they are great at refreshing your pre acquired knowledge. But one big issue that they have been critiqued for is the lack of grammar learning. Grammar is especially important if you want to also learn how to write in the desired language. For example french and Norwegian grammar is very different, and a french speaking person might not know this and get a bad learning experience. But that does not mean you can’t learn grammar using these apps, it's just not going to be as quick and short as their other lessons as some grammar can be quite complicated and need exercises both verbally and written for you to fully understand it.

    All in all these apps are designed to be used for short periods of time when you find the time in an otherwise busy day.

  • Generating Ideas

    Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Problem definition: Students not using Norwegian outside of school much.

    How might we questions:


    • Inspire students to want to use a new language.

    • Engage students in Norwegian conversation outside of school.

    • Help students with little time outside of school use the language.

    • Reward those who exercsise the new language well / those who work hard


    Ideate Process:

    After we made some "how might we" questions we started just writing down what ideas we thought of. As we were only two members present during this brainstorming (Ludvig and Alexander) the ideas were few, but good. We only managed to think off three ideas. After we presented our ideas and talked about what the solution is meant to solve, we gave each idea points, maximum 5 points and minimum 1 point and we couldnt vote with the same points on multiple ideas.

    Ideas:



    1. App that connects people who learn and know norwegian so they can talk to eachother either via text or voice.

    2. A type of registering with a leaderboard where you can register the books in norwegian you read where you can receive rewards.

    3.  Norwegian Language learning app like duolingo which are for the languages the majority of refugees speak.


    Idea we chose:

    Number 1: App that connects strangers, one who is currently learning Norwegian,
    and one who is fluent in Norwegian so that they can talk together. Either through voicechat or text chat.

    The problem we believe this app will solve is students who might not have a social group outside of school where they mainly speak Norwegian, or that they have trouble getting to know fluent speakers. This app will act as a social media where you can connect to a random person and have a conversation with them. And if you find a person who you get a good connection with you can add them as a friend on the app if you want to continue the conversation.

  • 3.2 Personas, Scenarios, and Storyboards

    3.2 Personas, Scenarios, and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den oktober 22, 2019 av Benji


    Personas


    Persona 1:


    DEMOGRAPHICS:

    • Name: Maxine Anderson

    • Age: 20

    • Gender: Female

    • Status: Single

    • Education: Teacher (1-7 grade)

    • Employment: H&M (part time)

    • Income: 8000kr month

    • Location: Halden


    Bio (Shorthand):

    • Maxine is a senior college student who studies to become an elementary school teacher within history. She loves to work with children, and loves learning about technology and history.


    Needs/Frustrations:

    • She needs more inspiration in her day to day life, as well as she needs to go out with her friends more.


    Motivations:

    • She wants to be an inspiring teacher for her future students. She also wants to find a loving husband and have to loving children of her own.


    Goal:

    • Her main goal is to make her history lessons more fun and interactive with the help of technology. She wants to tech her student’s history in a way that can make it more memorable.


    PSYCHOGRAPHICS:

    • Social

    • Outgoing

    • Socially responsible


    BEHANIOURISTICS:

    • Decision maker


    Figure 1: Maxine's persona

























    Persona 2:


    DEMOGRAPHICS:

    • Name: George Harrison

    • Age: 23

    • Gender: Male

    • Status: Single

    • Education: Economics

    • Employment: Bartender (part time)

    • Income: 5000kr month

    • Location: Halden


    Bio (Shorthand):

    • George is an exchange student from Australia who lives in Halden. He studies economics and enjoys spending time with his fellow students and friends. He came to Norway because he’s always enjoyed traveling and loves a new adventure.


    Needs/Frustrations:

    • George needs his everyday life to be more digitalized because he gets very frustrated when he has to do things the old fashion way.


    Motivations:

    • What motivates him is that he wants to start up his own accountant company in the future


    Goal:

    • His goal in life is to use technology to make economics and business more user friendly


     PSYCHOGRAPHICS:

    • Adventurous

    • Sporty

    • Energetic


    BEHANIOURISTICS:

    • Brand loyal


    Figure 2: George's persona


    Scenarios


    Scenario for Maxine

    Maxine is sitting in the Schools library. She is going om a date later that day. She wants to do something out of the ordinary whit her date. Since she is a student, who is studying to become a history teacher, she wants to show the date who she is.  

     She goes on google on her smartphone to find something that to do nearby Halden. She finds that the museum Fedriksten festing app they can download and go on a ghost hunt on the fortress. The app uses AR so you can see the ghost on your phone and has an map so you can see where the ghost hide. 

     Maxine and the date arrive at the museum, they have both downloaded the app before they arrive at the Fredriksten festning. They are walking around looking at the map on their smartphone. When they see ghost on the AR function, they need to catch them, by filming them. They are having fun on their date. 

    Scenario for George 

     After six months of studying in Halden, George’s family is finally coming to visit from Australia. He tries to make a plan for what they can do while his family is here. In his apartment, he opens up his computer to search for thing to do in Halden. One thing that really stands out to him is how the museum on Fredriksten festing is now using holograms to display some of their exhibits, especially the war history. He is definitely putting this on his list of what do when they arrive.  

    After his family has settled down after their long journey, they are ready to see what Halden has to offer, and what George has learned about the city. When they arrive at the museum the personnel give them a brief explanation about the hologram. She also tells them that they have a few QR codes besides some of the exhibits, and when you scan them with your smartphone a story with AR will appear.  

    They’re all very pleased with their trip to the Fredriksten festning museum, this was a visit they will remember for a very long time. Seeing how the swedes tried to invade Halden by the help of a hologram was a new way to tell a story and this was something they’d never seen before. They will definitely recommend this museum to their friends if they ever want to visit Halden 

     

    Storyboard


    Figure 3: Storyboard for Maxine.



     

    Figure 4: Storyboard for George.



     

  • 3.1 Genarating Ideas

    3.1 Genarating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av Benji

    For this assignment we were to come up with three different solutions for technological artefacts to develop for our specific problem. We started with a brainstorming session to start the ideate phase. Next, we went to MarkerSpace and found post-it notes and a whiteboard so we could make it visual. This will help us find a solution that can enhance our question.  We generated a How Might We question for inspiration. So, our topic question then became: How might we use technology to make Fredriksten festning museum attractive and exciting for the students 18-25. Then we each got 30 minuets to write down a possible digital solution for our question. The point is to find many solutions. When we gathered the post-it's on the whiteboard, we got 18 ideas.

    Figure 1: Post-it note with our topic question



     

    These were the ideas: 

    • Use Kairos in a modernization phase.   

    • Use modern technology to make museums more exciting. 

    • Invite students to a museum 

    • Make museums hip 

    • Take a museum to a regular home 

    • Build interactive exhibits  

    • Make museum a spare time activity for students  

    • Make a quiz app to get students to visit museums (a gift card for food for the winner) 

    • Use technology to make AR of the museum  

    • Use technology to make old history more fun by using a holographic narrator 

    • Can make more digitalizedcollection/exhibit 

    • We can make a 3D game out of the museum 

    • Get a tour of the museum home to your television or smartphone (APP) 

    • We can use technology to make an interactive War and History Museum using a hologram 

    • 3D art at the school in form of a hologram (like the statue of David)- get the art to the students 

    • VR glasses for their home, to get the museum in their living room 

    • 3D museum to get home, so the students don’t need to leave the home 

    • Make museums more interactive using technology so the visitor will be more interested in going. 

    • Make the old museums more interactive by using VR glasses. 


    Figure 2: Post-it notes scattered around so we could get an overview of all the ideas and make it easier to vote for the best idea



    For our method to select ideas we choose to use post-it voting/dot voting. Now that we had generated the ideas and written them down on post-it, we started voting. 

    Each of the member of the groups got to give points to the ideas and the idea with the most points wins. We used a 5-point marker to respectively 5-4-3-2-1 points to ideas. 

    And then we got 3 good ideas we want to work further with. 

    1. We can use technology to make AR of the Fredriskten festning museum. (14 points) 

      • Use AR to make the exhibit come alive

      • Use AR to go on a treasure hunt

      • Use AR to go on a live ghost hunt



    2. We can use technology to make interactive war and history exhibits at Fredriskten festsning museum. (9 points) 

      • We can create an touch board wall in the exhibit.

      • A wall you can touch then a projector will play an movie with the museums history

      • Lights and hologram thru the fortress/museum.



    3. We can make a 3D game” out of the Fredriskten festsning museum. (6 points) 

      • We can create a 3D game you can get home to walk trough the fortress. With history in the game.

      • At the museum you can get VR glasses to go thru the museum and the history becomes alive.

      • Get the museum home to your computer



  • Cultural Probe

    Cultural Probe

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh


    • What is your design goal?
      The cultural probe is designed so that the information gathered will be immediate thoughts after a Conversation in Norwegian, and in the evening after the day is done. This will make the person using the probe reflect of his or hers Norwegian usage throughout the day, but also the first thoughts after the language is used.

    • Who are your users?
      Adult refugees in Norway who are currently learning the Norwegian Language.

    • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks?

      • Artifacts

        • Notebook

        • Pencil

        • Stickers



      • Tasks

        • During the day

          • After a conversation in Norwegian fill out how you felt you mastered it on a scale from 1-5.

          • Comment about what went well in the conversation or what you want to improve on.



        • In the evening

          • Write down their use of newly learned words or phrases.

          • Write down your favorite word you learned or used today.

          • Put on a yellow star sticker for x amount newly learned words.

          • Circle around "emoji's" that represent how they generally felt while speaking Norwegian that day.

          • Write down a goal for the next day. If the goal for the day was completed put up an extra sticker
            Goal examples: Better expression, Learn more phrases \ words, engage in conversation in Norwegian.










    • How do you plan to follow-up your probe?
      Collect the probe in person (if possible) and thank them for doing the tasks.
      Ask them if they want to be informed about the findings off the data in the probe.
      If yes ask them how they prefer to be contacted.


     

    There is no information gathered from this probe as the group i was in didn't hand them over to anyone after i made the notebooks.

  • Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av idamle

    For our app we have many different user groups. The Smart Card app is usable for most people. However, our biggest user group are students, and that is our biggest focus.

    Our first persona is Henrik. He is a hard working 23-year-old, wanting to be better at controlling his economy. He is very responsible, but not very organized. The Smart Card app is therefore very helpful for him, because it helps him being in control and learning how to be organized with his money.

    In Henrik’s storyboard he is at the store, wanting to buy food for the next few days. He uses the Smart Card app to be able to make smart choices.

    Our second persona is Lisa. She is very bad at splurging money and thinks it´s impossible to be able to save up enough money to buy makeup. The Smart Card app forces her to not splurge money and makes it easier to save up for her dream makeup kit.

    In Lisa’s storyboard she is at the cafeteria at school, wanting to buy food there. Thanks to the Smart Card app she decides to go home and eat the food there instead.

     

    Henrik is at the store to buy food on
    a Friday after school. He needs food
    for the whole weekend and haven´t
    planned anything ahead. He opens
    up the Smart Card app on his phone,
    connected to his Smart Card.
    The Smart Card has a set limit he can
    spend on food that day. It´s enough
    to cover the whole weekend, but
    not to splurge on anything else.
    He buys cheap and reasonable food and makes smart choices.






    Lisa is at school. Its 12 o´clock
    on a friday, and she is very hungry.
    She wants to go to the cafeteria
    at school to get som snacks and
    quick food. The food at the
    cafeteria is very expensive,
    so she brings up her
    Smart Card app on her phone.
    She can see that she can´t buy
    food from the cafeteria,
    since she has already used
    up her limits for card uses at
    the cafeteria.
    She then goes home to eat there instead.


     

  • 2. Define your research questions

    2. Define your research questions

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den november 11, 2019 av martinlh

    To define our reserach question we decided to use an affinity diagram, because it stimulates the thinking process visually, more than a content analysis, and is more suitable for factual pieces of information, rather than for subjective pieces of information, for which we would use an empathy diagram.

    Both of our group members looked at our literature review, interview and cultural probes,and wrote down those pieces of information that stood out from the rest. After comparing our results, we tried to find out how those various pieces of information are related, and begun organizing them into categories. By trying out several positions for our sticky notes, we modeled our diagram until we were happy with how it was organized.

    Much information from our previous tasks was directly related to PCs and educational mobile and PC apps. We chose to focus on developing a tangible tool, and have therefore not included a vast amount of information gathered, that was exclusivly about PC- learning and apps.

    The end result



    Math education in elementary schools

    • Learning

      • The students effort and cognitive capacity carries more weight than the method the knowledge is delivered

      • The teacher should vary between several knowledge delivery methods

      • Digital tools could be used to find the solution to a math problem without having to reflect about the task

      • By using digital tools, the student has the possibility to focus on the problem solving rather than the calculating

      • The traditional way of teaching can not be put up against the digital. They should complement each other.



    • Feelings

      • Students do not generally like mathematics

      • Using screens can cause headaches and tired eyes



    • Avaiable tools and infractructure

      • There are big differences in schools' quality of digital infractructure and internet speed

      • There might be some difficulty for teachers with less experience in the digital field to adapt to using new digital tools

      • There are many math apps avaiable, but most of them are not good enough




     

    After discussing our affinity diagram, we defined our reserach question:

    How could we develop a simple digital tool to supplement mathematical teaching in elementary schools?

    Since the knowledge delivery method isn't as important as the students capacity to perform well in school, we decided that our primary focus will be to develop a tool to make the mathematical lessons more diverse. We would like it to be simple in use, so both the teachers and students could use it without much problem.

     

  • Exercise, cultural probe

    Exercise, cultural probe

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av martinlh

    https://medium.com/@catherinelegros/designing-cultural-probes-31f2c62b9dcf

    The design goal of this cultural probe is to find out what influences are present in participant's day to day life; how participant's food aspirations compare to their reality, and what emotional reactions certain foods illicit in the participants.

    The probe is made of envelopes with magnets to put on the fridge, a placemat, camera, instructions and colored pencils.

    The probe findings opened various discussions and gave the design team new varied information.

  • 1.1. Exploration through Literature Search

    1.1. Exploration through Literature Search

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av martinlh

    The impact of digital tools on mathematical education in elementary school

    Digitalization is a term that describes many areas in the 21st century. It offers a vast amount of possibilities, such as an easier and more effective distribution of knowledge. Kids are already using digital tools (smartphones, ipads and the internet etc.) for both entertainment and to further their learning about the world around them. According to research from 2018 done by Medietilsynet, a Norwegian media authority, only one percent of children between the age of 9-18 report not having access to a mobile phone. Their study shows that 93% of girls, and 91% of boys, at the age of 11, have their own smart phone, while 100% of girls and 98% of boys have access to a mobile phone. Studies show that pupils with internet access at home are likely to achieve higher grades at exams (Boffey, 2011).

    Despite of that, the mathematical education in Norwegian schools is following a traditional pattern. The teacher starts with an introduction of the topic, presents some examples on the blackboard, and then asks the students to solve the tasks in their books by using a particular method (Alseth, Breiteg & Brekke, 2003). Students at elementary school have access to school computers at computer labs, provided that the teacher has made a reservation of the computer lab. In addition, they may have access to PCs at libraries and in classrooms. Because of the quality and age of computers at elementary schools, it can take up to 15-25 minutes for every student to turn on their pc and log in. Many teachers consider that a waste of time (Hatlevik, Tømte, Skaug, Ottestad, 2011).

    Norwegian schools already use some digital tools such as calculators. Using calculators can speed up the process of solving more complicated mathematical problems and makes the students more positive towards mathematics. If a student is to make full use of the calculator or any other digital tool, a person of higher knowledge as mentor should be present (Riviera & Becker, 2004).

    There might be some difficulty for teachers with less experience in the digital field to adapt to teaching using the tools provided by today’s technology. Norway is stated to be a country on top when it comes to the usage of digital media and tools in school, this does however not mean that we do not have a lot of room for improvement. It’s crucial that the teachers are informed on how to make use of tablets, computers and other digital tools, and be given enough time to adapt to the new circumstances and a new way of teaching. (Bell, 2015, page 35).  A teacher should always appraise the app or the digital tool and ask why it’s exactly this one that should be used during the classes. There is a vast amount of available mathematical apps that claim to improve the understanding of mathematics and accelerate learning, but the quality varies. As stated by Larkin (2015) most apps ‘’do not cut the mustard’’. According to his research, there are three exceptional apps: Mathemagica, Area of rectangles and Math Galaxy Fun (Larkin, 2015).

    Usage of digital tools can further the understanding of the subject (Larkin, 2015). According to research performed by Markseth for her master thesis, 66% of students report gaining a better understanding of the subject by using digital tools (Markseth, 2017).  Larkin’s opinion is that the usage of ICT has the potential to improve students’ understanding and contribute to the development of mathematical higher order thinking. Higher order thinking can be defined as such:

    «Higher order thinking occurs when a person takes new information and information stored in memory and interrelates and/or rearranges and extends this information to achieve a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations» (Lewis & Smith, 1993, s. 136).

    DragonBox is a digital learning tool made specifically for learning algebra. It gained an international recognition for being one of the best serious games and a game changer for the teaching of mathematics. While Kikora is an online digital learning tool that teaches mathematics through use of common mathematical language. Dolonen and Kluge (Dolonen & Kluge, 2014) have observed that students who used DragonBox were more motivated and active during the classes. There was however no improvement in learning. Kikora, on the other hand, through its use of common mathematical language, accelerated the learning process and was shown to be more effective.  Visualization and representation of abstract mathematical concept is of great help while trying to build students’ understanding of mathematical concepts (De Vita, Verschaffel & Elen, 2014), which both DragonBox and Kikora does.

    According to surveys performed on students, the cognitive effort, intention and motivation carries more weight than the method the knowledge is delivered. (Clement Chen, Keith T. Jones, Keith Moreland, 2017). Students achieve higher levels of motivation to learn mathematics through understanding of mathematical terms. Howbeit, several studies prove that taking notes and writing by hand is more effective for remembering information than typing on a computer. Writing down notes requires a deeper cognitive- processing of the material than typing it. Typed notes are often transcribed verbatim, which means that the student hasn’t processed the material as much as a student taking notes by hand. A study performed by Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014) show that students that write by hand achieve higher scores on tests than the students who type on a keyboard. On the other hand; there is no doubt that using the computer is more effective for recording larger amounts of information, which can be reviewed on a later occasion. The notes are easier to share with others, search through, edit and fix. That being considered, typing might be a better solution if the student need’s to write a lot, which isn’t often the case in mathematical education.

    In spite of student’s positive experience and attitude with using digital tools in mathematical education, computers are used less for teaching mathematics than other subjects. Approximately half of the student’s report using the computer during lessons in mathematics for half an hour or less, while 16% report not using the computer at all (Edgeberg, Hultin & Berge, 2017).

    For her master thesis, Markseth (2017) has interviewed two students.  They tell that navigating through all the documents and apps on a single computer screen may be cumbersome. Although using computers for mathematics is fun, the screen can cause headaches and tired eyes. One of the students told that there might be too much screen time a day, which she considers tiresome (Markseth, 2017).

    Another problem with implementing digital tools at schools are the big differences between school’s digital infrastructure and internet speed. Differences in economy, demography, topography and varying willingness to prioritize digital development are some of the reasons for the differences. The network must be able to handle hundreds of students without reducing the connection quality for a particular student (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2017).  According to a 2018 questionnaire (Skaftun 2018) answered by 70% of schools in Norway, 25% of municipalities have made a political decision to arrange a computer for every student attending classes 1-4, while the percentage for classes 4-7 was 29%.

    There are big differences in the knowledge children possess when they start attending school, which makes it easy to be left behind in the mathematical subject (Nøra, 2015). With only one teacher and almost thirty students in one class, it has become increasingly hard to keep track of what each student needs to further increase their skills and knowledge. Digital solutions can much easier help keep track on students and their progress in learning (Bell, 2015, Page 34). A possible solution is the use of videoconferences. It could allow absent students to participate in the lecture and make it possible to play the lecture at home and review the notes (Bell, 2015, Page 34).

    According to a literature review on the impact of digital technology of learning and teaching made by ICF Consulting Services Ltd in 2015, digital tools can help with reducing inequalities and promoting inclusion by providing students with needs for additional support with resources. Digital resources could help students that are even as much as 12 months behind their age group in their reading age to catch up.

     

     

     

    Kilder:

    Boffey D. (2011) ‘Children with internet access at home gain exam advantage, charity says’ The Guardian. Hentet 17.09 fra https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/may/21/children-internet-access-exam-advantage

    Alseth B., Breiteg T., Brekke G. (2003) ‘Endringer og utvikling ved R97 som bakgrunn for videre planlegging og justering - matematikkfaget som kasus’. Evaluering av reform 97. Hentet 17.09. 2019 fra https://openarchive.usn.no/usn-xmlui/handle/11250/2439972?show=full

    Dolonen J.A., Kluge A. (2014) Læremidler og arbeidsformer for algebra i ungdomsskolen. Udir. Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://www.udir.no/globalassets/filer/tall-og-forskning/forskningsrapporter/casestudie-fra-uio-om-laremidler-og-arbeidsformer-i-matematikk.pdf

    Sandstad E. (2012) ‘Du tenker mindre på matte’n, egentlig!’ Universitetet i Oslo. Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/34112/Sandstad_Master.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Bell Ø. (2015) ‘Muligheter og utfordringer med IKT i matteundervisningen på videregående’ Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://himolde.brage.unit.no/himolde-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2379021/master_bell.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Markseth M. (2017) Motivasjon ved bruk av digitale verktøy. Hentet 17.09.2019 fra http://www.dim2015-18.no/sites/default/files/Masteroppgaven_0.pdf

    Kunnskapsdepartamentet (2017) ‘Framtid, fornyelse og digitalisering’ Regjeringen. Hentet 18.09.2019 fra https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/dc02a65c18a7464db394766247e5f5fc/kd_framtid_fornyelse_digitalisering_nett.pdf

    Egeberg G., Hultin H., Berge O. (2016) ‘Monitor skole 2016) Udir. Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://www.udir.no/globalassets/filer/tall-og-forskning/rapporter/2016/monitor_2016_nn_-_2_utgave_lav.pdf

    Nøra S. (2015) ‘Hvorfor er det så vanskelig med matte?’ Forskning.no. Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://forskning.no/partner-oslomet-skole-og-utdanning/hvorfor-er-det-sa-vanskelig-med-matte/470617

    Chen C., Jones K. T., Moreland K, 2017 ‘How Online Learning Compares to the Traditional Classroom’ cpajournal.com Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://www.cpajournal.com/2017/10/09/online-learning-compares-traditional-classroom/

    Larkin K. (2015) “An App! An App! My Kingdom for An App”: An 18-Month Quest to Determine Whether Apps Support Mathematical Knowledge Building

    Medietilsynet 2018 ‘Barn og medier-undersøkelsen 2018 ‘Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://medietilsynet.no/globalassets/publikasjoner/barn-og-medier-undersokelser/2018-barn-og-medier

    Skaftun. A (2018) ‘1. Respons: en kasusstudie av digitalisering av ungdomsskolen‘

    Hentet 17.09.2019 fra https://www.idunn.no/ny_hverdag/1_respons_en_kasusstudie_av_digitalisering_av_ungdomsskol

  • 1.2. Expert interview 

    1.2. Expert interview 

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den oktober 1, 2019 av martinlh

    Expert interview 

     

    1.Who was interviewed 

    We interviewed a teacher of mathematics, with background from different school degrees.  


    1. Where was the interview conducted


    The interview was held in a reserved room at Østfold University College, where we and the interviewee spent the whole interview. 

    1. How was the interview conducted


    We had an interview in a semi-structured approach. Where we already had a set of questions, but we added some more questions during the interview. These extra questions were not planned. But came up during the interview. 

    1. What was the theme of the interview


    We wanted information on how digital tools affect the learning of mathematics. And decided to interview a mathematics teacher, to get a teacher’s point of view. 

    1. Why was the theme chosen


    The theme came originally from our literature review. 

    1. Interview guide


    1.Hvilken skole grader/klasser har du vært lærer i, i matematikk? 

    2.Hvilken effekt føler du som lærer at enkle verktøy som kalkulator og lignende har på matematikk faget i ulike aldre?  

    3.Hvilken digitale verktøy har du vært borti oppigjennom? 

    4.Hva mener du er fordeler og/eller ulemper med de digitale verktøyene du har brukt?  

    5.Hva er dine tanker om tradisjonelle læremetoder, i forhold til dagens teknologi nivå? 

    6.Mener du at digitale hjelpemidler burde brukes mer, eller mindre i dagens matematikk læring? 

    7.Ut ifra dine erfaringer føler du det er lettere eller vanskeligere, å lære bort matematikk ved hjelp av digitale hjelpemidler?  

     

     

    Transcription 

    [Vegard] Da, første spørsmålet var da hvilken skoler eller grader har du vært lærer i? 

    [Anonym] ungdomskole, videregående och hær på lærerutdanning, også jobbat med KFK viderutdaning av lærere.  

    [Vegard] jao, ehm, hvilken effekt føler du da som, enklere værktøy som kalkulatorer og sånne ting har undervisningen i matematikk, da? 

    [] eehm, båda och, ehhm jag kan jag vet manga elervar som brukar det uten å, å reflektera øver hva, hva dem gjør men det fins også effekten at man kan jobba man kan legga focus vekk i fran øh sjølve regningen och man kan legge focus på problemløsningen så det fins begge deler andvendar at det bli  kan bli en oreflecterade ehm hva hetar det anvendande alså eller hva hetar det 

    [Vegard] eh bruk? 

    [] Bruk tack av av kalkulator kan da enkelt bli så man må være bevist på når man anvender og hvordan man andvender kalkulator… 

    [Vegard] jah 

    [] om du tenker på enkel kalkulator det fins juvis en graf ryddigare kalkulator det e kanskje lite annerledes der men ja 

    [Vegard] ja å hvilken digitale verktøy har du vært borti oppigjennom? 

    [] ehh ja ehheeh mener du hardvara eller mjukvara? 

    [Vegard] blir vel for det meste software da, som jeg tenkte på opprinnlig i allefall. 

    [] ehhm ja og det e ju jag kommer inte husga alla her nublire eehh jag har brukt  kikora som er nokke vi har hær for eksempel som er mer forferdihets træning som ulika typer verktøy for visaulisera som et eksempel geogebra ehh å even ja for å se på funkjoner det kan andvenda eller bruka sånne her number lines som e som kan zooma ut zooma inn zooma ut på, ehm ja hva mer, ja hva hetere, dragon box har vi brukt lite haft non gang det går vel mer på eh alså eh hær på høyskolen har vi hatt det men det går jo mot elever og hvordan dem kan forstå total mendge og sen ja hva har jag mer exel har me brukt vi har vel hatt litte programmering med skratch ja, jag vet inte jag har sekkert glømt nogon men det er vel dom som jag kan ta. 

    [Vegard] Hvem er det du da føler er best i forhold tå mest verdi for undervise med? 

    [] Hva mener du? 

    [Vegard] Av døm programmene hvem føler du er, eh har mest verdi for undervisningen når du lærer bort? 

    [] ehhm, jag sku nå seia at det inte går at svara på, for at dom er jo asså brukar dom til olika saker så det fins inte et, en software som er som dekkar alt utan man får bruka den software som som passar inn der man jobbar med just då. 

    [Vegard] du kan ikke er det noen kombinasjon mellom dem ulike som passer fint sammen da? 

    [] nja det klart det kan fins kombinasjoner når det passar sammen alså når vi til eksempel nur tittar på tall og desimaltall da brukar jag jo denne here number line som er en interaktiv number line som bara for å visualisera at man kan heltall og desimaltall og posisjonssystemet eh så klart det når vi snakkar om det så brukar vi enn den. eh excel kan jo brukas manga olika asså det er så stort at kan man båda bruka om man reknar volumer eller om man skal setta opp økonomi eller sette opp alså, om man skal jobba med statestikk ehh så det er lite på der, ehh geogebra er jo mer geometri och funktioner tenker jag så for å visualisera det er et ytligare et verktøy for at jobba med samma sak ehm dette her dragon box er et som er mental mengder også  

    [Vegard] Hva mener du er fordeler og ulemper med dem digitale verktøya du har brukt? 

    [] eff, å det e jo egentlig det samma fordel och ulempe, e at det blir ganska enkelt man kan bruka det  både før at elever och studenter skal en forståelse for det dem jobbar med, men det kan ochså bli så at man bruker den uten at reflektera da er det ulempat. Da kan man også seia løsa en ligning utan at forstå som, hva man har gjort men man kan også tegna en graf uten at forstå hva man har gjort, man kan også tegna en graf og forstå hvordan grafen ser ut at det blir aldeles på hvordan man veldig veldig viktig at inte ser verktøyet som det skal gå at man skal bli snabbara ferdig utan at det er viktig at verktøyet fordjupar forståelsen på noen måte det er ikke alltid enkelt å få til både elever og studenter vil gjerne bli ferdiga lika snabt så det fins en ulempa at det skal gå snabt tror jag, da må man som lærare tror jag må være noge på at stella da spørsmål på det som går på forståelse og sammanheng på det eh man jobbar med, men det er ikke alltid enkelt å få til. 

     

    [Martina] Da vi leste litteratur på det tema så fant vi ut at mange lærer opplever at PC ene ikke er god nok til å bruke digitale verktøy, er det noe du finner deg enig i eller? 

    [] Hva mener du at PCen ikke er god nok? 

    [Martina] nei at de ikke kjappe nok nye nok eller at det ikke er nok pcer til vær elev. 

    [] njaakay, nja men det når jag har jobbat så har ju alla hat pc så det ser jag som en forutsetning det tror jag, for at jag har alltid haft, har aldri væri et problem for meg har det ikke men jag har jobbat i sverige sidan så kanskje det er forskjellen.  

    [Martina] Nei, det er ikke alle kommuner i Norge som har sånn en en (uforståelig)løsning.  

    [] Nei, nei, og det er, skulle nesten si er forutsetning for er det så at man ikke har bare ta fram PC´en, starta opp det programmet man skal jobbe med, og så videre, og da taper man da mye av det som er gevinsten med, eh, med digitale verktøy tror jeg, så det er absolutt en viktig, viktig faktor.   

    [Martina] Mhm  

    [Vegard] Mhm  

    [] Men Norge får det er flere og flere tror jeg också, jeg har inte noken statistikk på det, men jeg tror det er flere og flere som får én til én ute i skolen, det tror jeg.  

    [Vegard] Hva er dine tanker om tradisjonelle læremåd- måte i forhold til dagens teknologinivå.  

    [] Hva mener du med tradisjonelle læremåter?  

    [Vegard] Ja, tenker på med bøker og ulike sånne ting.. sånn uten data og-  

    [Martina] Som bok/tavleforelesning.  

    [Vegard] Ja, sånn, ja.  

    [] Ehh, ja min personlige åsikt er vel at det kreves, altså man måsta aktivera elevar, eh, og det kan man gjøra antigen med program på PC´en så man kan jobba sammen med noen oppgaver der, men man kan också gjøra oppgaver utan PC, eh, så jeg kan inte, hva skal man saga, jeg vet inte om man kan stella dem imot hverandra utan, det er klart at, altså det er det at man trenger en variasjon å sen er det viktig ..jeg ser det på som en egenverde i seg at elevar lærer seg visse programvarer, for eksempel Excel. Sku jag si alså det finnes en, det finnes en verdig å kunne bruka PC´en också, men for at læra seg nogåt så, så tror jeg inte man kan, da må man og ganske nyanserad og både bruka PC når det passar, men det fins liksom inget, ja, ofte så er det inte et egenverde i seg utan man er bevisst på hva man vil at man skal jobba med og hvilke verktøy som passer best for det. Ja, jeg skal ikke stelle dem mot hverandre. 

    [Vegard] Mener du at digitale hjelpemidler burde brukes mer eller mindre i dagens matematikklæring? 

    [] Eh, jag har inte riktig översikten for hvordan det ser ut i Norge, men, men det går inte heller se mer eller mindre ut men se mer bevisst muligt på hvordan man brukar PC´en. Det er vel der isåfall det finnes mange gode verktøy, eh, for det, og det tror jeg, tror jeg bare fordi jeg inte er sikker på hvordan det ser ut, men jeg tror man skulla, at man inte presis som du sa at det brukes kanskje intemycket i Norge, at man kanskje skulle bruke det mer, men altså det finnes intet egenverde i seg for mer bara da eh, du må læra vara beviste på hvorfor dem brukar det och hvordan och hva man vil uppnå. Altså med fagfornyelse som kommer så snakker man om dybdelæring og man, altså, elevar skal læra seg og kommunisere med hverandre og kan PC´en være et verktøy for det så er det klart at det kan være bra, men man kan forholde seg sikkert utan PC också. Men ja som jag sa innan jeg tror det finnes (uforståelig). Det er inte så at det digitale kommer til å revolusjonera undervisningen, det tror jeg ikke.  

    [Vegard] Utifra dine erfaringer føler du at det lettere eller vanskeligere å lære bort matematikk med hjelp av hjelpemidler? Digitale hjelpemidler. 

    [] Ja, men det behov på hva vi jobber med, eller liksom, jag har inte tänkt på at digitale verktøy, jag har inte stelt altså samme oppgaver imot hverandre der det er som. Neei, jag kan inte riktig se non at det blir enklere eller vanskeligere, det finnes ulika problemer som man kan fastna kanskje mer i tekniska problemer med om man brukar PC´en, men det kan också godt for å visualisere saker og ting, ehm, og det går kjappare, altså at man, man, og da kan man fokusere på andra saker en om man kanskje kan fokusera på om man inte har PC ibland skal vi fokusera på å tegna en graf, og da tar det veldig langt tid hinar man kanskje med en, skal man fokusere på sammanhenget mellom et funskjonsuttrykk og en graf da kanskje man bruker PC´en for at da kan man snapt se ulika sammanhengar og man kan forsøka og liksom finne mønster i det og da er PC´en bedre, men altså jag ser inte fordeler og ulemper på den måten, det er ulika, ulika verktøy tar jo for ulika saker, tror jeg.  

    [Martina] Vi har lest at selvom PC brukes til mange fag så er matematikkfaget det faget som elevene mister konsentrasjonen mest i når de jobber på PC, er det noe du har opplevd med elevene dine? 

    [] Det er det som er så bra med PC er at man ser inte deres skjermar riktig eh 

    [Martina] derfor lærere går rundt å ser på de  

    [] ja presis, men det er klart at jag kan oppleva at det kan væra et større moment, det, at det finns at enkelte, at man er så næra til hva det nu er det så at man ikke har PC´en så, så er det altså et større steg at det fins andra større moment, i alla fall går til ungdomsskole å kanskje der skal det se det kan være enkelt at dem begynner med noe annat. 

  • Ph.d. på HiØ - "Hva skjer, a?" IX

    Ph.d. på HiØ - "Hva skjer, a?" IX

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 6. november 2019 av Trine Eker Christoffersen

    Det er en stund siden det har blitt blogget om etableringsarbeidet for satsingsområdet Det digitale samfunn, men de som ønsker å lese om dette mellom bloggposter kan finne utfyllende informasjon på våre nettsider.

    Der kan du bl.a. lese om


    • de 4 fagområdene DigiEd, DigiWork, DigiTech og DigiWork, og beskrivelsene av disse som fagmiljøene selv har utarbeidet

    • hvem som koordinerer disse spesialiseringsområdene (se også bildet under)

    • hvilke andre fagpersoner ved HiØ som per i dag inngår i etableringsarbeidet


    Det er bedre fremdrift i de faglige kretser enn noen gang tidligere, mye takket være dyktige koordinatorer og motiverte forskere. Så fremdriften per november 2019 skjer primært i fagkretsene, ikke i administrasjonen. Det har vært en mål i denne oppstartperioden, og nå er vi på god vei dit.

    Det har etter hvert også tilkommet en rekke stipendiater som jobber med problemstillinger relevant for digitalisering ved HiØ. Et krav til nyetablerte ph.d.-utdanninger er at det skal være minst 15 stipendiater i løp 5 år etter akkreditering. Vi har passert 15 for en god stund siden og kan vise til god rekruttering med et økende antall eksternfinansierte stipendiatløp. Og så håper vi KD vil øke antallet hjemler HiØ har slik at dette øker betydelig i 2020 og opp mot søknadstidspunktet som er november 2021.

    Vi har planer om å starte opp en seminarrekke for denne gruppen stipendiater der stipendiatene presenterer sitt arbeid, treffer hverandre og hverandres veiledere. Dette med håp om å kna dette sammen til en helhet og inspirere til tverrfaglig arbeid. Et stipendiatforum for ALLE stipendiater ved HiØ står også på gjøremållisten.

    Til sist er det viktig å presisere at modellen vi jobber etter er en arbeidsmodell, tittelen er en arbeidstittel og Digi-spesialiseringene er dynamiske. Så ingenting er hugget i stein, men det begynner å ta en god form. Så dersom vil du være med, må du henge på og kontakte den koordinatoren du mener ditt fagområde best faller inn under.

    Her ser du koordinatorene presentert i tilfeldig rekkefølge:

    • Vigdis Grøndahl, koordinator for DigiHealth

    • Marit Helgesen, koordinator for DigiWork

    • Jan Høiberg, koordinator for DigiTech

    • Hilde Afdal, koordinator for DigiEd


  • Bråkmakeren i klasserommet

    Bråkmakeren i klasserommet

    - Publisert den 7. november 2019 av intkomm

    Jeg kikket på klokken som hang bakerst i klasserommet. Jeg gikk i åttende klasse og det var siste skoletime en fredag ettermiddag. Jeg viftet føttene i takten til favorittsangen "Heartbreaker" av Justin Bieber. Jeg skimtet bort på klokken en gang til og la merke til at den tikket i takt med foten min. Ved døren stod det en ekstra stol som ikke pleide å være der. Jeg så på klokken for å finne tilbake til rytmen. Plutselig ble det helt stille i klasserommet. Jeg så rundt meg og innså at elevene fniste og læreren hadde et ansiktsuttrykk tilvarende Grinchen. Det hadde vært hysterisk om stemmen til Jim Carrey kom ut av munnen til læreren nå, tenkte jeg. Men så fikk jeg øyekontakt med læreren som brøt ut med streng stemme, som forresten ikke hørtes ut som Jim Carrey i det hele tatt, «Sara, gå ut på gangen. Det er tydelig at du ikke vil være her når du bare stirrer på klokken og tramper i gulvet».

    Det har ikke bestandig vært like enkelt å vokse opp med diagnosen ADHD. Jeg må innrømme at det ikke akkurat ga meg godfølelsen da jeg, hver konferansesamtale fra første til syvende klasse, hørte på lærerne fortelle mamma og pappa: "hun konsentrerer seg ikke om oppgavene" eller "hun gjør alt annet enn det hun skal". Trist, ikke sant? Altså, for alt jeg vet kan det godt være de sa jeg var den smarteste eleven i hele klassen rett etterpå, det var ikke akkurat sånn at jeg fikk med meg alt.

    I 2016 startet jeg på idrettslinjen ettersom jeg gikk på kickboksing. Jeg vet, en ADHD-kid som går på kampsport. Lite klisjé. Men jeg stortrivdes med mye gym, men uheldigvis ble fortsatt mesteparten av tiden tilbragt bak skolebenken omringet av flere fordomsfulle lærere. Uansett, månedene gikk og det samme gjorde rykter om at en ny lærer skulle ta over norsktimene neste skoleår. Ywonne Biering Ellingsen. Hun er moren til en venninne og tidligere lærer for kjæresten min, så jeg visste allerede hvem hun var. Det jeg ikke visste var betydningen hun kom til å ha for livet mitt. Livet til en skolelei jente med en kjip diagnose uten motivasjon og fremtidshåp.

    Andre videregående var en vanskelig periode der livet bestod av et uendelig antall møter med psykologer og testing av ulike ADHD-medisiner. Du, som student, tenker sikkert «Fett! Evig tilgang til Ritalin». Jeg tenker på anfallet jeg fikk midt i treningslæretimen, eller angsten som aldri ga slipp. Midt i alt hadde jeg en skriftlig norskinnlevering som jeg jobbet utrolig mye med. Da jeg var ferdig følte jeg meg motløs og skuffet over at jeg aldri klarte å prestere. Jeg sendte en mail til Ywonne der jeg beklaget for dårlig innsats. Til svar fikk jeg en lang og uventet melding som nesten kan sammenlignes med en kjærlighetserklæring. Hun utdypet at hun var glad i meg, hvor stolt hun var, uansett, og hvor stort potensial jeg hadde innenfor skriving. Jeg ble aldri kvitt tikking fra klokken eller tankene om Jim Carrey, men det viste seg at norskinnleveringen fikk karakter 5 og jeg var i ferd med å utvikle et euforisk forhold til skriving.

    Den dag i dag har jeg fortsatt kontakt med Ywonne. Jeg sendte henne faktisk nylig en melding og spurte om det var greit jeg nevnte navnet hennes i denne teksten. Nok en gang mottok jeg en lang tekst med «hjerteemojis» og smigrende ord. Innimellom kan én person være akkurat nok til å skape en forskjell. Og bare fordi man skiller seg ut fra det gjennomsnittlige mennesket trenger det ikke være en ulempe, man må bare lære seg å bruke det til sin fordel. Som Ole Ivars en gang sa: «En får værra som en er da´n itte vart som en sku». Mine damer og herrer: Her er jeg, en tidligere håpløs bråkmaker, rett fra skolebenken på videregående til en litt større en her på Høgskolen i Østfold, med en ny kjærlighet for kommunikasjon. Ja, til og med retorikk kan gi meg litt «sommerfugler i magan». Jeg har kanskje fortsatt konsentrasjons- og lærevansker, men hey, jeg kan i det minste fortelle en solid historie.

     

    Av: Sara Christine Olsen

  • 3.1 Generating Ideas

    3.1 Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den oktober 21, 2019 av martho

    How did we generate ideas?


    We transitioned into the ideation process in class, where we spent 30 minutes brainstorming ideas that could fit our problem definition: “How can teachers and parents (who) communicate more frequently using a smart phone (what) without creating more workload for teachers (why).”  

    We wrote our ideas, weird-, related or not, into a mind map and elaborated what we wanted for each of them (red boxes)as a way to build on each other’s ideas.  For each idea we also included a fitting picture. This way we started the process in a more cognitive and visual manner.  

     

    A picture of the ideas




     

    How did we select the 3 most preferred ideas?


    When we were going to select the 3 most preferred ideas, we used the dot voting method, and gave the best ideas points from 1-5, where 1 is the lowest and 5 is the highest. In the end the app idea got the most votes with 20 points. The other two ideas that got the most votes were the holographic watch (17 points) and the blog (12 points). 

    The purpose of the application would be to create a safe place where parents and teachers can ask questions and share info. Its function would be to share general information between parents and teachers, both private and public. The public one would be like a forum or timeline, where parents can ask a question and get answers from other parents and/or teachers. This is meant to save the teacher some time, instead of individually answering questions many parents might be wondering about. On this timeline, teachers can also give updates on special events (field trips, holiday-related activities, etc.) happening during the school day. It should also be possible to share general information privately with individuals regarding a child or appointments when needed. 

    A presumed positive effect of using this app will be better communication between not only teachers and parents, but between parents as well. Parents can answer parental questions if they know the correct info. In addition, the app is meant to replace text messages- and phone calls on a teacher's private phone after work. This is intended to give the teacher more freedom regarding when they want to- or have time to respond to messages.

  • 1.3 Cultural Probes

    1.3 Cultural Probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av martho

    Describing our cultural probe package


    What is our design goal? Who are our users? 


    Our design goal is to explore the needs, desires, and challenges parents and teachers face in their everyday life, which will help us learn about the people we are designing for. The users are teachers who teach in 1.-7- grade, and parents who have kids in these grades. 

    How we thought the probes would help us achieve the goal? 


    The probe(s) will help us to understand what kind of feelings and thoughts teachers and parents have in their everyday life, regarding communication between the two parties. This understanding will make us inspired to come up with ideas and design possibilities.  

    What is the probe made of? 


    The package consists of three probes: a diary that has a few tasks, colored pencils, and self-made stickers. 

    The tasks are as following:  

    • To write some general info about themselves. 

    • A mood diary where they will use the colors to describe their feelings for how the communication went that day and write down what forms of communication were used. 

    • To fill in some text to a few statements. 

    • divided box with four icons of communication, and they will write what they feel about each of them. 

    • A box where they stick the forms of communication (self-made stickers) they prefer and explain why.




     

    Pictures of the answers we got



    What was most insightful or inspirational?


    The most insightful information we gathered was that most of the participants were happy to communicate face to face and through e-mail, but some were happy with using phones for daily communication. The results also show that phones are mostly used when something has happened, which is something we could keep in mind of when we are proceeding to the define phase. 

    One of the participants mentioned that text messages and phone calls made them anxious, because the interaction mostly meant something bad or negative had happened. This piece of information connects to data we found in the literature review. 


    What surprised you the most?


    Something that surprised us was that the two teachers had very different feelings about the different kinds of communication. One of them was very happy with communication through the phone and text messages, while the other said it was a very tiring and stressful way of communication. One teacher preferred to communicate through phone and face to face, and the other preferred e-mail.  


    What probe results will help you with future designs?


    These results will help us see what kind of devices we should focus on in the futurewhich most likely would be a smart phone.

  • 3.1 Generating Ideas

    3.1 Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 21/10/2019 av lsaksnes

    Nå var det på tide å finne idéer!

    Vi begynte å myldre igjennom hva vi har lært frem til nå. Hva finnes fra før av teknologiske hjelpemidler til vår problemstilling?

    Idèmyldring

    For vår brainstorming satt vi oss ned sammen og startet med å kombinere setninger med tidligere nøkkelord. Deretter kom vi opp med diverse HMW spørsmål og delte de opp i grupper.



    Våre HMW spørsmål er som følger:

    - How might we turn social media into its own learning platform?
    - How might we implement social media into our teaching programs?
    - How might we make it so the students could be locked out of any social media untill their assignments are finished?
    - How might we make f.ex Facebook into a platform for educational books as well, so that you could purchase  E-Books and download them?
    - How might we introduce digital learning from a young stage?
    - How might we make digital learning fun, engaging and interesting for children?
    - How might we create an interactive digital tools to make it more fun to learn for children and adults/teachers?
    - How might we help the teachers increase their digital technology knowledge?
    - How might we increase interest in a subject with help of digital media and platorms?

    Deretter startet vi å liste ideer samtidig som vi satte de opp i grupper etterhvert som vi bygde videre og fikk mer spesifiserte ideer.



    Vår liste med idèer er som følger:


    1. Ett quiz-aktig spill basert på faget, læreren plotter inn si f.eks 5 spørsmål på slutten av timen hvor barna kan bruke det de har lært til noe som kan være morsomt og lærerikt samt det gir en følelse av mestring og kan hjelpe læreren med å se hvilken elev som kanskje kan trenge litt mer oppfølging senere.

    2. En app\eBok med en illustrasjon som beskriver og gir en definisjon av hva setninger betyr.

    3. Ett virtuelt åpen-verden spill med utdanning i fokus, barn kan lage sine egne karakterer, utforske denne skole-lagde verden og lære om objekter og gjenstander de finner underveis.

    4. - bruke digitale vertøy i gym - lære å svømme først digitalt og lære om sikkerhet. Bruke teknologi til å ta tid eller lignende på baller/akrobatikk-utstyr

    5. - en robot som hjelper med lekser og mål i fysiske fag

    6. - Ett brettspill hvor elever får diverse oppgaver relatert til faget, f.eks ett oppsette lignende twister, hvor man spinner en pil og en elev kan få i oppgave å sende en medelev en melding hvor de må fortelle noe viktig de lærte i timen.


    Hvilke idèer vi valgte:

    Innebygd i plattformen vi bruker er det ett liking system så vi bestemte at hver en av oss skulle stemme ved hjelp av dette systemet for og deretter se hvilke ideer som stakk seg mest ut. De andre ideene ble valgt ut og dette var det vi satt igjen med.

    Idé #1

    Vi valgte blant annet en tablet løsning, hvor vi oppretter et eget operativsystem som kan installeres på tablets skolen har tilgjengelig for utlån til elever i skoletiden. Operativsystemet gir eleven tilgang til og åpne pågående oppgaver som er utlevert, og jobbe med dem eller eventuelt skrive med klassekameratene og lærer.  Operativsystemet har også en egen "prøve" modus hvor tableten låser alle funskjoner, og eleven har kun tilgang til og jobbe med 'prøven' som er tildelt. I etterkant kan eleven sjekke på tableten hvilken karakter som er gitt. Eventuelt kan eleven åpne en applikasjon på telefon/tablet, eller en nettside for og se hva som er gjort.

    Operativsystemet vil gi tilgjengelighet til en søkemotor som kun bruker verifiserte kilder, slik at ingen falsk informasjon blir tatt opp i læringsmiljøet.

    I tillegg vil operativsystemet inneholde bøkene man trenger digitalt slik at eleven ikke trenger fylle ranselen sin med tunge bøker, og eventuelt glemme dem slik at eleven ikke får utført lekser eller lesing til en prøve.

    Foresatte betaler en viss sum i året for og låne, tableten hjem til barnet, og tableten er forsikret slik at om eleven ødelegger den vil ikke foreldre måtte betale mer enn den årlige lånesummen.




    Idé #2

    Vi planlagte et nevroteknologisk læringsprogram. Dette ville da bli brukt hovedsakelig av mennesker ikke har muligheten til og komme seg til skolen, for eksempel noen som er syke, eller har en eller annen form for handikap som gjør at dem ikke kan ta del i det en person uten handikap kan. Dette vil gi eleven tilgang til å kunne legge handikappet bak seg gjennom den nevroteknologiske læringen, og ikke føle at de blir ekskludert fra lærdommen som blir undervist.

    På denne måten kan elevene være hjemme og lære seg de fysiske lærdommene som skolen har og by på som elevene ikke kan normalt sett ta del i.  Ikke bare byr dette på lærdom men også på opplevelser for eleven.

    Selvfølgelig gir dette også muligheten for et virtuelt klasserom, hvor elevene kan sitte hjemme hos seg selv og føle at dem sitter i klasserommet med resten av elevene, og jobber med skriveoppgaver i et klassemiljø.




    Idé #3

    Enten som en egen app eller ett web-basert spill, uansett ett enkelt quiz system laget spesielt for skoler. Læreren kan sette opp spørsmål i forkant av timen som da kan sendes ut til elevene i klassen læreren velger. Det kan for eksempel brukes som en oppsummering quiz på slutten av timen eller til alle typer prøver eller polls læreren ønsker å bruke.

     

     

     

     

  • 3.2 Personas, Scenarios & Storyboards

    3.2 Personas, Scenarios & Storyboards

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 29/10/2019 av gotu

    PERSONA #1



    SCENARIO #1



    • Setting: School.

    • Actors: A teacher and his students.

    • Goals or objectives: Use a digital tool (app\website) to test the students knowledge after class, do determine which student might need more attention at a later stage.



    STORYBOARD #1



    PERSONA #2



    SCENARIO #2



    • Setting: Nancy's bedroom

    • Actors: Nancy, fellow students inside the VR classroom and the teacher.

    • Goals or objectives: Use the virtual classroom system to check for teacher feedback aswell as sending her next assignment.



    STORYBOARD #2


  • Ny by - ny kultur

    Ny by - ny kultur

    - Publisert den 5. november 2019 av intkomm

    I august 2018 pakket jeg bilen min og kjørte fra Sørlandets perle Grimstad, til Halden for å studere Internasjonal kommunikasjon ved Høgskolen i Østfold. Jeg trodde jeg var ganske forberedt da jeg flytta, siden det ikke var første gangen jeg har endret adressen min. Jeg trodde også at det ikke skulle være så stor forskjell fra min norske hjemby. Der tok jeg feil.

     

    Arny ser utover Grimstad

    Meg som ser på utover på min lille hjembygd på ferie i 2017. Foto: Privat



    I tillegg til å ha bodd i Grimstad har jeg bodd på Island som er hjemlandet mitt og i Pennsylvania, USA, som utvekslingsstudent på videregående. Som liten måtte jeg lære meg et språk foreldrene mine ikke kunne og tilpasse meg en annen kultur ulik den familien min var vant til. Tilpassingen til Norge skjedde uten at jeg husker noe som helst og det tok noen år før jeg forstod hvilke endringer familien min hadde gjort. Navnet mitt mistet aksenttegnene, naboene ble forklart hvorfor vi alle ikke hadde samme etternavn og juletradisjonen med sko i vinduet forsvant. Ingen av de endringene gjør familien min mindre islandsk, for vi endret ikke alt. Vi gjorde det vi måtte for å gjøre det enklere og minske spørsmålene vi ble stilt.

    I USA måtte jeg tilpasse meg enda mer, fordi kulturen er helt annerledes fra norsk og islandsk. Der måtte jeg venne meg til at vilt fremmede på butikken begynte å snakke med meg om alt mellom himmel og jord, sove med teppe og å høre folk si "Love you" utrolig tidlig i vennskapet (vi snakker om to og en halv uke). Jeg tilpasset meg etter noen uker.

    Da jeg flytta til Halden tenkte jeg ikke noe over at jeg skulle til en ny kultur, men igjen måtte jeg tilpasse meg nye nytt. Jeg måtte venne meg til et helt nytt søppelsystem og en annen smak på vannet i krana. Utenfor kollektivet jeg bor i er det nemlig ikke en egen søppelkasse til matavfall eller glass og metall. Etter mye googling og spørsmål fant jeg ut at glass og metal måtte kjøres til egne miljøstasjoner. Det var mildt sagt en merkelig tilvenning for jeg er vant med å ha en egen søppelkasse for det i min egen innkjørsel. Vannet smakte annerledes her, såpass at jeg måtte drikke saft i et halvt år før jeg klarte å venne meg til vannsmaken.  Nå som jeg endelig har vent meg til Halden skal jeg igjen endre adressen min, for på BIK kan man dra på utveksling. Så i januar 2020, skal jeg tilpasse meg til enda en by og jeg gleder meg masse.

     

    Skrevet av: Arny Halldorsdottir 

  • Define your research questions

    Define your research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh

    I chose to use the Affinity Diagram method when defining my research questions. The reason for choosing this method is because much of the information that was gathered in the empathy phase lead to similar issues or issues that may lead to the same solution. This method then lets me get an overview with clusters of information which could have a similar solution.

    The process of setting up the Affinity diagram went like this. I started to write all the issues that the Students have with finding time outside of school to practice Norwegian. I then took the issues which are similar and put them under the a category with a fitting overarching issue, this makes a sort of hierarchy for the issues where you go more specific the deeper you go. Under is the result of the Affinity diagram.



    As presented in the Affinity diagram there are two main issues which can be looked into. The first issue is time, and how little of it some people have. This means that a solution should be something you can do in a short amount of time if needed, so that if a user suddenly has 5 minutes of free time that person can now get some practice in that amount of time. The second issue is that people, for different reasons, may not have a social network of Norwegian speakers outside of school.  This means that the solution should help the user connect to Norwegian speakers.

    The problem definition then becomes: Students not using Norwegian outside of school.

  • Generating Ideas

    Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Problem definition: Students not using Norwegian outside of school.

    How might we questions:


    • Inspire students to want to use a new language.

    • Engage students in Norwegian conversation outside of school.

    • Help students with little time outside of school use the language.

    • Reward those who exercsise the new language well / those who work hard


    Ideate Process:

    After we made some "how might we" questions we started just writing down what ideas we thought of. As we were only two members present during this brainstorming (Ludvig and Alexander) the ideas were few, but good. We only managed to think off three ideas. After we presented our ideas and talked about what the solution is meant to solve, we gave each idea points, maximum 5 points and minimum 1 point and we couldnt vote with the same points on multiple ideas.

    Ideas:



    1. App that connects people who learn and know norwegian so they can talk to eachother either via text or voice.

    2. A type of registering with a leaderboard where you can register the books in norwegian you read where you can receive rewards.

    3.  Norwegian Language learning app like duolingo which are for the languages the majority of refugees speak.


    Idea we chose:

    Number 1: App that connects strangers, one who is currently learning Norwegian,
    and one who is fluent in Norwegian so that they can talk together. Either through voicechat or text chat.

    The problem we believe this app will solve is students who might not have a social group outside of school where they mainly speak Norwegian, or that they have trouble getting to know fluent speakers. This app will act as a social media where you can connect to a random person and have a conversation with them. And if you find a person who you get a good connection with you can add them as a friend on the app if you want to continue the conversation.

     

  • 1.3. Cultural Probes

    1.3. Cultural Probes

    Gruppe 2 - Publisert den november 3, 2019 av martinlh

    The goal of our cultural probe was to find out more about what students think about mathematics as a subject at school, and which knowledge delivery methods they like best while learning mathematics.

    Our cultural probe consists of:


    • Instructions and two pieces of candy as a thanks to the participant

    • A brouchure that contains three questions and a set of stickers. We also provided a pencil to write with.

    • A page with a question and stickers to answer with x2


     



     

    3 speechbaloons with questions, a pencil and a set of stickers

    Our set of 3 pictures, a pencil and stickers.



    To find out what the students think and feel, we developed a set of questions delivered as a brouchure.The children are supposed to answer by using the stickers (red means no, green means yes, yellow is in- between), and then elaborate by writing in the speech baloon. We provided a small pencil to write with, and a set of stickers, 4 for each colour.

     

     

    Picture of a brouchure- like cultural probe

    This is how we delivered the questions as a brouchure. (click on the picture to see the gif)



     

    A picture of a sheet of paper with a question and stickers.

    (We did of course not deliver it creased)



    The second part our our probe consists of two pages, each asking a question, and a set of stickers to answer with.

    With this we wanted to find out if the students prefer using digital tools (such as pc and the calculator represended on the first and third sticker) or traditional methods such as blackboard/teacher- lecture and learning from the book.

    The students are supposed to rate how much they like the teaching methods illustrated on the stickers, by sticking the representative quantity of stickers on the sheet of paper. There is a total of 3 stickers for each of the 4 knowledge delivery methods we decided to ask about. 3 stickers is a positive answer, 2 stickers is a neutral answer, while 1 sticker is a negative answer.

     

    The last part of our probe is a mind map that is supposed to be finished by the student. We have provided small sticky notes in 3 different colours. Each colour of the sticky note corresponds with the colour of the bubble it's supposed to be used for. On the sticky notes, different phrases were written. The students may use them to finish the mind map, but they could also write down their own phrases



     

    The purpose of this piece is to inspire us, and find out about the user's needs. What do they like? What do they find frustrating? How do they perceive math as a subject? We provided the sticky notes with different phrases to make sure that the student won't leave this part of the probe unfinished due to lack of ideas.

    We've handed out the probes to kids we know, in the age group 7-9 years. After a few days, we have contacted the parents to collect them.

    Not everyone is negative towards math 🙂



    The probes were supposed to inspire us and give us additional information about student's attitude towards mathematics- and it did. Surprisingly, we didn't get many all- negative answers, and the probes showed that some students actually feel confident in the subject and like to work with it. We found out that the feeling of mastery of the subject is related to how much the student likes it.

     

     

    The answers we got from the brouchure



     

     

  • Frivillig arbeid skaper nettverk

    Frivillig arbeid skaper nettverk

    - Publisert den 31. oktober 2019 av intkomm

    Det kan være vanskelig å vite hva slags jobber man kan få ved å gå BIK og panikken min for framtiden begynte oktober 2018. Jeg ønsket å ha litt relevant arbeidserfaring på CV-en som jeg kunne vise til når jeg skulle søke jobb. Men hvor og hvordan?

    Heldigvis har jeg en søster som jobber innenfor mediebransjen og tipset meg om skribentoppdrag for en nettavis som heter Talent Media. Jeg snakket med redaktøren i nettavisen og hun sier:


    • Talent Media er en nettavis i oppstartsbedriften Talent Media AS - som igjen er en del av det ganske nye mediehuset Venture Factory Media som holder til i Oslo sentrum. Talent Media består i all hovedsak av ett menneske - meg. Jeg er redaktør, journalist, fotograf, sosiale medie-ansvarlig, og alt annet tenkelig. For å ikke måtte lage absolutt alt selv, har jeg vært så heldig å fått med meg noen hjelpende hender på laget, blant andre Sofie Skeie. Alle bedrifter har én gang vært oppstartsbedrifter, og det er utrolig spennende å selv være med på laget, og kunne gi Sofie muligheten til å si det samme. Alle monner drar!


    Samtidig var jeg jo bekymret siden jeg går skole her i Halden, mens bedriften ligger i Oslo. Jeg bestemte meg for å ta sjansen likevel og skrev til redaktøren for nettavisen (det verste som kunne skje var jo bare at jeg fikk nei).

    Hun fikk se noe av det jeg hadde gjort for BIK-bloggen tidligere og ga meg noen frivillige oppdrag jeg kunne gjøre ved siden av skolen. Det beste med det hele: Jeg kunne skrive hjemmefra.

    • Sofie skriver frivillig - noe som betyr at vi er uten kontrakt og lønn, og alt beror på muntlige avtaler og jeg må rett og slett bare stole på at hun leverer det hun skal til avtalt tid. Hvis hun ikke gjør det, er det ikke noe jeg får gjort med det, sier redaktør Synnøve.


    Å ha gode referanser og relevant arbeidserfaring kommer godt med når man skal ut i jobb. Det vet Synnøve alt om:

    • Selv har jeg også jobbet mye frivillig. Hadde det ikke vært for enkelte ting jeg lærte i min frivillighet, hadde jeg nok ikke kommet i en posisjon hvor jeg kunne drevet en egen avis. I medie- og kommunikasjonsbransjen er nettverk viktig, og den éne kontakten kan være din vei inn til din første "ordentlige" jobb - og dette nettverket kan du få ved å ta på deg frivillige oppdrag.


    Det er selvfølgelig viktig å ta frivillig arbeid seriøst, ellers får man ikke noe godt ut av den arbeidserfaringen man opparbeider seg

    • Det som er så viktig for meg, er at jeg kan stole på Sofie - både at hun leverer et godt produkt, men også at hun leverer til avtalt tid. Og det gjør hun! Det betyr at jeg kan være en god referanse til Sofie senere og si at "jada, Sofie gjør jobben hun skal, hun er hyggelig, hun svarer på e-postene mine, gjennomfører oppgaven og leverer til avtalt tidspunkt." Tro meg - det er mange som ikke tar kommunikasjon og frister alvorlig nok. Det er nettopp slike erfaringer og referanser som kan være døråpneren inn til arbeidsmarkedet, forteller Synnøve videre.


     

    Ett år senere har jeg oppdrag som gir meg god arbeidserfaring og jeg trives også helt utrolig godt med det jeg gjør! For ikke å glemme har jeg blitt mye bedre til å skrive og selvfølgelig til å ta kontakt med folk jeg ikke kjenner for å intervjue dem. Ta sjanser, det kan gi deg gode muligheter for framtiden!

     

    Av: Sofie Nygaard Skeie

  • 2.1 Define Your Research Questions

    2.1 Define Your Research Questions

    - Publisert den 10/10/2019 av timek

    OUR METHODICAL APPROACH


    We have been given the option of choosing between three different types of methods to analyse our previously done tasks (literature review, interview and cultural probes). The given methods being; affinity diagram, empathy map or content analysis.

    We have decided to use the method of affinity diagram to solve this task. The reason behind our choice of affinity diagram is that we think it's a good visual approach of handling our data, we're able to categorize our former work into bigger topics and drag out important information from them. We found this way to be more fun than the other ones as well, since we can make "swords" out of post-its and all the materials are also available at the school's MakerSpace.

    The define mode is critical for our work going forward as it is the time where we are trying to address our problem. Based on our previous work we're going to find out what we need to do in order to make our design work, and re-frame it based on our gained insight. Once we've analyzed our data, we can then try to find out a solution for our problem. It is important that we, in this define phase, find out exactly who we are designing for; who is our user?

    Our user for the tool we've mentioned previously in our cultural probe is a tool/way for teachers to gather data about students computer habits in the classroom. But our focus group are the students, not the teachers. We want to integrate games and virtual learning more into the classroom than it already is, with main focus on the younger part of the school system (grade 1-13). It could benefit us if we could get to use it more in colleges and universities, but this is, as Tina has talked about, rather hard to achieve and it's expensive due to how specific these games designed for learning need to be for each subject (it's both expensive and time consuming to make).  Our user needs games integrated into their learning because it'll make their school day a more interesting and engaging learning environment.

    With the limits that goes with a problem statement, being how specific it can be to be feasible and that it should be focused on our users (how we're supposed to help them). To articulate our problem statement that will define our work going forward, we need to focus on three things: user, their needs and our gained insight. Our problem statement going forward with our design work will be:
    Our users, being students in the younger parts of the school system (grade 1-13), has specific needs. Students need a way that requires more active participation in the classroom than what your average textbook school course gives. As we've tried to express in our blog we want to make the lectures more interesting and engaging for the students, and this will be done through the integration of games in learning situations. 

    How we applied our affinity diagram


    Affinity means relatedness or closeness. An affinity diagram is a tool based around finding relations among ideas and finding out what they have in common. It's a good tool to use as it makes a visual representation of given ideas and is often good for brainstorming ideas based on previous work. In order to narrow down our previous work for the affinity diagram we need to immerse ourselves in our work and see what are the essential parts we want to include from each part of blog. We need to synthesize our data and figure out what we want to include in our diagram. What is important in our literature review, our interview and our probes? The point of our immersion process is to get meaning out of what we have done so far and quickly gather information about it. We can't write down everything we've done so far and use it for our affinity diagram, we need to split up the previous work. With all the data we have we need to specify things about it, and this will be done through the usage of post-it notes. These notes will also be the physical part of our affinity diagram. The usage of these notes help us make a model for our design project, and helps us gather and combine our previous thought in a system we can use as we develop our project.

    We sat down in a group and split up the blog into separate parts for each group member to sample out words, sentences or data they thought to be essential in the blog. We will be using different types of post-its, all with different colors to represent the different categories, and sub-categories to help specify what relates to what in our former blog posts. This will be done with four colors, yellow, blue and red. Yellow here will be the more loosely based snip bits from our work, it is mainly our ideas or things we've taken out of our previous work (with the source of the material written down). While blue and red will be sub-categories about our work, what the smaller themes of the snip bits are about. Lastly green will be the bigger topics our work so far has been about, the overarching themes of our task. We will have a post further down in this blog post which will showcase our affinity diagram's topics, sub-topics, etc. It will also have a picture of our physical work (our physical affinity diagram). We will show pictures of our work process alongside the written process here.

    1: We started writing down a piece of data on yellow post-its. Everyone placed their post-its on the blackboard in their own clusters. We combined our post-its in clusters for later filtering, each person's notes in a cluster of its own. We did this on a blackboard in a group room we worked in. Down below will be everything that our yellow notes included for the sake of having it in a written space, as the pictures can't show it super clearly. It will also include the source of the note, if you want to trace it back to our former work. We did do our notes in Norwegian as it was more practical, but have written in English for no apparent reason.


    INNSIKT


    - Spillbasert læring veldig kraftig medium (Interview)
    - Elever plukker opp spillbasert læring raskt (Interview)
    - De aller fleste ungdommer spiller spill daglig (Literature Review)

    NEDSIDER


    - Distraherende for flere (Literature Review)
    - Spill har tregere informasjonsflyt enn bøker (Literature Review)
    - Kun èn fra testgruppa som brukte spill på skolen (Probes)
    - Bratt læringskurve (Interview)
    - Dyrt å lage spill (Interview)

    LÆRINGSUTBYTTE


    - Spill på engelsk lærer folk engelsk. (Literature Review)
    - Lære om historier til borg i Minecraft. (Interview)
    - Spill kan lære forskjellige temaer. (Literature Review)
    - Popsiclebokser for å kartlegge spillsjangere. (Cultural Probe)

    METODE


    - Ikke gi elever for frie tøyler. (Interview)
    - Spill styrt av undervisningsmateriale. (Interview)
    - Læreren må fokusere spillingen. (Literature Review)
    - Lettere å be om hjelp fra studenter vi allerede kjenner. (Cultural Probes)
    - Makerspace for kreativ inspirasjon. (Cultural Probes)

    MOTIVASJON


    - Karakterer kan fokusere elever (Literature Review)
    - Elever må få kunne prøvd seg på spillet jevnlig (Literature Review)
    - Aktiv lærer er nøkkelen (Literature Review)

    ENGASJAMENT


    - "Flow" hjelper engasjement (Literature Review)
    - Spill er mer engasjerende enn andre medium (Literature Review)
    - Annerledes hver "Playthrough" (Literature Review)
    - Data spill er mer morsomt for barn en tradisjonell læring (Literature Review)

     



    2: We singled out post-its we felt belonged together with similar focus or topic and put them in columns (finding patterns and groupings), this is the edge of our sword.



    3: The columns we made, we then made categories for and separated them. The sub-categories we wrote down was: motivation, method, downsides, insight, learning outcome, engagement and irrelevant. This is the hilt of our swords.



    4: On the top of it all we created the bigger topics, the main themes of our blog so far. Here we moved the columns we made together into the bigger themes of our task, being: interest, usage and result, pros and cons. The interest is related to the students' interest in games in learning. Usage and result is about how we use games and what you get out of it. Lastly pros and cons are focused on the positive and negative sides when it comes to the use of games in learning. This is the base and grip of our sword.


    Going forward


    We've seen that our overarching themes in the work are students' interest, usage and result, pros and cons are all about our focus group which are the students. The themes we wrote down are related to our user, besides one being the "irrelevant" one which we just decided to put on the side as we did not exactly know what to make of the column. The problem we want to take on going forward is integrating games in learning for the younger parts of the school system. Design something that can make this an easier task for teachers to integrate. An idea we have is to create an app/website that could provide lists of usable games for given courses, how to use them in a classroom and other relevant information. This can be used by teachers to make games a larger part in the teaching of younger students.

    Post-supervision


    After our supervision with Klaudia at October 15th we were told to try and "hyperspecify" our problem statement with a single sentence. Not so short that it wouldn't cover much, but not too big as that would make it harder to do. Our problem statement listed earlier in the blog is quite long and isn't very specific. What we want to do is integrate more games in learning, mostly for the younger parts of the school system (grade 1-13 preferably). In order to find a proper defined problem statement for this we'll use the "Our user needs ... because ..." approach. This is to be based of our previous work and our previous findings from the interview, cultural probes, etc. We want to achieve more use of games in learning, through our probes we found out that sandbox games are the ones people find the most useful for learning; this also was talked about in the interview with Tina. This is the genre we should be focusing on: sandbox. Based on our work in the literature review we found out that games in learning is a positive thing for the students as long as a good learning environment is present where the teacher plays an active role in the classroom.
    Our user needs sandbox games integrated in learning because it allows for a more creative and engaging way for students to interact with topics in school.

  • Historiefortelling

    Historiefortelling

    - Publisert den 1. november 2019 av intkomm

    Jentene fra Generasjon Hæ?

    Synes du historiefortelling er vanskelig, ikke vær bekymret. Generasjon Hæ? har invitert Silje "dronningen av historiefortelling" i dagens episode






    Alise og Emma har invitert Silje fra klassen (BIK17) for å snakke om historiefortelling. Er det så vanskelig som alle skal ha det til? Hvor personlig bør man egentlig være? I tillegg blir Silje og Emma satt ut når Alise forteller at hun aldri har sett "Doffen har diva" reklamen. Emma klager på pianospilling på høgskolen, eller som hun sier "ER DET MULIG Å KUNNE EN ANNEN SANG ENN DEN FRA TWILIGHT?". Til slutt spør de Silje om hva hun gjør for å hjelpe miljøet.

  • La Norvège une nouvelle fois face au terrorisme domestique

    La Norvège une nouvelle fois face au terrorisme domestique

    DIXIT TACITUS - Publisert den 31. oktober 2019 av fro

    La Norvège a-t'elle encore une fois mésestimé la nature et la portée de son terrorisme domestique? Illustration: Colourbox



    Après la tentative d’attentat ratée de Philip Manshaus, un Norvégien de 21 ans, contre la mosquée al-Noor située aux environs d’Oslo le 10 août 2019, la Première ministre norvégienne Erna Solberg a reçu une véritable volée de bois vert de la part du ministre suédois de l’énergie Anders Ygeman, qui lui a reproché d’imputer la montée du péril néonazi en Norvège à la Suède plutôt que de balayer devant sa porte. Huit ans après la folie meurtrière d’Anders Behring Breivik, la sidération des Norvégiens devant ce nouvel acte terroriste provenant de l’extrême droite suggère qu’ils n’ont pas vraiment pris la mesure du phénomène qui touche aussi leur pays.

    Les attentats du 22 juillet 2011 à Oslo et Utøya et celui du 10 août 2019 à Bærum divergent par leur ampleur. Les premiers firent 77 morts et deux cent soixante blessés. Le second une victime – la propre sœur du terroriste - et un blessé léger. Si la bombe déposée devant le bâtiment abritant les bureaux du Premier ministre frappa déjà les esprits en 2011 par l’amplitude des dégâts occasionnés dans une partie du centre-ville, le massacre de jeunes travaillistes traumatisa durablement une nation qui s’était sentie jusque-là épargnée par le terrorisme. L’Etat mobilisa en conséquence tous les moyens disponibles pour éviter la répétition d’un tel drame.

    Le procès de Breivik en 2012 laissa quant à lui une impression mitigée. Ce dernier fut bien condamné pour fait terroriste. Mais le sentiment qui s’enracina dans l’opinion était qu’il s’agissait d’un cas unique et de l’œuvre d’un fou. Une telle réaction aurait probablement été différente si une telle attaque avait été perpétrée par un musulman, norvégien ou pas, et non - pour reprendre le qualificatif de la journaliste Åsne Seierstad - « par l’un des nôtres ». Par la suite, le risque terroriste d’extrême droite passa quelque peu au second plan. Les services de renseignement lui privilégièrent la menace djihadiste. En janvier 2019, ces services jugeaient encore faible le risque d’une attaque terroriste de l’extrême droite. Ils s’empressèrent de revoir leur copie après l’épisode du mois d’août, affirmant à présent qu’on ne peut exclure le risque de réplique en Norvège dans un futur proche.

    Pourquoi une telle méprise ? Parce qu’on n’a pas su regarder du bon côté de la lorgnette. Les services de lutte anti-terroriste ont contré efficacement la montée de groupes radicalisés, que ceux-ci soient islamistes ou d’extrême droite. Le gouvernement a aussi pris à bras le corps le problème de la diffusion de discours racistes, antisémites ou anti-LGTB dans l’espace public. Ce qui se passe dans la tête de jeunes hommes blancs en colère - dont Breivik faisait déjà partie -, sur des forums obscurs localisés à l’étranger comme 8chan ou Gab, leur échappe en revanche. Comment repérer de tels jeunes avant leur basculement vers la violence extrême ? Comment neutraliser les messages glorifiant ou encourageant au passage à l’acte terroriste?

    Certains outils existent pourtant. L’université d’Oslo contribue notamment au développement de PRAT, un outil informatique dédié à la reconnaissance rapide de textes extrémistes. Quand on connait l’inclinaison des candidats au terrorisme à prévenir leurs acolytes à l’avance d’une attaque imminente et à motiver ces derniers à suivre leur trace (Manshaus en Norvège, Earnes et Crusius aux USA, Tarrant en Nouvelle-Zélande), on comprendra aisément que l’interception précoce de tels contenus - même si elle pose une série de problèmes légaux -, est vitale. Tout comme Manshaus a motivé son geste par la nécessité de porter la « guerre raciale globale » dans l’espace réel, il faut traquer les individus susceptibles de passer au terrorisme dans un espace virtuel qui est plus que jamais leur domaine de prédilection.

    La charge du ministre suédois à l’encontre de Erna Solberg peut sembler déplacée de prime abord. En effet, le nombre de néonazis en Suède surpasse de loin celui de la Norvège. On y trouve en outre l’organisation néonazie la plus importante d’Europe du Nord (Mouvement de Résistance Nordique - Den nordiske motstandsbevegelsen). Ces néonazis n’hésitent d’ailleurs pas à franchir la frontière limitrophe pour aller prêter main forte à leurs « frères d’armes » norvégiens lors de manifestations improvisées ou d’actions coup de poing. La Norvège n’a donc pas de leçon à recevoir de la part d’un voisin si nonchalant envers son ultra droite. Anders Ygeman soulève toutefois un point sensible et que peu de Norvégiens souhaitent entendre. L’attaque de Bærum résulte aussi d’un climat politique qui s’est installé en Norvège après les attaques de 2011.

    Il vise particulièrement le Parti du Progrès (FrP) pour deux raisons. A l’automne 2013, le parti conservateur de Erna Solberg a fait une chose jusque-là impensable en Norvège. Il s’est allié à la droite populiste du FrP pour prendre le pouvoir. L’arrivée aux affaires du FrP en 2013 et sa reconduite en 2017 après une nouvelle victoire électorale pour la coalition au pouvoir ont eu un impact durable sur la société norvégienne. Son discours anti-migratoire et islamo-sceptique s’est banalisé dans l’espace public. Cette posture idéologique a notamment été reprise à l’occasion des élections municipales de septembre 2019, la présidente du parti Siv Jensen - également ministre des Finances et numéro deux du gouvernement - alarmant les électeurs du risque « d’islamisation rampante » de la société norvégienne dans une chronique du quotidien Verdens Gang.

    Sylvi Listhaug, ministre de l’Immigration et de l’Intégration de 2015 à 2018 et brièvement ministre de la Justice et de la Sécurité publique en 2018, aujourd’hui numéro deux du FrP et ministre de la Vieillesse et de la Santé publique, s’est quant à elle bâti une solide réputation de femme à poigne sur un discours alarmiste suggérant une collusion entre un ennemi de l’extérieur, l’immigré et le musulman, et un ennemi de l’intérieur - de préférence de gauche -, non révulsé par l’idée d’une Norvège multiculturelle. Listhaug avait d’ailleurs été poussée à la démission du gouvernement en mars 2018 sous la menace d’une motion de censure consécutive à des propos tenus sur Facebook accusant le Parti travailliste de laxisme bienveillant sur la question du terrorisme.

    Des barrières idéologiques et morales sont ainsi tombées en Norvège. En 2011, on ne pouvait simplement expliquer le geste de Breivik par un diagnostic psychotique ou l’emprise d’une main invisible. On ne peut davantage réduire celui Manshaus en 2019 à l’influence néfastes de Chan-groupes versant dans l’extrémisme sur internet ou à la déshérence psychique de certains jeunes. Le loup n’est jamais vraiment solitaire et il respire le même air que les autres loups. Aux Etats-Unis, les discours de Donald Trump ont conduit à une augmentation du nombre d’attaques perpétrées par des suprématistes blancs se croyant tout permis, puisque leur propre dirigeant partageait leur vision du monde. Cela ne fait pas de Trump le responsable direct de ces attaques. Mais cela ne le disculpe pas non plus totalement de la montée de violence. L’étude du terrorisme stochastique montre que le délire mortifère de terroristes ou de radicalisateurs qui est diffusé par les moyens de communication de masse peut inciter ou inspirer au hasard des individus à franchir le pas vers la violence extrême.

    Le Norvégien Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen - alias Fjordman-, contribua en son temps largement à la radicalisation de Breivik par une série de textes enflammés. Brenton Tarrant, le tueur de Christchurch, a joué un rôle équivalent pour Manshaus par un manifeste diffusé juste avant l’attaque de Bærum et l’aspect transgressif et spectaculaire de son geste. Les mêmes causes ailleurs produisent les mêmes effets ici. L’existence d’illuminés ou de dirigeants politiques qui s’affranchissent de toute éthique de responsabilité collective pour nourrir leur ambition peut légitimement choquer. Leur radicalité nourrit une haine qui peut précipiter le passage à l’acte de certains individus influençables et prédisposés. De tels responsables font alors davantage partie du problème que de la solution dans la lutte contre la radicalisation et le terrorisme. L’expérience montre de surcroît que de telles attaques perpétrées par des « loups solitaires, » si elles sont statistiquement prévisibles, demeurent en revanche nettement plus imprévisibles au niveau individuel.

    Cet article, écrit par Franck Orban, fondateur et responsable du groupe de recherche AreaS, a été publié dans le numéro du mois d'octobre 2019 de la lettre d'information Fransklæreren.

  • Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Persona - Naida:



    Scenario:

    Nadia is done with school for today and has been home for a couple of
    hours. In class her teacher used a metaphor which she didn't fully
    understand, she understood the words but is not sure about what
    situation it should be used in, or if it has a hidden meaning.
    But she wants to find out.
    She doesn't have many friends who are Norwegian or Norwegian
    speakers. So she uses the app which lets her connect to a random
    Norwegian speaker. This is the first time she uses the app so she
    chooses to chat over text rather than over voice chat. She connects to
    Stian who is the same age as her. After they exchange greetings she
    asks him about the metaphor. He explains what it means and what
    contexts its usually used in. They chat for a bit and Nadia feels that the
    conversation is flowing in a nice way and she feels comfortable talking
    with Stian. She wants to add him on the app so she sends him a friend
    request in hopes that He accepts, Which he does! Now when Nadia
    wonders about something she thinks she will just ask her new "friend"
    Stian. She is so happy she doesn't have to introduce herself to lots of
    new people and that she found a good tone with the first she connected
    to.

    Storyboard:



    Persona - Ali:



    Scenario:

    Ali is coming home from work and is sitting in the back of a train cart, there is no one around him and seeing he has some free time he decides to use the app to try and connect with someone he can speak Norwegian with. Free time is rare for Ali. He opens up and presses the "connect with person" button and chooses voice chat without video. He connects with Martin who is about the same age as him. Ali introduces himself to Martin and Martin does the same. They end up just talking about their day. They work in different areas so there is many interesting topics to talk about. When the train is close to the station Ali says his goodbyes to Martin and closes the app. Ali now feels happy as he managed to find some time to practice Norwegian. When he comes home he boasts to his wife who is happy for his husband who is learning.

    Storyboard:

  • Personas, scenarios and storyboards

    Personas, scenarios and storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av larscb


    Persona 1


     

    User profile


    Demographics:


    Name: Oddvar

    Age: 24

    Gender: Male

    Status: Single

    Education: IT-student

    Employment: Pizzabakeren

    Income: 12000 NOK

    Location: Halden

     

    Bio:


    Oddvar lives in Halden and has just started his studies in digital-media and design.  He is a part of a family of five, his mom, dad and his two little brothers. Lives alone because of his studies.  He has always been a talented designer and aspire for a future as a graphic designer.

     

    Needs/frustrations:


    Sondre is very shy and struggles to speak his mind during lectures in big classes. Therefore he doesn’t learn as much from lecturers as he want to because of misunderstandings between lecturer and the class that doesn’t get cleared up. he also struggles to participate in class activities because of his nature of being shy. 

     

     Motivations


     Sondre gets motivated to work with school by being in and listening to engaging lecturers. He also gets motivation and a sense of accomplishments by overcoming problems occurring in his classes. Sondre also like and gets motivated by working with like-minded students in smaller groups with projects. 

     

     Goal:


    His goal is to learn as much as possible when he is participating in his lectures and classes. He also has set a goal to graduate from his university college without a single “D” in any of his classes. He is also thinking about continuing to a masters if his bachelor goes well. And all of this contributes to his main goal for his studies. To become a graphic designer. 

    Scenario 1:


    Its early in the morning and Oddvar is in his first lecture of the day. He lives 30 minutes by bus from his university college, so he is very tired when he arrives at the university. Oddvar thinks his lecturer speaks very unclear and has a lot of questions about what is said in the lecture but he is shy and tired and doesn’t want to interrupt the lecturer by asking too loudly in the middle of this big class. In spite of this Oddvar still wants to speak his mind and therefore pulls up an anonymous chat function which was provided for the class. The chat function  There he can see the live powerpoint presentation the lecturer is using. He can freely maneuver throughout the slides and also see the current slide the lecturer is at. In this function there is a chat function which he can use to ask the lecturer. anything related to the different slides and the lecturer will have a screen to see the live chat in front of him. Oddvar can choose in this function to be anonymous or not, but will nonetheless get the answers to his questions when the lecturer sees them. This fits Oddvar perfectly, as he gets to ask all the questions he wants without having to concern about speaking up in class or anyone knowing a possible “stupid” question is from him. 

    Oddvar writes a question in the chat function. The lecturer sees this question on her screen and reads it out loud in the class. Oddvar gets an answer to his question and can therefore move on with the lecture. 

     

    Storyboard:




    1. Since Oddvar lives 30 minutes by bus from his university college he takes the bus.

    2. Oddvar sits in his first lecture of the day early in the morning after arrival at his university college.

    3. A combination of Oddvar being tired early and the lecturer speaking unclear makes oddvar misunderstand what is being said and he wants to ask the lecturer to retell.

    4. Oddvar looks at the anonymous chat function where he can see the live powerpoint presentation and give live comments to specific slides from the powerpointt to get an answer to his misunderstandings.

    5. Here the lecturer can instantly see Oddvars comment/question popping up on her pad and answers immediately to avoid further misunderstanding.

    6. Because of the anonymous chat function Oddvar gets answers to all his doubts and that makes him happy and makes him learn the most from his lectures. 


     

     

    Persona 2


     

    User profile:


     Demographics:


    Name: Laila

    Age: 46

    Gender: Female

    Status: Married

    Education: Bachelor's degree in science, master in 

    Employment: Lecturer at Østfold University College

    Income: 42000 NOK

    Location: Sarpsborg

    Bio:


    Laila is working at Østfold University College as history lecturer. In the past couple of years she has been working on some experiments in the classroom about helping students to get more comfortable and motivations on the lecturers. 

    Needs/frustrations:


    Laila wants to have a more active conversation with her students during classes and is afraid that the student does not care enough in the class and does not like her as a lecturer. 

    Motivations:


    Laila is motivated to help the students get more comfortable with being active in class, which will result in better grades for her students.

    Goal:


    Laila wants to deepen the relationship between herself and her students and to create a good learning environment, so that she can increase the participation from the students and lessen the tension in class. 

    Scenario 2:


    Laila is starting her day with a big cup of coffee. She is preparing powerpoints to today's lectures, at Østfold University College for her students  and the first class is starting 10’oclock. The lecture were supposed to be in Norwegian, but she had to change it to English because there was some new exchange students in class. She isn’t quite good in english, and it might lead to miscommunication between her and the students. Her goals for today's lecture is to make sure that every student in her class is following her lecture, despite her poor english competence. So in today's lecture, she used a product that her colleague recommended to her. With this product she can create a chat room for the entire class, so that the students can ask questions without raising their voice in class. In addition to a chat room there will also be shown a slide of her powerpoint, which the students can freely navigate through and it will also show Lailas current slide. She used this product once the class started, and throughout the class some students asked a few questions to Laila due to her being unclear when conveying information to the students in English. After seeing the question pop-up on her screen, she immediately answered the questions until the students were content with her answer before moving on with her lecture.

     

    Storyboard:




    1. The lecturer Laila is starting her day with å cup of coffee while preparing her powerpoint for today's lecture.

    2. Laila needs to hold her lecture in english due to some new exchange students in her class. Because her english is a bit rusty some of her student might misunderstand what she is trying to convey. 

    3. Laila has here pc providing the powerpoint for the class, but also an ipad screen with the live preview of the current powerpoint with the comments and questions from the students. 

    4. On this screen Laila can see specific questions regarding spesific slides in her powerpoint to see which to answer first. She can here instantly clear all misunderstandings without the student need to go outside their comfort zone to ask her.

    5. After seeing what students are misunderstanding she then knows what to explain in a better way for them to understand.

    6. The class is happy with the lecture since they can leave fully understood what Laila was conveying. 

  • Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Personas, Scenarios and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av knuteh

    1. Personas

    We made two personas, Siv Andersen wich is a pupil and Johanne Berntsen who is a teacher. We chose theese two personas since they are our core users and the most relevant to understand the behavior to.



    1.   Scenarios & storyboards


    Setting: Getting a task in class

    Actors: Siv Andersen (10) and Johanne Berntsen (34)

    Goals/objectives: Enable user to complete task given by teacher

    Action/events: Make a cartoon story about the pupils holiday

    During class Johanne gives all pupils a task where they were asked to create a cartoon about what they did during the summer holidays. She wants them to be creative and motivated to write a short story with pictures. Siv is going to make a cartoon about a boat trip she went on with her family and two girlfriends. Johanne suggests that students can use powerpoint to create the cartoon. Siv’s thinks that the app here teacher has suggested is difficult to use. She also doesn't think it allow here to make something that actually looks like a real cartoon. At home, she has used a cartoon app when making a birthday card for her little sister. She tells Johanne about this app. Johanne searches the apps in the school's app store to see how other teachers have experience using the suggested app. Several teachers at other schools recommend this app. One teachers has posted screenshots of students artwork, and Johanne is impressed. She decides to distribute the app her pupils through the push-function in the app store. In seconds all the pupils, which is organized as here users under here account in the app store, receive the app on their iPads and they start exploring it.

    These are the most important thing to include in the storyboard:

    • Johanne creates a task that will be engaging for the students. She wants them to create a cartoon story about their holiday.

    • Siv gets the task and finds it difficult to complete using the apps suggested by Johanne.
      Siv knows of another app that could be used to complete the task and suggest this app to Johanne.

    • Johanne have never heard of this app but is interested in how she can make it easier and more fun for the students, so she tries to find the app in the schools app store.

    • Johanne wants to find out more about the app and uses the app store forum to ask if anyone has experience using the app. She also searches to find any discussion about the app.

    • She found that  several teachers has used the app before and has had good experiences so she distributes the app to all pupils in class.

    • Siv and the other pupils simply have to open the app and can try it out, Siv is happy that her suggestion was followed up on and that she has access to an app she can be creative in.


    Setting: Teacher

    Actors: Johanne Berntsen (34)

    Goals/objectives: Get overview of new apps and prepare for a new semester

    Action/events: Johanne gets advice from other teachers

    It’s late summer and Johanne has started preparing for the next semester. This year she is assigned to teaching 5th grade at Bogstad elementary school. She used to teach 1th grade, but because of retirement among the staff she now is a 5th grade teacher.

    This means a whole new curriculum and also a whole new set of apps to use during class. She logs on to the schools app store and looks at what the previous teacher used. She has taken over the account for this class. She is not so happy with some of the apps and decides to ask other teachers for advice. She navigates to the forum for 5th grade teachers and post that she is looking for good apps to use in language and math. She quickly gets replies from teachers with more experience and start downloading.

    These are the most important thing to include in the storyboard:

    • Johanne started preparing for a new curriculum as she has been assigned to a new grade.

    • There is a lot to prepare when teaching a new grade but she has taken over the class account from the last teacher so she can see what apps was used in this class before.

    • Johanne is not satisfied with the apps used by the previous teacher and wants to explore the options available, she uses the schools app store to find what apps are commonly used.

    • Johanne is a bit overwhelmed with all the new apps and how to use them so she decides to ask her fellow teachers for help trying to figure out what apps they use and how they use them.

    • She gets a lot of answers and she can see one heavily upvoted answer that has a lot of suggestions on how to use some apps.

    • She begins her exploration of apps by downloading the apps suggested by the other teachers. Having the suggested use cases explained by the other teachers makes it easier to understand how to use the app.


     

  • UiA – livet som masterstudent på det glade Sørlandet

    UiA – livet som masterstudent på det glade Sørlandet

    - Publisert den 29. oktober 2019 av intkomm

    Hei, mitt navn er Karuna Fagerstrøm og jeg studerer master i samfunnskommunikasjon på Universitetet i Agder, nærmere bestemt i Kristiansand.


    Master var egentlig noe jeg hadde utelukket, da jeg tenkte at jeg kom til å føle meg fornøyd med tre år på BIK, men man skal aldri si aldri, for her er jeg. Etter jeg leverte min bacheloroppgave i vår, kjente jeg på følelsen av at selv om jeg hadde lært mye i Halden, ville jeg lære mer, og jeg var rett og slett ikke klar for å gå ut i arbeidslivet. Derfor søkte jeg etter masterstudier og endte opp i Kristiansand, noe jeg absolutt ikke angrer på!

    Fra venstre: Karuna Fagerstrøm og Oda Skarning Olsen.



    Sørlandet er jo for mange kjent som et sommerparadis og jeg var så heldig at jeg fikk flyttet ned med kjæreste og hund i starten av juli. Da fikk jeg virkelig se hvorfor alle østlendingene strømmer til Sørlandet hver gang gradestokken kryper over 20. Her nøt vi varmen, badet og flyttet inn, så alt var klart til studiestart i august.

    Fadderuke, venner og studiehverdag


    12. august braket det løs med en fadderuke som jeg ikke har sett maken til. Konserter, aktiviteter, pub til pub og utallige sene kvelder resulterte i gode vennskap allerede fra første stund. Siden vi nå er blitt voksne (??) og studerer master, fikk vi første dagen (til min store skuffelse), beskjed om at vår klasse ikke var tildelt en faddergruppe. Men frykt ei, vi kom oss på vors og moro likevel, hele uka igjennom. En god venninne fra mitt BIK-kull, Oda, valgte også å studere samme masterstudium som meg og sammen overlever vi Sørlandets overraskelser uke etter uke.

    Studentmiljøet på UiA legger stor vekt på inkludering og jeg har vært heldig å komme inn i en herlig gjeng som fremdeles, i det grå oktoberværet, drar ut sammen, trener sammen og finner på mye gøy.

    Det trenger man midt oppi lesing av metode, medier i offentligheten og retorikkens verden. Første eksamen leverte vi allerede denne uken, altså i begynnelsen av oktober og det venter enda to spicy eksamener før vi kan puste lettet ut noen uker med jul i blåfjell, julebrus og julegaver!

    Selv om studiehverdagen her byr på utfordringer, er jeg evig takknemlig for at jeg endte opp i nettopp Kristiansand. Å være i et godt studentmiljø er gull verdt og UiA byr på mye gøy utenom studiene som blant annet kor, som jeg selv har blitt med i. Her er det virkelig noe for enhver smak når det gjelder studentorganisasjoner og disse er klare til å ta imot deg, fra første stund. Vi har også en linjeforening, Rhetorica, som tilbyr kvelder og seminarer med mye bra faglig påfyll.

    Alt i alt vil jeg gi UiA og Sørlandet 10 av 10, og jeg har kun vært her nede i et par måneder, tenk det!

     

    Skrevet av: Karuna Fagerstrøm

  • Defining our research questions

    Defining our research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den oktober 21, 2019 av cmjensse



    We started by externalising our data from our online research, the expert interview and cultural probes for teachers and pupils. We went through all our information and wrote down what we felt was most relevant. In this way we got everything out of our computers and heads. It felt easier to see it on paper before continuing the process.



    We decided to use the empathy map method to gain a deeper insight into our users needs and realize our insights. With the user in focus we can get a better understanding of the person we are designing for. With an empathy map we can synthesise our observations from the literature search and interview and probes. This can help us get new insights about our user and situation. The four different parts (say, think, need and feel) of the empathy map lets us focus on different aspects of the information.



    For our project we have teachers, pupils and school management as users. The different personas we have created for the empathy map can be used to to find differences and this can help create some insights. We ended up making three different empathy maps, one for each user group.

    We started with the unpack procedure. What do our users say, feel, do and think?

    We started writing sticky notes with things we found when looking through the research, expert interview and our probes.

    We then started placing it on our empathy maps. the first one we made on cardboard, the second and third map we made on a chalkboard. All the sticky notes were placed in the category we felt in belonged.

    Please see the pictures below for a graphic presentations our all our empathy maps.

    One problem that continues to reappear is the lack of control over the pupils activity on their iPad. Both pupils and teachers mentioned how easy it was to get distracted during class because of all the available apps on the iPads. 

    The teachers need to be able to control the pupils iPad's, because the pupils get easily distracted by all the available apps on the iPad.

    Empathy map from expert interview



    Empathy map from cultural probe from students.















    Empathy map from cultural probe from teachers.



     

  • Update on our IDEATE process

    Update on our IDEATE process

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av cmjensse

    After getting some guidance from our supervisor during our supervision we decided to change our main idea (IDEATE) to an appstore for teachers with a forum where they can discuss and recommend apps among themselves.

  • Scenario and storyboards 

    Scenario and storyboards 

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den oktober 27, 2019 av niklasha

    SCENARIO 1

    Per Reidar is 39 years old and he is using an E-scooter every day to travel to and from work. He is generally quite afraid to crash while riding the E-scooter but still tend to do some risky maneuvers if he is late for work. Today he is in a hurry and does a risky sharp turn to the right and he ends up almost colliding with a car that would injure him. He is a little shaken by this, but he rides off anyway to work. When he is finished with work, he picks up a new helmet that offers not only head protection, but also, break light, turn signal lights, airhorn, and a headlight. With this helmet, now he can finally give signals that he will take right or left turn and inform car drivers that turn is indeed happening. If Per Reidar has to brake, the drivers will also be informed that he is doing that. Per ended up behind four pedestrians used his airhorn, so he could pass them. He arrived home safely, and Per told his wife how cool his new helmet is. The end.



    SCENARIO 2

    Karen Kul is 25 years old

    She lives in a countryside town, she uses her E-scooter to work and regular commuting around town. Today she got her new helmet that has cool lights like brake, driving and signal lights and a cool horn witch she can use to make people aware that she is driving near them and today on the way to work she feels much safer than ever before and when she get to work totally unharmed a ma comes up to her and says if it had not been for her awesome helmet he would have her with his Toyota Celica, but he saw her easily because of the light on her helmet.



     

  • 3.2 Personas, Scenarios, and Storyboards

    3.2 Personas, Scenarios, and Storyboards

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den oktober 29, 2019 av martho

    The Teacher


    Persona




    42-year-old Randi Berntsen is an elementary school teacher for a 3rd grade in the city of Halden. In this class she has the main responsibility for the pupils. She’s been a teacher for thirteen years after graduating with a master's degree. 

    Approximately one year ago, she got divorced. As an effect of this, she’s become less social in private and would rather spend time with her seven-year-old son, who she shares the custody of. Therefore, she wants less contact from parents outside of work and more personal time. However, Randi is an emphatic person who still will answer calls and text messages even if it affects her private time. 

    At work, she wants to keep the work phone, and to save time, she wants to plan parental appointments beforehand. Her goal is to cooperate with the parent so that the child does better academically and socially. What motivates her is her wish for every child to do well and feel like they can do well. 

     

    Scenario


    Setting (Where, when):  A teacher spending personal time without needing to respond to parents straight away. 

    Actors (who): A teacher after coming home from work, and different parents via an app.

    Goals or objectives (what, why): To keep in touch with parents without creating too much workload for the teacher, because Randi still wants to cooperate with the parents so that the child can do better. 

    Actions and events (how): To answer parents’ public general questions and private child-related / appointment-related questions without it being time-consuming for the teacher after work.

     

    One day after work, Randi is out walking her dog with her son in hand. Usually, she would have been contacted by one or two parents by now. However, after the release of a new teacher-parent app (that combines different ways of communication), Randi can enjoy her walk and chat with her son after a stressful day at work. When she gets home, Randi checks her phone for notifications. She clicks the notification and her phone automatically logs into the app, since she’s made sure the app remembers her login.  

    The screen shows the front page, the timeline. Here, one of the parents of her 3rd grade pupils has asked about the trip the following day. It’s clear that the question has received answers from other parents, and Randi only needs to confirm with a short text. This way other parents wondering about the same thing don’t have to individually ask the teacher, and Randi can focus on other important things, such as answering private questions.  

    The private way of communication is only supposed to be used for planning appointments, or for questions about a pupil’s academic or social development. In the application, her inbox shows two new messages. One is from a parent asking about specific info on their child, and the other wants to schedule a face-to-face appointment. Randi only needs a few minutes to give good feedback and propose a date. When finished, she simply closes the app and calls it a day. 

    Storyboard




     

    The Parent


    Persona


    David Dahl is a 27-year-old male who lives in Fredrikstad and works five days a week as a carpenter in his own company DBK. He is happily married, with three kids to take care of.  

    David is a very social active person and he loves to talk a lot. Every day David drives his kids to school before going to work from 08-16. David is very kind but strict parent who may become a bit overprotective. When at work David tend to worry a lot about his kids at school, because he rarely gets any information about how they are doing.  

    David needs a way to communicate with the teacher and get updates on how his kids are doing at school 

     

    Scenario


    Setting (Where, when):  A parent who is at work, but want to find out how his son is doing at school. 

    Actors (who): A parent who is having a lunch break at work.  

    Goals or objectives (what, why): To know how his children are doing at school, because David is a worried guy and always looks after his kids. 

    Actions and events (how): To receive updates on his children and contact the teacher about private child- and appointment-related matters. 

     

    It is mid-day and David is just starting his break at work. While eating his amazing sandwich, he decides to check if there have been any updates on his kids at school.  

    David takes up his phone and opens the app, which the school advised him to use for better parent-teacher communication. He then logs in with his user. After logging in, David is on the front page. There he quickly sees that the class is on a field trip that day (which is a special event) and that everyone is doing great. He can also see an attached picture where he finds his son having an amazing time. Additionally, David decides to send the teacher a private message to ask about the next face-to-face appointment. Then he closes the app and goes back to work.   

     

    Storyboard


  • 3.2 Personas, Scenarios & Storyboards

    3.2 Personas, Scenarios & Storyboards

    - Publisert den 22/10/2019 av timek

    PERSONAS


    Personas er en form for fiksjonelle karakterer man lager for å representere ulike typer brukere din tjeneste eller produkt kan ha. Å lage slike fiksjonelle karakterer gjør det lettere å forstå seg på din bruker sitt behov, deres erfaring, atferd og mål. Med denne informasjonen har du mulighet til å få en bedre forståelse selv av hva det er du ønsker å løse med din løsning. Ved bruk av en persona tilhører et scenario i de fleste tilfeller, såkalt måldrevet personas. Ved bruk av personas må du definere hvem personen er og deres personlighetstrekk, definere hvor, når og hvordan personaen sin historie tar sted og sist definere hva personaen må gjennomføre for å nå sitt mål.

    Person 1:


    Navn: Erik

    Alder: 24

    Kjønn: Mann

    Status: Singel

    Utdanning: Videregående studiespesialiserende

    Arbeidssituasjon: arbeidsledig

    Inntekt: Stipend på cirka 120,000 i året

    Sted: Halden

    Bio:  Gutt fra Lillehammer som kom inn på Digitale Medier og Design i Halden, flyttet derfor fra hjemmekommunen for å studere. Drømmer om å jobbe innefor spill og animasjon

    Psychographics: Tilbakeholden, smart, menneskesky

    Needs/frustrations: Sliter mye psykisk. føler seg ensom på nytt sted langt unna venner og familie, konsentrasjonsvansker, problemer med å uttrykke seg, ønsker en form for tilrettelegging som gjør det enklere for han å jobbe med temaene som er tunge for han

    Motivasjoner: En jobb han gleder seg til å dra til, skape noe som gleder andre, og sette spor etter seg.

    Mål: Bachelor i digitale medier og design



     

    Person 2


    Navn: Isabel

    Alder: 25

    Kjønn: Jente

    Status: Det er komplisert

    Utdanning: Videregående vitnemål og årsstudium m/ enkelt emner

    Arbeidssituasjon: Deltid som butikkmedarbeider

    Inntekt: 100000kr fra jobb, 90000kr fra stipend/lån

    Sted: Sarpsborg

    Bio: Isabel er 25 år gammel jente fra Sarpsborg. Hun er veldig glad i å spille spill på fritiden og å redigere videoer. Hun kunne tenke seg et yrke som har med spill eller film å gjøre i fremtiden, derfor var digitale medier og design bacheloren ved Høgskolen i Østfold et veldig godt valg.

    Psychographics: Ivrig, sta, leken, læringsvillig, lav terskel på oppmerksomhet

    Needs/frustrations: Har mye fysiske plager på grunn av mye kassearbeid dem siste årene, går regelmessig til fysioterapaut. Hun trenger spill i læring for at hun ikke dagdrømmer seg vekk fra timene på skolen og får utnyttet hennes personlighetstrekk i sine studier for maks ytelse.

    Motivasjoner: Hun ønsker og ikke bli sittende i butikkarbeid resten av livet, ønsker noe mer givende der hun kan være med å skape noe større enn seg selv.

    Mål: Bachelor i digitale medier og design, vurderer oppfølging med mastergrad.

    Placeholder nedenfor: Host host Martin do your magic :3



     

    SCENARIOS


    Scenarioer handler om hvem brukeren er og hvordan, hvor og når de bruker vår løsning. De lar oss tenke på hvordan vår løsning vil bli brukt i praksis, samt lar oss tenke på ulike hindringer i bruken av løsningen vår. Alle scenarioer har en figur, et bruksområde og en historie. De skal fokusere på det relevante, autentiske og hvilke følelser brukeren har.
    Hvilken digital løsning vil vi beskrive med vårt scenario?

    A website with small games for each step in the design thinking process, used for classroom exercises in Designmetoder.

    Vi skal utifra denne ideen vi kom opp med i den tidligere delen av Ideate fasen, lage to scenarioer som tar for seg emnet og våre oppdiktede personers interaksjon med vår tjeneste. Bruker scenarioene skal forklare hvem, hva, når, hvor, hvorfor og hvordan for ideen vår over. Historien vi lager må forklare disse gitte elementene og få vår person til å virke troverdig gjennom hans/hennes handlinger og deres interaksjon med vårt produkt. Hvor de befinner seg, hvordan dem reagerer, deres tanker om produktet og hva problemer dem har er alle ting vi må ta for oss i våre scenarios for at publikum skal kunne anse dem som troverdige.

    Scenario 1: Isabel


    Setting: Hjemme hos Isabel, bussen på vei til skolen, inni klasserommet
    Aktører: Isabel og læreren
    Mål eller målsettinger: Bruke spill i læring for å hjelpe Isabel og hennes konsentrasjonsvansker
    Handling og events: Isabel drar til skolen. Hun tenker på timen hun har fremfor seg. Sitter på bussen. Hun er inni timen og blir introdusert til et nytt verktøy. Resonerer bra med henne, hun er sta og får det til. Hun drar hjem igjen fornøyd.

    Vår person, Isabel, var på vei til skolen fra Sarpsborg. Hun satt på bussen og hørte på musikk mens hun tenkte på hvordan tirsdagen hennes ville bli med en fire timer lang forelesning i designmetoder. Spill er en viktig del av hennes hverdag, hun liker spill og ønsker dem integrert i flere deler av livet hennes. Når hun kom på skolen ble hun til sin overaskelse introdusert til en nettside som viser frem faget designmetoder. Nettsiden fremviste hele designtankeprosessen i ulike deler. De ulike delene hadde sine egne spill som fremviste de ulike delene av designtankeprosessen. Spillene hadde egne regler å følge, men ga henne en del ulike verktøy for å jobbe med de ulike delene av designtankeprosessen, f.eks. en storyboard nettside for storyboard delen i Ideate fasen. Isabel synes det var moro at hun kunne benytte seg av spill i designmetoder, første faget på høgskolen som benyttet seg av spill i læring for hennes del. Det ble litt vanskelig til tider som hun synes var litt irriterende, men Isabel er sta og gir seg ikke lett. Hun fortsatte å prøve seg frem og spurte etter hvert om hjelp fra læreren som var i klasserommet. Når dagen var ferdig hadde Isabel lært mye og ikke slitt med konsentrasjonen underveis, hun ankom hjemmet sitt glad og fornøyd!

    Scenario 2: Erik


    Setting: Hjemme hos Erik, på skolen
    Aktører: Erik og gruppen hans i designmetoder
    Mål eller målsettinger: Bruke spill i læring for å hjelpe Erik med hans motivasjon og forståelse av faget
    Handling og events: Erik jobbet med designmetoder. Slet med oppgave. Brukte verktøy tidligere vist i klasserommet for å lage kulturelle prober. Fikk skryt av gutta i gruppen, følte seg tilrette.
    Erik satt ved pulten hjemme og slet med en oppgave i Designmetoder. Han forsto ikke helt hvordan Kulturelle Prober var forskjellig fra intervjuer, og visste ikke hvor han skulle starte. Etter noen timer husket han på nettsiden som lærerne viste fram i timen. Han logget seg inn og fant delen for de Kulturelle Probene og satt i gang. Spillet handlet om å sette sammen en probe, og ga poeng basert på hvor bra han gjorde det. Jo mer kreative løsninger han kom på, jo høyere score fikk han. Etterhvert som han spilte forsto han hva som definerte en Kulturell Probe, og hvordan det skilte seg ut mot andre metoder i empatifasen. Nå som han hadde en bedre forståelse over konseptet følte han seg smart og videreførte ideene hans til de på gruppa. Dagen derpå møtte han opp med gutta fra gruppen hans  i designmetoder og viste frem de kulturelle probene han hadde jobbet på. De satt på grupperom på skolen og diskuterte deres funn. Gruppa syntes ideene hans var bra, og han begynte å føle en tilhørighet i gruppa.

    STORYBOARDS


    Storyboarding er en teknikk beregnet for å illustrere en interaksjon mellom en person og et produkt/tjeneste (i dette tilfellet en tjeneste). Storyboard kan også fremvise en plan for en film eller lignende, gir en visuell representasjon av et handlingsmoment/tidslinje. Storyboards er et løst medium, dem krever ikke at du er veldig flink å tegne, bare at du klarer å vise frem ideen din gjennom bilder. Historien du vil fortelle er viktigere enn hvordan den kunstnerisk ser ut. Et storyboard skal sette scenen for historien, vise hvilke omgivelser som er der og hvem som er der. Dette er basert på tidligere arbeid eller kunnskap i form av manus eller i vårt tilfelle et scenario. Scenarioet vårt vil være basisen for storyboardet, og vi vil da formidle historien gjennom tegninger/bilder.  Storyboards er en god måte å vise frem visjonen for vår ide og hvilken situasjon den kan bli brukt i. Det gjør arbeidet med produktet lettere senere. Siden vi lagde to storyboards har vi benyttet en fremvist nettside (fra timen 22. oktober) og Paint 3D for å fremstille våre storyboards.

    1. Hvordan satt vi i gang med storyboardene? Vi begynte med blanke bokser, i disse kan vi legge inn vårt script fra scenarioet. Det skal gjennom tegninger vise hva scenario handler om, og situasjoner produktet og brukeren er i kontakt. Etter vi så gjennom scriptet begynte vi å kutte opp scenarioet for kontekst, finne gode scener for storyboardet.

    2. Vi lagde et pilsystem som viser handlingen i scenarioet fra start til slutt, ligner kategoriseringen fra tidligere oppgave (define phase).

    3. Vi la til ulike smilefjes i pilsystemet vi tidligere laget. Detter var beregnet for å finne ut hvordan personen følte seg i interaksjon med produktet. Om forholdet var bra eller dårlig.

    4. Etter vi hadde analysert scenarioet vårt; begynte vi å tegne i boksene, med oppkuttet handling fra scenarioet hadde vi scener tilgjengelig.


    Storyboard til Isabel:




    Pilsystem Isabel med smileys:



     

    Storyboard til Erik:




    Pilsystem Erik med smileys:



     

  • 1.3 Cultural Probes

    1.3 Cultural Probes

    - Publisert den 24/09/2019 av timek

    What is your design goal? Who are your users?


    Our design goal would be to create a way/tool in which one could gather information of the students' computer habits in the classroom. There is a clear tendency among students to use "illegal" programs in the classroom. Many students play games in class, use social media or other types of software while in class. This tool we would most likely be the most beneficial for teachers, to get a better hold of what's actually going on behind the screens; if it's games, notes or social media for example. Hopefully such a tool could provide useful insight for teachers turning the computer into a more diverse tool for school usage.

    Our focus group will be students in this case, as they will be the ones to take advantage of our probes. We want to find out through our probe what students use their computers for in the school hours and why they do so? What makes them use the programs they use and how do they feel about the programs or games they use and about the general computer usage at school? This information can provide the us with more insight in what we can do to make the computer a more interesting part of the lectures and also get knowledge of what's actually going on behind the screens.

    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?


    For this task we we're supposed to make minimum 3-4 probes for our participants. We've made a total of three different probes and will be describing them in detail in separate paragraphs. Our probes will help us get closer to our design goal through systematic tracking of computer habits through pictures, a custom grading scale, the written word of students and their feelings toward computer usage in the classroom and lastly a box with some pop sickles in it. With this data we're able to get a better picture of student behavior in the classroom, which ultimately will help us in finding out a way to create a tool which can make the computer a more interesting and versatile part of students lives.

    1. We have made a writing task for the students. This task is one we want done over the course of three days. The students will receive a paper and on it they would have a total of two different tasks for them to do. First one being a measurement paper for them in which they could write down what they're doing on the computers in the classroom throughout the day. It shall contain a total of five different columns. This measurement paper will contain options for:1) Programs used for schoolwork or creative tasks (e.g. Office365)
      2) Social media (e.g. Facebook)
      3) School related websites or services (e.g. Canvas)
      4) Games or mobile games (e.g. Minecraft)
      5) A box in which they can write freely other things they have used.

      This task requires them only to either circle around the programs we've listed or put an "x" next to it in the sheet, or write down a program they've used which has not been covered by our provided options.This task also goes along with another activity.
      We have a grading system where we've set three different smileys; a frowney face, a neutral face and lastly a smiley face. These smileys are meant to indicate the feelings the students feel in coordination with the answers they gave in the prior task. They are to mark one of three smileys going along with the programs they've used, for example if they felt good when playing games they'll note down in the game column that they played the game alongside the smiley face. Simple and quick executable task.

    2. On our measurement paper we've also (at the bottom of the page) given them a secondary task which asks them to take pictures of their computer screens at school. This task was asked to be repeated for three days, the same sample size as for our measurement paper. The reason for the probe asking for pictures is to give realistic views of student computer habits at school. If we get to see what programs they use, it will give a better perspective of students computer habits in the classroom. Each student were asked to take a picture each day for three days of their computer screens in a class/learning setting and email it to us so we could implement it in our task.

    3. Our box of "pop sickles" were one we made at the school's MakerSpace. Here we found some different materials to play around with and brainstormed some ideas after our guidance meeting with Klaudia. As our main task for the blog is game related, we could show this through our probe. Here we wanted to know what our fellow students thought of games in learning, or rather; what game genres they thought would be the most useful in learning situations. Our box was made out of foam plate and glued together with hot glue. We used some copper tape to keep the box more steady as foam plate is quite brittle, this was also used for the lid of the box to make it stick (so it could be opened and closed properly). We also put a hole in the lid for our pop sickles to be planted. The pop sickles we made was more a type of flags. These pop sickles were made out of a pop sickle handle, a piece of wrapping cardboard, glue and paper. We used the wrapping paper as the base for our piece of paper to be on (so it would be more stable). This was glued together into small pop sickles / flags. On the papers was the important information relating to this probe's task; being what game genre the students thought was the most beneficial in learning. The box contained five different game genres, being the most widespread and popular ones at that. The flags answers were:



    • RPG
      Short for role playing games. This is a broad genre that involves a lot of different elements such as action, adventure and fantasy. RPGs due to their broad nature they can give a lot of different knowledge to the player, a good example here is the Assasin's Creed series which takes places in a lot of different historical eras.

    • FPS
      Short for first person shooter. Shooting games are quite violent of nature, but do often have a historical value to them as they're often based around different historical eras (generally the 1700s and up to today, or even further).

    • RTS
      Short for real time strategy. Strategy games teaches the player tactics and often is based on real events, for example the TOTAL:WAR series which are well-established strategy games mainly based in historical eras of older history (such as the Roman times).

    • Sport
      Not short for anything, but contains games about normal sports such as FIFA or motorsports. Keeps you updated on the latest players in the different sports and also cars or motor vehicles. Also includes games designed for vehicle simulation which are used in the training of pilots, astronauts and more.

    • Sandbox
      Sandbox games are ones that let the player take more control of their environments, it's essentially a playground for the player in which they can create or do what they want with the tools given to them by the developer.


    How do you plan to follow-up your probe?


    We will have a sample size of five people, giving it to the student council representative (preferably) and four random students we will select. As we did not find our student council representative we gave our probes out to students in our class, both in the subject of design methods and teksamf. We already knew these students and have relations to them so it was easier asking for a little help from them, than giving it out to the ones we actually wanted to give them out to (being a proper middle school / high school class). This was our original plan, but the feasibility of this in a slim time period is one we've chosen not to follow.

    Our probes were given to anonymous students in our classes, only we know their identities. In order to follow-up our probe we will stay in contact with the students we have given our probes to. Our probes tasks are easy to complete, but require them to actively check it each day for three days (at least for the measurement paper and the picture tasks).Our co-students will write down on our measurement paper each day for three days and alongside it they should send pictures to us daily of their computer in the classroom. The pictures will flow naturally on the email each day, but our paper sheet will not be handed back until three days have passed, giving them some breathing room. Our box of pop sickles was completed quick as it was an easy task to complete. The boxes we made we collected more or less within five minutes of handing them out, as all students wasn't sure what all the different genres meant or included. On friday the 4th of October we went around and collected the measurement papers from our fellow students for analysis and comparison.

    Results


    The probes results were interesting to say the least. We did not expect that there would be such a positive relation between all the school related websites and the users going by our experience so far, not to mention that we expected more users to be using more "illegal" type of programs such as games, reddit or youtube. That was the most surprising factor for us really, as we've seen that games and other more "illegal" websites are not used by our participants. For readability we're splitting each probes' results in a paragraph to easier see the results they gave.

    1: The measurement paper


    Here we had five different columns:

    Office


    All of our participants have used the office package and were mostly happy with their usage of it in school. The office package is a good one for creative work and school work. One of our participants did write down that she was feeling good using office, yet she felt stressed due to a lot of assignments and hand-ins. In the office package the most used programs were: Word, OneNote and PowerPoint.

    Social media


    All of our participants have also used different types of social media each day while in class. The responses to the usage of social media in class were mostly positive, besides one participant who didn't really too much about their social media usage. The programs they used the most was as follows: Facebook, Snapchat and lastly Instagram.

    School related sites


    All of our participants have used the various websites that are school related. This one was a bit more mixed, some were happy with it others not too much. The reason behind the different answers here can be caused by annoyance with the different websites, the design of the websites and how the students are supposed to interact with it. Many students have complained about the oddity of our weekly school schedules, and this might be why some weren't pleased with the usage of the school related websites. The most popular school related website was Canvas, followed up by any site under the hiof.no domain and with StudentWeb being all the way at the bottom with only one user.

    Computer games / mobile games


    Only one of our participants have written down that they used computer games / mobile games in class. This person has not got a good relationship with games seemingly as all the days they've used it they've also not felt good using them, maybe a bit guilty for not paying attention in class?

    Fill in other programs


    The other programs that have been noted are: Spotify, Calender, Scorecloud, VSCODE, Chrome, VG and Dagbladet. With these other programs most have been happy with their usage of them. These are of course a bit more secluded from our main categories which means their more closely related to our participants interests, which should explain the happiness factor here. Spotify being a music program lets the user listen to music  they like, or explore new music. Calender might refer to two different things here, either our school's calender or just the standard one that comes along with the PC. VSCODE is a coding program used mainly for websites, a free software used in classes at Hiof. Scorecloud is a program that turn any song into music sheet notes. Chrome is a standard web browser that eats up all your RAM. VG and Dagbladet are two Norwegian newspapers, being the two most popular ones at that. The one participant who used the two newspapers in class seemingly wasn't too satisfied when he read the news each day, it varied every time. Might have stumbled across some news he did not enjoy, or a story that might've been fabricated to get you to click on it.


    2: The picture task


    This task was only meant to show the computer screens in class to showcase the program usage. Will only show a few of these pictures as many of them were the same day to day, e.g. Office being used by essentially everyone.


    Here you can see the program VSCODE in action.


    A participant using Canvas in class.


    A student using Word and Google Translate to work on an assignment.

    3: The box of pop sickles


    Our boxes was quite simple; after choosing which game genre you found to be the most beneficial in learning situations (out of a given five), choose the correlating pop sickle and plant it on the top of the box. We ended up having three people answering with the more creative type of sandbox games, while two others decided to go with FPS and RTS. Sandbox games are already quite established in the learning community in comparison to RTS and FPS as they're generally more traditional entertainment value games (not to say that sandbox aren't, but the nature of a sandbox game enables more types of gameplay than your traditional RTS / FPS). It seems that our peers are quite on board with the sandbox type of games for learning as it allows for more creative work and it does not really have a limit which other game genres can have in a learning sense. The participants who did not choose the sandbox type most likely thought of the historic value these games can have. A FPS or a RTS can showcase how war in older time periods were or even how civilizations were and how they developed.



     

    Collage


  • 1.1 Literature Search

    1.1 Literature Search

    - Publisert den 10/09/2019 av timek

    Problemstillingen vi har valgt å ta for oss er; hvordan kan spill bedre læringsevnen og interessen for barne- og ungdomsskoleelever? Valget av problemstilling skyldes vår felles interesse for spill og for læring. Så vi ville finne ut hvordan disse elementene kunne bli bragt sammen og hvordan de ville påvirke læringsevnen til barne- og ungdomsskoleelever. 

    Spørsmål vi må ta stilling til / gi svar på i oppgaven vår


    På hvilken måte kan digitale medier påvirke lærings hverdagen til barne- og ungdomsskoleelever?
    Hvordan kan det gjøre interessen for fag større eller eventuelt mindre?
    Hvilke negative og positive sider bruken av spill ha?
    Hva for en type spill / digitale verktøy skal være tilgjengelig for bruk? Er de i bruk i dag?Hovedelementene/karakteristikken til informasjonsflyten i vår situasjon
    Problemer som informasjonsflyten møter på
    Hva må forbedres ved bruk av spill i skolen?
    En oversikt av tilgjengelige digitale verktøy og hvilket problem hver av dem løser/tilhører

    Forberedelse


    Det første vi bestemte oss for å gjøre for å forberede oss på søket av litteratur var å skrive ned nøkkelord. Nøkkelordene gir oss en grei basis for å kunne benytte ulike søkemotorer for å finne artikler eller utgitte akademiske tekster om vår gitte problemstilling. Vi vil da benytte oss av de søkemotorene som har blitt anbefalt til oss av både Håkon og Susanne for å finne en del vitenskapelige aritkler. Disse er da scholar.google.no og/eller hiof biblioteket sin søkemotor. Vi har også benyttet oss av vanlige googlesøk siden det ikke var nødvendig at alle kildene trengte å være av tyngre forskningsverdi. Siden vi endte opp med å gå for utdanning som hovedtema ut av de tre gitte temaene, valgte vi spesifiskt læring ved bruk av spill i skolen (på de tidligere skoletrinnene). Det var naturlig å ha stikkord som relaterte til dette temaet for å benytte oss av søkemotorene. Nedenfor har vi notert våre stikkord.

    Nøkkelord


    Spill i utdanning
    Gamification
    Spillifisering
    Spillbasert læring
    Gamebased learning
    Gaming effects on health
    Gaming in school
    Beneficial effects of gaming
    Video games positive sides
    Video games negative sides
    Bruk av spill i klasserommet
    Use of games in the classroom
    Gaming in education

    Søk, valg og evaluering


    Ved bruk av våre noterte nøkkelord fant vi frem litt i overkant av 10 kilder. Nøkkelordene vi har brukt er mer eller mindre det samme på norsk og engelsk. Alt gir ikke utslag ved søk på norsk på nettet, men engelske artikler finnes i bøtter og spann så det er å foretrekke å benytte engelske søkeord/parametere for å finne brukenes kilder. I søket vårt har vi funnet fem artikler gjennom scholar.google.no og hiof biblioteket, og så har vi funnet frem et par flere kilder som da er lettere tilgjengelig gjennom standard google søk. Vi har benyttet oss av de stikkordene over for å finne frem til våre artikler i de ulike søkemotorene. Målet vårt er å finne ut sammenhengen mellom læring og spill. Er læringsutbytte høyt nok/godt nok til at det er verdt å benytte seg av spill i skolegangen? Eller er den for dårlig til å bli utnyttet grunnet forholdene som må være tilstede?

    Literær anmeldelse


    Læringsutbyttet


    Læringsutbyttet av spill baserer seg på flere faktorer. Elever hjelper hverandre med å bidra til å løse og forstå de utfordringene de får gjennom gruppearbeid (Watson, Mong & Harris, 2011, s. 466-474). En aktiv lærer er da nøkkelen til å effektivisere spill som et læringsverktøy. Imens elevene spiller kan læreren gå rundt i klasserommet og svare på spørsmål elever har, og stille dem nye spørsmål relatert til det de har lært tidligere (ibid). Mens spillet foregår kan læreren stoppe elevene opp under «lærbare» øyeblikk. Altså øyeblikk i spillet der viktig informasjon kan uthentes. Dette er fordi når elevene allerede er engasjert med spillet er det muligheter til å legge opp til flere læringsmuligheter, noe som gjør at utbyttet av spillet er større (ibid). Når elever får riktig vanskelighetsgrad i forhold til det nivået av kompetanse de har vil de få følelsen av «flow».

    "Games are designed to generate a positive affect in players and are most successful and engaging when they facilitate the flow experience. Csikszentmihalyi (1975) introduced the flow state through the study of people involved in activities such as rock climbing, chess and dance. Flow describes a state of complete absorption or engagement in an activity and refers to the optimal experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991). During optimal experience, a person is in a psychological state where he or she is so involved with the goal driven activity that nothing else seems to matter. " (Kiili, 2005, s. 02).

    «Flow» er en opplevelse der alt fokuset ditt er i noe du driver med, i dette tilfellet, spill. Når en opplever «flow» vil engasjementet i det en driver med være på topp, og det er nettopp det en vil være ute etter. Når engasjementet til eleven er på topp, vil også læringsutbyttet eleven får være høyere. For å oppnå best resultater, og skape «flow» følelsen, bør elevene få mest mulig tid på spillet (Hamari et al., 2016, s. 170-179). Dette betyr at om de er i grupper, så må de jevnt bytte om på hvem som spiller. Dette er også brukbart, fordi det gjør det til mindre av en passiv opplevelse, og heller om til en aktiv en (Watson et al., 2011, s. 466-474). Ved å bruke alle disse verktøyene kan engasjementet i spillet, og dermed faget, bli så høyt at elever diskuterer det i friminuttene deres, og ellers på fritiden (ibid). Noe som er viktig er at læreren fokuserer spillingen slik at den har mest mulig læringsutbytte. Ved å gi karakterer basert på ytelse i spillet, vil elevene begynne å bry seg mer om det som skjer i spillet, og prøve å forbedre det. De vil da spørre flere spørsmål om hva de kan gjøre bedre, og for å forstå det som skjer bedre (ibid).

    Fordeler og ulemper ved bruk av spill i skolen


    Det finnes flere fordeler og ulemper ved bruk av spill i skolen, men hvis man ser på statistikk ser vi at de fleste forsøk på å bruke data spill i utdanning har vist positive eller nøytrale resultater. D aller færreste har vært negative.

    “29 out of our selected 40 studies show positive results, seven out of 40 neutral and only two out of 40 negative results. For two studies the results are somewhat unclear.” (Backlund & Hendrix, 2013)

    Spill kan ha den ulempen at det kan være distraherende for flere med spill i klasserom. Noen kan ha lett for å spore av ved bruken av spill i klasserommet, at de lever seg veldig mye inn i spillet og glemmer litt hva omgivelser som er tilstede. Dette problemet kan bli fjernet så lenge spillene som er lov å benytte seg av blir tatt hånd om av læreren. Lærerens rolle er essensiell for å holde klasserommet i orden og at alle følger med på gitte oppgaver og ikke sporer av. Så vi kan ut i fra denne informasjonen si at det er nok bevis at spill er effektive lærings verktøy som øker engasjement i faglige temaer. I tillegg til at elever lærer pensum er det vist en trend at evner som problemløsning og ferdigheter med sekundære språk i tillegg til morsmål ofte blir lært bare av å spille spillene.  Kanskje den mest åpenbare positive effekten av data spill er at det er gøy, noe som setter det over tradisjonell læring som er ofte sett som kjedelig blant yngre elever og derfor vanskelig å fokusere på. Resultatet av dette er at elever kan holde oppmerksomhet i mye lengere perioder grunnet mer interaktivt forhold med oppgavene og pensumet som blir framlagt hvis det er i spillformat. Dette leder til at de bruker mer tid på utdanning, men også at de lærer mer mens de gjør det (Griffiths, 2002)

    Det er fremdeles problemer med disse spill baserte utdannings metoder. Primært er det praktiske problemet tid, data spill er en tregere informasjonsflyt en lesing, selv om det er mer effektivt i å skape engasjement og passe på at kunnskapen ikke blir glemt like fort med spill. I tillegg er det tegn at mange av studiene som viser positive resultater har ikke sammenlignet resultater med tradisjonelle lærings metoder som kan lede til villedende informasjon sider vi ikke kan se om det er mer effektivt, bare at det er til noen grad funksjonelt. (Egenfeldt-Nielsen, 2006)

    Hva er spill og hvordan defineres det? Hvilke spill er det mulig å benytte seg av for læring? 


    Et spill kan defineres som et interaktivt medium. Her er det brukeren som har kontrollen til enhver tid. Det er også opp til brukeren selv, hvorvidt det skal skje noe i spillet eller ikke. I film, er det en lineær handling som aldri endrer seg uansett hvor mange ganger man ser filmen. Dette gjelder ikke for spill. Brukeren kan spille gjennom et spill utallige ganger, og aldri ha samme opplevelse, nettopp fordi det ikke er et opptak, eller en skrevet tekst på papir. Det er også her mulighetene for læring, kan potensielt være langt større.  Spill finnes i utallige ulike sjangre, og det er noe der ute for alle. Dette gjelder også for fag i skolesammenheng. I land hvor engelsk ikke er morsmål, vil elever som aktivt spiller digitale spill, etter studier å dømme, stille langt sterkere i faget enn de som ikke gjør det. Spill er også en effektiv kilde til å lære verdien av lagarbeid, gjennom å bli sendt inn i spillverdener hvor man er tvunget til å jobbe sammen som et lag for å nå målene (Rankin 2006). Spill som Minecraft og Assasin's Creed spillene, for å nevne noen større spill, har blitt brukt i læringssituasjoner. Assasin's Creed har blitt brukt for å lære studenter historie og Minecraft er brukt for å gi utslag for kreativitet og samarbeid.

    "A professor and other researchers at the University of Montreal have tested out Assassin’s Creed Origins’ “Discovery Tour,” an educational mode that enables players to explore the historical game world in a museum-like context. The Discovery Tour, which features 75 audio-guided interactive tours designed by historians and Egyptologists, launched with the video game Assassin’s Creed Origins last October for home consoles and PC." (Carmichael, 2018)

    Hvor mange er det som bruker spill i læring i dag? Er det noe som vil øke i fremtiden?


    I dagens samfunn har spill blitt mer og mer vanlig, både for underholdnings og for spillbasert læring. Det er blitt mer vanlig å integrere spill i utdanning, for eksempel spill som Minecraft eller Assassin's Creed spillene er blitt brukt for læringssituasjoner som nevnt tidligere. Basert på en studie av The Joan Ganz Cooney Center bruker 55% av lærere i USA spill i undervisningen minst 1 gang i uken (Baer, 2018). Av nordmenn i alderen 9-15 er det 80% som spiller digitale spill på en gjennomsnittsdag i 2016, i 2018 er andelen på 81%. Denne aldersgruppen brukte i gjennomsnitt 63 minutter på digitale spill om dagen i 2016, det har økt til 79 minutter i 2018 (Statistisk sentralbyrå [SSB], 2019). Dette viser at spill har blitt en sentral rolle i livet til mange unge elever. Det er også en stor økning i pengeinvesteringer i spill- og teknologibasert læring. I første halvdel av 2015 ble 262 selskaper som utvikler teknologi anvendt i undervisning («edutech») finansiert, som er en økning på 66% siden første halvdel av 2014 (Voss, 2015). Som et resultat av økningen i både investeringer i edutech og tid brukt på spilling av enkeltpersoner, blir spill i undervisning/læring brukt mer enn noensinne. Trenden for spill i læring ser ut til å gå opp år etter år.
    Senter for IKT i utdanningen sier det fortsatt er lite kunnskap om hvilke spill som brukes i klasserommet, og hvordan de brukes. (Senter for IKT i utdanningen, 2017, s. 08)

    Kilder


    Naturen av litteraturen vi vil benytte er nettartikler eller publiserte studier om videospill og/eller digitale verktøy. Kildene vi har benyttet ble funnet gjennom google scholar eller skolen sin søkemotor (hiof biblioteket). Vi har også benyttet oss av vanlige google søk siden det ikke var et krav at alle skulle være av vitenskapelig bakgrunn.

    Anguera J. & Gazzaley A. (2015). Current Opinion in Bevahioral Sciences, Volume 4, s. 160-165 [Journal]
    Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154615000807?via%3Dihub

    Backlund P. & Hendrix M. (2013). Educational games - Are they worth the effort? A literature survey of the effectiveness of serious games [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6624226

    Baer, S. (2018).  The Rise Of Educational Games [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra: https://elearningindustry.com/rise-of-educational-games

    Carmichael S. (2018). Researchers conduct study on Assasin’s Creed educational mode, Discovery Tour [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://www.classcraft.com/blog/news/assassins-creed-discovery-tour-education-research/

    Dadheech A. The Importance of Game Based Learning in Modern Education [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://theknowledgereview.com/importance-game-based-learning-modern-education/

    Egenfeldt-Nielsen S. (2006). Overview of research on the educational use of video games, Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy Volume 1 (3) [Journal]
    Hentet fra https://www.idunn.no/dk/2006/03/overview_of_research_on_the_educationaluseof_video_games?mode=pr

    Engel K. (2019). Minecraft in Education – Here’s Why It’s Becoming Trendy In The Classroom [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://www.whoishostingthis.com/compare/minecraft/education/

    Griffiths M. (2002). The educational benefits of videogames, Education and Health Volume 20 (3) [Journal]
    Hentet fra http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/15272/1/187769_5405%20Griffiths%20Publisher.pdf

    Irgin. P & Turgut Y. (2009). Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 1 (1), s. 760-764 [Journal]
    Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042809001384

    Kiili K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. Internet and Higher Education, 2005, 8(1), 1-2 [Bok]
    Hentet fra https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.12.001

    Kiili K. (2005). The Internet and Higher Education, Volume 8 (1), s. 13-24 [Journal]
    Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096751604000776

    Mishra J., Anguera J. & Gazzaley A. (2016). Neuron, Volume 90 (2), s. 214-218 [Journal].
    Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627316300691?via%3Dihub

    Rankin Y., Gold R. & Gooch B. (2006). Eurographics 2006, Volume 25 (3) [Journal]
    Hentet fra http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.151.8843&rep=rep1&type=pdf

    Senter for IKT i utdanningen (2017), Dataspill i skolen (Utgitt 2014, 1.reviderte utgave 2017) [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://www.udir.no/globalassets/filer/spill_i_skolen_-_notat_-revidert_2018.pdf

    Statistisk sentralbyrå (2019). 11555: Bruk av digitale spill, etter befolkningsgruppe, statistikkvariabel og år [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://www.ssb.no/statbank/table/11555

    Teachthought Staff (2017). 6 Basic Benefits Of Game-Based Learning [Artikkel].
    Hentet fra https://www.teachthought.com/technology/6-basic-benefits-of-game-based-learning/

    Voss, K. (2015). The Growth of Gamification: What it Means for Schools and Districts [Artikkel]
    Hentet fra https://www.gettingsmart.com/2015/11/the-growth-of-gamification-what-it-means-for-schools-and-districts/

    Watson W., Mong C. & Harris C. (2011). Computers & Education, Volume 56 (2), s. 466-474 [Journal].
    Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131510002599?via%3Dihub

     

















     

  • 1.2 Expert Interview

    1.2 Expert Interview

    - Publisert den 17/09/2019 av timek

    Forarbeid/planlegging


    Intervjuet vårt vil være basert på temaet vi har skrevet om tidligere. Da altså om hvordan spill kan påvirke læringsevnen til elever ved barne- og ungdomsskoletrinnene. Vi ble pålagt å velge ut en ekspert på område, og den første personen vi kom til å tenke på var Tina Helene Bunæs som er en veileder og foreleser ved HIOF. Inne på skolens database (på canvas) står det at hun har gitte områder som sine interesseområder: spill- og virtualiseringsteknologi og hvordan dem kan bli brukt i læring.

    Grunnet disse interesseområdene har vi tenkt å kontakte henne og intervjue henne om spillbasert læring som er temaet for vår oppgave (fra det litterære søket). Vi går utifra at hun har forkunnskaper om dette og vi vil av den grunn kunne stille mer utdypende spørsmål enn til en tilfeldig person. Målet for vårt intervju er å finne ut om hun mener at spillbasert læring hører hjemme i klasserommet. Vi kommer til å benytte oss av et semi-strukturert intervju for å få det vi tror gir best resultat i vårt tilfelle. For å kontakte Tina skal vi benytte oss av mailen hennes ved HIOF. Her skal vi gjøre klart for henne hva våre intensjoner med intervjuet er og hva mål vi har med det. Avhengig av responsen vi får på det finner vi ut om hun har tid til intervjuet med oss eller ikke, eventuelt og om hun føler seg mindre egnet til å kunne besvare spørsmålene vi kommer til å stille henne.

    Struktur på intervjuet


    Intervjuet vil begynne rimelig rolig med åpningsspørsmål, noe vi vil benytte for å få henne med på hva det er vi faktisk ønsker å diskutere i vårt intervju. Dette skjer da selvsagt etter vi har hilst på henne og introdusert oss og vårt mål med oppgaven. Vi vil prøve å ikke oppholde Tina for lenge og har forhåndsdefinert hvor lenge intervjuet skal vare. Underveis i hele intervjuet skal vi ha en viktig tanke i bakgrunnen; "hvorfor?". Ved å benytte "the 5-why technique" kan vi stille oppfølgingsspørsmål til mye av det Tina sier på en veldig enkel måte. Det gjør det lettere å gå i dydben, hvorfor skjer det i etterkant av det, hvorfor manglet x, etc. Vi har da delt opp intervjuet i fire klammer som nevnt nedenfor med hovedtema og undertemaer. Hele intervjuet skal ha en tydelig rød tråd å følge.
    Temaet er det samme som vi begynte litteratur søket vårt med: hvordan spill kan bedre læringsevnen og interessen for barne-og ungdomsskoleelever. I intervjuet har vi valgt å spisse det inn på selve hovedtemaet her som er spill basert læring.
    Undertemaene vi har valgt å dele det opp i er:  formaliteter, erfaringen hennes med tema, meningene hennes rundt tema og læringsutbytte elevene eventuelt har ifølge henne.

    Gjennomførelse


    I forkant av vårt intervju har vi kontaktet Tina via email og da fått godkjent vårt intervju med henne. Der har vi lagt frem hva målet vårt var og hva intervjuet ville handle om. Vi avtalte tidspunkt også via email og stedet for intervjuet ble da på kontoret hennes. Intervjuet ble gjennomført på torsdag 26/9/2019 klokken 10 på Høgskolen i Østfold. Før vi satte i gang med intervjuet gikk vi gjennom formaliteter som er notert nedenfor for å sikre Tinas informasjon og hennes ønsker i forhold til anonymisering og opptak av samtale (da hennes samtykke til dette). Har markert det jeg (Tim) sier som intervjuer med fet skrift og det Tina sier i kursiv for å vise mer til hvordan intervjuet gikk seg til. Etter intervjuet takket jeg for at hun var villig til å bruke tiden hennes til å hjelpe oss med vår oppgave, det var snilt gjort å ta seg tid til det. Det ble ikke notert noe på stedet grunnet opptaket, så transcriptet er finpusset, og inkluderer da ikke typen kroppsspråk eller verbale pauseord som folk bruker i dagligtale. Dette gir intervjuet en mer profesjonell look. Nedenfor er da hele intervjuet med alle spørsmål m/ svar. 

    Intervju guide


    Tillatelser/formelt


    Kan vi navngi deg i vårt intervju som vil bli postet på vår wordpress blogg på hiof?
    Hvis du vil anonymiseres kan vi skrive underviser ved hiof? Oppgaven vår spesifiserer at vi skal benytte oss av en ekspert på område, ønsker du at vi refererer til deg som ekspert (som anonym kilde)?
    Kan vi gjengi det du sier ordrett?
    Kan vi ta opp intervjuet?
    Vil du se gjennom intervjuet før det legges ut?

    Erfaring


    Er du kjent med spillbasert læring?
    På hvilken måte har du vært i kontakt med dette temaet tidligere i forkant av eventuell ferdig utdanning?
    Jobber du med temaet for øyeblikket eller har planer om det i nær fremtid?
    Hva skjedde når du deltok i bruken av spillbasert læring? Hva gjorde du i klasserommet?
    Hvilke spill har du erfart fungerer i en læringssetting? Hvorfor mener du at disse spillene fungerer?

    Meninger


    Kan du fortelle meg dine tanker om bruken av spillbasert læring? Synes du det er en positiv eller negativ læringsmåte?
    På hvilken måte burde lærere implentere spill i undervisningen?
    Hvilke problemer oppstår ved bruk av spill?
    Hva var tankene dine når du opplevde at elevene brukte spill i timen? Tror du dem hadde det gøy? Eller var det ræva?
    Hva er ditt favorittspill? Tror du dette kunne bli brukt i undervisning? Eventuelt hvordan?

    Elevenes utbytte


    Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke tror du at elever som benytter spill i læring for et godt utbytte av det?
    Hvordan måler spillbasert læring seg opp mot andre former for alternativ læring?
    Hvordan tror du elevene opplever bruken av spill i læring?
    Hvilke spill vet du om som er blitt brukt i undervisning?
    Tror du at spill kunne blitt integrert i læring ved høgskolen? Annet enn kahoot
    Synes du det burde brukes mer?

     

    Intervju med Tina Helene Bunæs 




    • Tillatelser/formelt




    Kan vi navngi deg i vårt intervju som vil bli postet på vår Wordpress blogg på HIOF?
    Ja, det går fint.
    Hvis du vil anonymiseres kan vi skrive underviser ved HIOF? Eller foretrekker du bare ekspert uten navngitt institutt?
    Ikke nødvendig.
    Kan vi gjengi det du sier ordrett?
    Ja, du kan gjengi det jeg sier ordrett.
    Kan vi ta opp intervjuet?
    Tillatelse innvilget til å ta opp intervjuet.
    Vil du se gjennom intervjuet før det legges ut?
    Ja, helst det.


    • Erfaring




    Er du kjent med spill basert læring?
    Ja, delvis. Har skrevet oppgaver og lignende om temaet før.

    Har du vært i kontakt med temaet før profesjonelt? Typen i klasserommet eller lignende?
    Nei, ikke direkte. Jeg har undervist i spillutvikling, men der har jo dem faktisk laget spill. Men jeg har jo jobbet det med både på bachelor- og masteroppgaven min, samt en forskningsoppgave som jeg skrev første året i masteren. Den brukte da spill og virtuelle miljøer for læring.

    Jobber du med temaet for øyeblikket eller har planer om det i nær fremtid?
    Jobber ikke direkte med spill basert læring for øyeblikket, men skal skrive min PhD om det, dette med oppstart etter jul.

    Hva skjedde når du deltok i bruken av spill basert læring? Hva gjorde du i klasserommet?
    Har ikke jobbet med det i klasserommet tidligere rent spesifikt.

    Hvilke spill har du erfart fungerer i en læringssetting? Hvorfor mener du at disse spillene fungerer?
    I bacheloren min skrev jeg om Minecraft, bruken av Minecraft. Dette var da ikke i klasserommet, men i museum. For å lære barneskoleelever som deltok i den kulturelle skolesekken, som da er et opplegg som alle fjerdeklassinger skal gjennom. Dette er da et samarbeid mellom skolen og flere kulturområder. I dette tilfelle skulle dem lære seg lokalhistorie i Sarpsborg, og så lagde jeg og bachelorgruppen min byen Borg i Minecraft. Også skulle elevene utforske Borg i Minecraft og lære om historien til byen inni spillet. Dette fungerte veldig bra.


    • Meninger




    Hva tenker du om bruken av spillbasert læring profesjonelt? Synes du det er en positiv eller negativ læringsmåte?
    Jeg tror det er veldig kraftig medium, som kan hvis brukt riktig; gi veldig gode læringsmuligheter. Men det er jo både positive og negative sider ved det, og det bør settes inn i et system i klasserommet så elevene ikke får alt for frie tøyler. Men at spillingen blir styrt av undervisningsmateriale. Siden det er et veldig åpent medium og ofte er det slik at barna kan disse mediene bedre enn lærerne. Og det kan føre til at de sitter og gjør akkurat det de vil i spillet. Men hvis de har en klar undervisningsplan og bruker spillet som en del av undervisningen, ikke hele undervisning, så har det vist at det fungerer veldig godt.

    På hvilken måte burde lærere involvere spill i undervisningen? Føler du at læreren bør ha en aktiv rolle i spill basert læring?
    Det kommer an på spillet, f.eks. i Minecraft kan læreren faktisk være inni spillet med elevene. Men etter min erfaring er det lurt og f.eks. har en forelesningstime og stykker opp forelesninger slik at læreren da kan guide elevene gjennom forelesningen. Da tenker jeg mer at man har en mer tradisjonell lærer som går gjennom forelesningsmateriale også da setter stoffet inn i kontekst i et spill. Slik at spillet og læringsstoffet og spillet komplenterer hverandre. Og da er det viktig at læreren har en klar rolle, både i den tradisjonelle settingen og når dem skal sitte seg ned og faktisk spille.

    Hva er de største utfordringene ved bruk av spill i en læringssetting?
    Tilgjengeligheten og kunnskapen som både elever og lærere må ha. Elever pleier å plukke opp spill basert læring raskt siden det er noe de gjerne holder på med selv på fritiden og har kontroll på, men for dem som ikke spiller mye kan det bli en utfordring å sette seg inn i det. Og ikke minst for læreren. Læreren må forstå seg på spillene nok til å kunne bruke det som læringsverktøy. Hvis ikke blir det fort slik at elevene får litt for frie tøyler, så «stikker dem av». Da har dem det kjempegøy og spiller og sånt, men hvor mye læring som kommer ut av det kan diskuteres.

    Hva er ditt favorittspill?
    Generelt da eller i en læringssetting?
    Bare generelt sett.
    Da blir det Witcher 3. Det er veldig bra, har ødelagt alle andre spill for meg. Etter jeg har spilt Witcher 3 ble alle andre spill mer eller mindre overfladisk i forhold.
    Tror du dette kunne bli brukt i undervisning? Eventuelt hvordan?
    Det er jo et veldig voldelig spill, det er mye blod og mye slåssing. Du er jo da en monster hunter og dreper både monstre og mennesker. Men du har da elementer som herbalism og sånn. Kanskje det kunne bli tatt i bruk for å lage urter og sånn. Jeg vil nok ikke anbefale å bruke det i læring, men på sin side det jeg vil skal bli brukt i undervisning er Assasin’s Creed. Da spesifikt til historielæring. Jeg har lært meg mye gammel historie fra dem, da både historiske hendelser og kunsthistorie. Spillene er jo ikke helt historisk korrekte, men de er jo hvertfall basert på historiske hendelser og historiske personer. I mange av spillene har de brukt mange gamle plantegninger av infrastruktur fra eldre byer og bygget dem opp virtuelt slik dem så ut på f.eks. 1500-tallet i Venezia eller Firenze da. Så der er veldig mye å hente ut.
    I det nye spillet Assasin’s Creed Origin er det lagt til en egen «historiemodus». Det heter da Story Tour eller noe i den duren og er da beregnet for å kunne utforske kun de historiske elementene ved spillene, uten da å ha de mer actionfylte og eventyrfylte handlingene man ellers ville gjort i spillet.
    Jeg synes at det var kjempeinteressant når jeg spilte Origin, og da er det sånne småting du ikke legger så mye vekt på, men sånne smådetaljer om hvordan arbeidsoppgaver fungerte. Den ene jeg sto å så på lenge faktisk var måten de fraktet steinene til pyramidene på, som da er en liten detalj som du bare rir forbi i full fart, men som da folk gjorde på den tiden. Og hvis man setter seg ned og studerer de tingene så skaper jo det forståelse og læring for hvordan samfunnet og arbeidsoppgaver fungerte før.
    Hva var det egentlig dem gjorde når de transporterte disse steinene til pyramidene?
    De frakta dem på Nilen. Når steinene kom på land kom alle slavene bort for å frakte dem. Dette gjorde de da ved bruk av tømmerstokker og dem hadde system på hvordan de skulle frakte steinene. Da flyttet de på disse tømmerstokkene for å bevege de store steinene. Det tok jo lang tid og det var tungt arbeid. Men det var bare sånne småting jeg la merke til da. Men også samfunnsstrukturen; hvordan samfunnet er bygget opp med rikdom og fattigdom, bydeler, slummer og sånne ting da. Det er slike ting man ikke gjerne ser i dag, men som kommer frem tydeligere i spillet. Assasin’s Creed er veldig «subtle learning», altså at det ikke er veldig direkte. Men ved å være observant og delta i denne verdenen så blir du feeda sånne småkonsepter og slikt som da lagrer seg oppi hodet ditt.


    • Elevenes utbytte




    Hvorfor/hvorfor ikke tror du at elever som benytter spill i læring for et godt utbytte av det?
    Jeg tror at hvis det blir gjort riktig, hvis det blir satt i system og man bruker de riktige spillene eller virtuelle simuleringen så får man satt et uttrykk på veldig mye som tradisjonell læring kun viser teoretisk. Du får faktisk vist hvordan det er og du kan «immerse» deg inni en verden som kan vise deg disse konseptene og bygge kontekst rundt dem. I stedet for bare å lese dem i en bok da, det tror jeg er veldig verdifullt. Det mest nye medie før var jo video, men der ser du fortsatt bare på en skjerm. Men hvis du kan sette deg ned og bli «immersed» i denne verdenen så kan det være veldig positivt for læringsutbytte.

    Hvordan måler spill basert læring seg opp mot andre former for alternativ læring? Typen videolæring eller musikklæring f.eks.?
    Det tør jeg nesten ikke si noe om siden jeg har ikke lest så mye om det, men man kan tenke seg at et videospill er en sammensetning av flere medieformer. Og andre medieformer for læring er jo da video eller musikk, men i spill får du alle disse uttrykkene i ett. Det kan man da tenke seg byr på flere læringsmuligheter enn kun med en uttrykksform da. Men som sagt videospill i læring er såpass nytt at vi ikke har funnet den perfekte kombinasjonen på hvordan man skal bruke det som et undervisnings medium. Jeg vil ikke si om det er bedre enn andre alternative læringsformer, men mye tyder på at det er gode læringsmuligheter; nettopp på grunn av at du kan «immerse» deg i verdenen. Det er overalt rundt deg og du kan oppleve det på en annen måte.

    Hvordan tror du elevene opplever bruken av spill i læring? Tror du at dem storkoser seg eller at det helt ræva?
    Både og. Jeg tror at dem som spiller mye på fritiden synes at det veldig positivt. At det er en motiverende og en engasjerende læringsform, men da har du og de elevene som ikke spiller på fritiden. Dem som ikke har tatt på en håndkontroll før og som da har en veldig bratt læringskurve, de må ha mye mer fokus på det og faktisk spille, ikke bare lene seg tilbake å lære av det som blir presentert.
    Dette varierer jo mye på tilgjengelighet som du snakket om tidligere. De som har tilgang til spill vil ha større sannsynlighet for å benytte seg av det, men det varierer veldig avhengig av deres interesser og da tilgjengelighet. 

    Du har allerede nevnt et par spill, som Minecraft og Assasin’s Creed, men er det noen andre spill du føler kunne bli brukt i undervisning?
    Det er mange. Det er jo mange spill som er utviklet kun for læring. Tenker du mer kommersielle titler da eller?
    Både og. Vel og bra med store titler, men mindre spill egnet kun for læring fungerer fint det også. Altså enkle spill hvor du lærer gangetabellen er jo ikke uvanlig, der du får et scoreboard og tidsfrist på deg.
    Spill kan jo vært så mangt. Det er sikkert veldig mange, men jeg kommer ikke på noe akkurat nå.

    Tror du at spill kunne blitt integrert i læring ved høgskolen?
    Ja!
    Annet enn da Kahoot?
    Hadde vært morsom å prøve å kunne integrere noen andre spill også da. Problemet igjen da er å lage et spill er dyrt. Det er kanskje lettere å lage eller benytte seg av ferdige spill på et lavere nivå, for på høyskolen er det veldig spisst det man skal lære. Så det å lage spillmoduler tilpasset hvert fag kan bli tidkrevende og dyrt. Det er vel kanskje det største problemet. Skal du lage noe som er bra nok for læring, blir det fort veldig dyrt. Men man ser det jo i andre land at de bruker spill og simulering til å trene helsearbeidere, sykepleiere og sånt. Da er det opprettet en del spill og simuleringer som lager deg rutiner og pasientbehandling og slikt. Det er fortsatt en lang vei å gå. Spillene er jo da basert på å være et forskningsprosjekt, hvertfall som jeg har fått med meg. Det er jo ikke så mye penger som man legger inn i denne typen læring enda. De fleste prosjekter starter da som forskningsprosjekt for å se om det fungerer eller ikke. Det er jo der man fortsatt er i dag føler jeg, hva fungerer og hva fungerer ikke når man bruker virtuelle læringsmidler.

    Det er jo et par unntak, som f.eks. pilotutdanning hvor de er pålagt å ha x antall timer i uken på flysimulator. Enten hjemme eller på skolen.
    Dette har jo fungert kjempe bra. Da får jo du visualisert cockpiten og får rutinedrilling; hva skal du trykke på nå og når. Det er vel også slike simuleringer for astronauter mener jeg. Er ikke så veldig enkelt å forberede seg på det dem holder på med utenom sånn zero-gravity kamre og sånn, men det er dyrt da.

    Synes du spill bør bli brukt mer i undervisning?
    Jeg har lyst å si ja. Jeg synes spill er kjempegøy og nyttig. Det har positive effekter på kritisk tenkning og læring og alt mulig. Men da må det settes inn i system og spillene må være gode nok til å gi et godt læringsutbytte. Vi har nok en vei å gå der i forhold til å få utviklet spill til de ulike kursene.

    Analyse og sammendrag av funnene våre med referanser


    Spill basert læring er et vidt emne som har flere positive og negative sider. Det er veldig nytt medium da i forhold til læringskontekst, og bruken av det krever riktig setting ifølge Tina. Som hun sa i intervjuet så er det viktig at elever ikke får frie tøyler når de holder på med spill i læring siden det så fort gjort å spore av. Lærerens rolle er viktig; gjennom tradisjonelle læringsmetoder med forelesninger og veiledning så vil spille passe godt inn i klasserommet. Men det erstatter ikke vanlig undervisning, men blir da en del av undervisningen. Elevene får et godt utbytte av spill basert læring hvis disse faktorene på plass sier hun videre. Ofte klikker spill godt med interessen med mange av dagens ungdommer, så tilgjengeligheten er det det vanligvis står på. Både prismessig,  men også kunnskapsmessig. "Tilgjengeligheten og kunnskapen som både elever og lærere må ha. Elever pleier å plukke opp spill basert læring raskt siden det er noe de gjerne holder på med selv på fritiden og har kontroll på, men for dem som ikke spiller mye kan det bli en utfordring å sette seg inn i det. Og ikke minst for læreren. Læreren må forstå seg på spillene nok til å kunne bruke det som læringsverktøy" sa Tina i intervjuet. Ikke alle har de samme mulighetene eller interessene, dem som ikke har så mye penger har gjerne ikke råd til all slags spillmaskiner og du har gjerne dem som har penger til det og ikke har interessen. Slike variabler tilbyr problemer for spill basert læring. Det er mye å se frem til ved bruk av spill i læring, Tina sier at det har mange positive effekter både på kritisk tenkning og læring, med mer. Men for at spill i læring skal bli mer etablert i dagens undervisning må det flere spill bli utviklet til spesifikke kurs for å gi bedre utslag mot gitte fagområder ellers kurs sier hun.

     

     

  • 3.1 Generating Ideas

    3.1 Generating Ideas

    - Publisert den 17/10/2019 av timek

    Previous ideas


    We've had an idea so far on how we wanted to do this, originally wanting to create an app that was designed for teachers which would show the different types of games to use for different subjects in school and in this list-like app it would also have guides on how to use these games in school. But after we redefined our problem statement we are gonna have to take a different approach to our task.

    BRAINSTORMING SESSION


    For our brainstorming session we sat down together and wanted to find three good solutions to our defined problem statement, being;

    Our user needs sandbox games integrated in learning because it allows for a more creative and engaging way for students to interact with topics in school.

    We need to preferably make something physical for our ideate phase, as our teachers wanted. Apps, websites or digital solutions seems to be a big no, so we'll be trying to think outside the (sand) box. To start our little brainstorming session we needed to define what we thought about the topic for our problem statement. First of all we discussed the main characteristics of sandbox games and came up with keywords for them, this being:

    • Open

    • Creative

    • Predefined rules

    • Developers control

    • Minecraft

    • Create your own goals

    • Intrinsic motivation


    After we had our little list of what we think the sandbox genre is characterized by, we wanted to use one of the methods provided in class to help us find out what we could create that had such a set of characteristics. The "how might we" method of asking questions related to our topic is a good way to get a better view of what we actually want to achieve with our solutions to our problem statement. Our HMW questions are written here:

    • How might we promote creativity among students?

    • How might we improve the subjects with games?

    • How might we make students less distracted in class?

    • How might we focus attention on the educational part of the game?

    • How might we increase the likelihood of game usage in class?

    • How might we improve, or optimize, games for learning?

    • How might we gameify the lectures?

    • How might we make classroom exercises like a game?

    • How might we create interest or motivation in a subject through games?

    • How might we improve teaching quality with games?

    • How might we use games to improve the learning environment?


    As we've mentioned earlier our ideas needs to be based on our finds, and needs to give a solution to our problem statement. With the methods we've used so far, by writing down key characteristics and using the HMW-questions we can use this train of thought to get us going in our brainstorming of ideas. We wanted all our members to come up with at least two ideas each and from there try to make a selection through a point based ranking system. Each member would vote for which ideas they thought were the best, having a total of three points they could give (max two points for one idea). Ranking will be completed below our ideas.



    Idea cluster


    Grouped similar ideas together



    Made topic and subtopics for our two columns



    Wrote scores on the notes. More information of the rankings below.

    In order to create ideas for our problem statement, we need to keep the sandbox characteristics and the HMW questions in mind for our notation of the ideas. Down below are the ideas we came up with, slightly more in detail than on our notes above:

    1. The usage of Micro:Bit for sandbox learning. Micro:Bit is a relatively easy way to learn programming, very simplified. Often with pre-made step-by-step guides that lets you know what to do and when. It's a smaller surface to play around with than the open world of Minecraft, as it's limitations are far greater.

    2. A console that is meant for educational games. This will have a set of pre-installed games, such as Minecraft or Garry's Mod. It will run on Steam OS.

    3. Rubik's Cube, pattern learning.

    4. Straight up a sand box, generally meant for younger students.

    5. A game we could develop, with set rules depending on the subject.

    6. A website with small games for each step in the design thinking process, used for classroom exercises in Designmetoder

    7. A virtual environment where students could experiment with testing out design concepts. Players would be able to set their own parameters for how users interact with their system. (Think of a game like Tabletop Simulator where the user may customize the rule-set that other players play with.)

    8. A Lego set for students to experiment with different solutions to a problem given by the teacher.

    9. A board game with creative tasks for them to complete underway. Let's say it's set up like Monopoly, they roll the dice; instead of buying properties they get to select a card and on it they get a task in which they need to do set task (e.g. build a little LEGO house or make a paper airplane). This is done with, let's say, a 60 second timer (similar to the game called Alias).

    10. Game that students learning new subjects can use to learn creative thinking. Give a set of rules and a box of tools they can play around with it and use their imagination to work with the tasks given in the game / find solutions to its problems.


    Rankings of our ideas


    When we had our ten ideas we read through them and then had people give their points to the one they liked. Three points total per person, where two points is the highest they can give a single idea, so a total of 10 points is the absolute max. We ended up with idea number 6 as our highest scorer, with idea 5 as the second highest and idea 9 as the third highest. Four of the ideas ended up going in the trash pile, while we had three ideas getting one point each (being idea 2, 7 and 10).

    Chosen ideas


    After we did our ranking we thought about what made us choose the given ideas. Most of us had a realistic approach to the task, we put limits on what we could do with our given time and technology. Although the task said we shouldn't set limits to our imagination and the possibility of our solutions, all of them had some "hidden" limits although we did not really go into the task with set limits beforehand.
    The three chosen solutions for our ideate phase are either a physical or digital solution. Idea 6 and idea 5 being digital solutions in the form of games or websites, whilst idea 9 being physical in the form of a board game. Going forward solution 6 is the one we will be focusin on for our future work with personas, scenarios and storyboard.

     

  • Expert Interview

    Expert Interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Interview Guide


    1. How does adult refugees experience learning Norwegian?

    2. How do different age groups experience the learning process?

    3. What are the biggest issues for young adult refugees while learning Norwegian?

    4. How does a pre-knowledge of the English language influence learning Norwegian?

    5. What are your thoughts on things that can be improved?

    6. What impact does social interaction in Norwegian outside of the class have?

    7. Do students generally succeed?

    8. Are you happy with the level of fluency that most of the students reach during the course?

    9. Have you heard of digital apps like duolingo etc, how do you think they supplement the course?

    10. Would you recommend more people use duolingo or a similar app, Why? Or Why not?


    Who was interviewed?

    The interview subject is Jon Bjerkan a Norwegian Teacher who has taught Adult Refugees.

    Where was the interview conducted?

    Both of the participants in the interview where in the comfort of their own home using digital video chat.

    How was the interview Conducted

    The semi structured interview was done using digital video chat. Omar from the research group was conducting the interview and the interview subject, Jon Bjerkan, was participating. A screen recording was made on Omar's computer.

    What was the theme (s) of the interview?

    Understand how Adult refugees learn Norwegian.

    Why was the theme(s) chosen?

    The themes were chosen because we wanted to get an insight in what issues there currently are in the situation of our topic. The person that was interviewed has an overview of how multiple people experience this situation and could be able to find an answer or suggestions to improvements for more people as his experience does not differ as much from personal experience as the students might be. We also wanted to know his thoughts on supplements to a Norwegian Language course, how they work, how they could be improve and how much of an impact these have in motivating and activating the learning process outside of class.

    Transcription

    Interview transcription (attachment)

    Analysis and summary of findings with quotes

    Learning Norwegian can be quite challenging. But it really depends on the person, and their background. Whether they have had the experience of learning another language, or not. Students who have learned another language have an advantage because they have the experience but also knows what methods and learning techniques they can use when learning Norwegian.

    However, the young students seems to have an advantage. Bjerkan states that he believes the younger students learn faster. And he also states that it is easier for them to get to use the new language. Some of the older students seems to have more trouble getting into the new language and ends up helping each other in class, using their mother tongue.

    But regardless of age, students have different challenges. For some, writing is easier. And for other, speaking is easier. Many of the students are also struggling with understanding the language as a whole as well.

    Those students who already have experiences with the English language seem to have an advantage. They are more used to a similar language to Norwegian. Both English and Norwegian have several similar words in the wocabulary, and the grammar between the two is pretty similar.

    In order for the students to learn more efficiently, they have to use the new language in their spare time as well. Using the new language with friends and family will have a big impact on the learning process.

    A good thing to know is that most students generally succeed learning the new language. Bjerkan states that if the students happen to get a job, where they are engaged in using the new language, they will get more motivated to keep using and learning more of it as time passes.

    Bjerkan says he's satisfyed with most of his students. As long as they do their best, and work hard to achieve their goals, he is more than satisfyed.

    Tools are also an important tool in the learning process of a new language. Bjerkan claims that these tools are very handy to use on your spare time, when you don't really have anything else on your schedule anyway. It is a good way to spend some time, in order to improve the learning process. He highly recommends them to any student who are trying to learn a new language.

     

  • Literature Review Summary

    Literature Review Summary

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Main elements/characteristics of my information flow situation

    When attempting to teach Norwegian to young-adult refugees, a good teacher is what most people would consider. But what if there was better and faster ways to teach a new language?

    Studies have proven to us multiple times, that being engaged in physical tasks helps learning. This is because when we are active, our brain is working much harder. It’s also memorizing the things we see and experience, much better. In other words, it’s recommended that you change the way you learn, with being more physically active when trying to learn something.

    Some teachers are well experienced with teaching, and knows what works and what doesn’t. However, only the best teachers know how to engage students into making the learning process more fun. That way, it will be more exciting for them, and they will often feel the motivation to work harder. This is because we like experiencing getting better at something we are trying to achieve.

    When learning a new language, it’s important to use it as much as possible. And if you don’t have too much time to use it in your daily life, there are several apps like Duolingo which provides push notifications and reminders on your phone, to make sure you do your daily language exercises. Using it every single day, is one of the most efficient ways to learn a new language.

    Challenges encountered in the information flow

    The drop-out numbers for adult refugees may have several reasons. These are refugee adults, who possibly have children witch gives them a financial aspect.

    Academic challenges like, cultural dissonance, language barriers, fear or distrust of authority figures, fear of speaking in class and lack of academic support at home may be some of the biggest, and most obvious challenges for an adult refugee learning norwegian.

    cultural dissonance causes lack of interest in learning the norwegian language, it causes discomfort or confusion, by people in the midst of a change in their cultural environment. This is relevant for the people who come to norway as a refugee, because they come from countries with a different culture and different expectations set to them. This makes people uncomfortable, and may cause them to not want to be a part of that culture if they feel rejected.

    Language barriers can be underestimated. for example if you are a norwegian student learning english, you have a lot of references to use. The student can use movies and TV-shows as a learning tool, and when you watch people speak english you get a better idea of how to form your sentences in english, appose to just learning the words translated. Learning how to form a sentence in a different language like norwegian can be a difficult task, if the refugee don’t have a norwegianspeaking reference to follow in terms of what you see, when a person is learning english, and has an endless supply of movies and TV-series.

    The learners have financial obligations leading them to take part-time jobs, witch can prevent the learners from doing school work, and resting for the next school day. These part-time jobs are uselie due to children at home, and they dominate the learners sparetime.

    What needs to be improved

    First of all, Norwegian teachers should understand that their students come from many different backgrounds and ages, and not all of them are of equal learning abilities or have the determination to learn. Some of them want to learn the language as fast as possible so they could get to work or to continue studying. Others, just don’t care at all about the whole learning process or the outcome of the Norwegian course. The result of this is that those students who don’t care, don’t wish, or simply don’t want to make an effort to learn the language as effective as the others, will eventually, negatively affect them.

    There is one simple solution to what should be done here. Students have to be sorted into the classes they deserve. For example, a class dedicated to hardworking and serious students, and another class for students who like to have fun and play most of the time.

    Second, It would have been really nice and more helpful if the teachers were multilingual. Sometimes no matter how hard you try to explain a word to someone, it never makes sense until it is translated into their mother language, or a language they know well. It is not necessary, but it would make learning the language easier.

    An overview of available digital tools and what problem each of them addresses.

    Currently the best digital tools for learning norwegian according to norskbloggen.no and lifeinnorway.net (17.09.2019) is Memrise, Babbel, Nemo and Duolingo. How you access the guides differ, they all have free and paid models. These are all apps which can be used both on apps on a smartphone or a website on a computer, which make them easy to use on the go.

    Memrise is an app that uses memorization and visual techniques as its learning component. Memrise is made to fit into a busy day as a supplement to a language course. It is meant for being used whenever you have a free moment in your day so you stay fresh on the language you are learning. This app also has a goal to make the learning experience feel more local as opposed to make you learn the language in a strict formal way.

    Babbel also aims at making your conversational skills in the new language better. They try to be up to date with the current way of speaking to each other, this makes the learner speak more naturally. They also want you to speak correctly. Babbel also offer review sessions of words and sentences you have already learned, but in new contexts so that you can reinforce and refresh your memory of your knowledge.

    Duolingo is one of the most known language apps on the market, it’s a good app with a whole bunch of languages available for learning, but most importantly; its free. Duolingo claims themselves that using their app is the best new way to learn a language. Its designed to be a fun and addicting experience, it also gives you immediate grading which is good compared to waiting for a grade to know what you have to improve on, wasting valuable learning time.

     

    Babbel costs money after the first course and memrise works with a subscription fee. The one drawback is that duolingo is inherently free, but you can only do so much of a course before you have to wait, unless you want to pay for duolingo plus which removes ads.

    All of the apps mentioned are best used as a supplement for language courses, as they are great at refreshing your pre acquired knowledge. But one big issue that they have been critiqued for is the lack of grammar learning. Grammar is especially important if you want to also learn how to write in the desired language. For example french and Norwegian grammar is very different, and a french speaking person might not know this and get a bad learning experience. But that does not mean you can’t learn grammar using these apps, it's just not going to be as quick and short as their other lessons as some grammar can be quite complicated and need exercises both verbally and written for you to fully understand it.

    All in all these apps are designed to be used for short periods of time when you find the time in an otherwise busy day.

  • Learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee

    Learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee

    Designmetoder Gruppe 23 - Publisert den oktober 28, 2019 av ludvigbh

    We wish to explore the situation that many refugees find themselves in when they come to a new country,  learning the language. Specifically for young adults above the age of 16 in Norway.

    These are the goals and questions we would like to be achieved and answered:

    Improve the process of learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee.

    How does it work today?

    How can we make it better?

    How can we support current solutions?

  • 2. Define research questions

    2. Define research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den oktober 9, 2019 av Benji

    For this assignment, we decided to use an affinity diagram to further explore our topic question, “how to make museums more attractive for students 18–25”. We chose this because we felt like this would be the most efficient method to use and would generate the best results. This method will also let our mind work more freely, which, eventually, lead us to look at our main problem from a different angle. The process of making an affinity diagram lets your brain run freely. Furthermore, it does not have any limitations, which ends up with the creation and discovery of new ideas that you may not have initially thought of. Since we already had collected the raw data from our literature search, expert interview, and culture probe, we can use the affinity diagram method.  

    To make an affinity diagram, we used an A2 paper and post-it notes in three different colors: green, purple and pink. We started with the green post-its, and wrote down the data from our literature search, expert interview, and culture probe. We wrote down words and phrases that can help us to synthesize our data. Afterwards, we randomly spread the green post-its on the A2 paper. We cam up with the following phrases:


    • Modern museums would be more attractive. 

    • Would go with school or family. 

    • Would not visit none interactive. 

    • Students would not follow on social media. 

    • Youth involved in museum planning. 

    • Usually visits museums when in other cities than their hometown. 

    • Would not visit old museums. 

    • Social media is the new way to learn, create, communicate and develop. 

    • Would like to be a part of the exhibit 

    • Visit science museum. 

    • Technology plays a big part in modern society. 

    • Building a digital database of information 

    • Promotes their museums om social media 

    • Museums use a lot of resource on social media marketing. 

    • Does not visit museums in hometown. 

    • Would visit museums on vacation. 


    Figure 1: The green post-it notes which contain data from our literature search, expert interview, and cultural probe



    After doing this, we started moving the green post-it notes around, made groups and looked for patterns. Next, we went over the post-its once more to see if the groups we had made were too large and to determine if we needed to separate them further into smaller and more defined groups. After we had placed all the notes into groups where we wanted them, we used the purple post-it notes to label the groups into the following:

    • Personal preference 

    • Involvement 

    • Where and who 

    • Digitizing 

    • Social media 


    Figure 2: Re-arranging the green post-it notes into groups



    Figure 3: Labeling the groups based on the aspects presented by each groups



    Afterwards, we used two or three phrases to describe the categories we have by using the pink post-its.

    Personal preference: 

    What the students would like to, and not like to visit. 

    If they like old or new museums. 

    Where and who: 

    Where they would like to visit the museums.

    If they would like to with family, school, or by themselves. 

    Involvement: 

    The student would like to be more involved.

    Being invited to the museums with either free or discounted entrance. 

    Digitizing: 

    Would like a more digitized and interactive museums.

    More technology. 

    Social media: 

    Museums uses a lot of recourses to promote themselves on social media.

    Student do not want to follow museums on social media. 



    Figure 4 & 5: Organizing and defining the groups



    Results 

    After using the method of affinity diagram, we reached to the conclusion that we would like to focus on the digitizing and technology aspects that museums either use or not use. When it comes to the use of social media, there were numerous pros and cons. Even though the museum uses social media active, the students would not like to follow the museums’ respective social media accounts. From our research from the culture probe, we found that the students would not like to visit the Fredriksten festing museum. So we want to focus on using technology like 3D, AR, VR or maybe hologram to make the museum more fun and attractive. After conducting the column in our affinity diagram, we saw that our digitizing group would give us most information for our new topic question.   

    We found a new topic question to work with: “How can the use of technology make Fredriksten festning museum more attractive for students between 18-25?”. This new topic was decided on during the process of making the affinity diagram. While we connected and grouped the different groups from the affinity diagram, we observed that students spend more time using technology, i.e., through their smart phones. We think it will be fun if we use technology like 3d, AR, VR or hologram to make the museum more up to date for the students. Consequently, we came up with the conclusion that if we could develop tools and art installations using available technology, it would greatly benefit the Fredriksten festning museum and their attractiveness for the visitors. With the constant development of the world of technology, it would be easy to use this as a tool which the museum can work with in the years to come.

    Our users need technology because it will make their experience at the museum Fredriksten festning more attractive and exciting. 

     

  • Generasjon Hæ? "Hvordan overleve intervju"

    Generasjon Hæ? "Hvordan overleve intervju"

    - Publisert den 25. oktober 2019 av intkomm

    Jentene fra Generasjon Hæ?

    Intervju kan være grusomt, men vi har overlevd to. Her har du noen tips til hvordan du skal takle ditt eget.






    Alise har vært på praksisintervju hos Grønn Jobb i Fredrikstad, mens Emma har vært på interesseintervju i en annen bedrift. Begge jentene endte med å få praksisplassene. Jentene kommer med gode tips til hvordan du kan forberede deg til jobbintervju. Blant annet er det viktig å være forberedt, og vite hva bedriften driver med. Du må også være forberedt på spørsmål som "fortell om deg selv", "hva er dine svake sider" og "hvorfor skal vi ansette deg". Til slutt forteller jentene hva de har gjort for å hjelpe miljøet siden sist.

  • Åpen fagfellevurdering: pros and cons

    Åpen fagfellevurdering: pros and cons

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 24. oktober 2019 av Øyvind Gjems Fjeldbu

    Fagfellevurdering er en veletablert metode for å kvalitetssikre vitenskapelige publikasjoner. Metoden ser ut til å ha fått sin spede begynnelse i medisinfaget på 1700-tallet, men siden den gang har den blitt mye mer spesialisert, og den brukes i dag innen de fleste fag. Ja, den utgjør så å si selve fundamentet for å kunne hevde med stor grad av sikkerhet at vi har med en god vitenskapelig publikasjon å gjøre!

    I mange år har fagfellevurderingen vært enten enkelt blind (forfatterne vet ikke hvem fagfellene er) eller dobbelt blind (verken forfatterne eller fagfellene kjenner hverandres identitet).

    Etter hvert som Open Science har vokst fram, har en tredje variant av fagfellevurderingen gjort seg gjeldende: innovasjonen åpen fagfellevurdering. Selv om denne nye formen for fagfellevurdering kan settes sammen på litt ulike måter og derfor kan få noe ulikt uttrykk, er det et par fellestrekk som går igjen:


    • Forfatterne og fagfellene kjenner hverandres identitet ('open identities').

    • Rapportene fra fagfellevurderingen offentliggjøres sammen med publikasjonene ('open reports').


    Er det noen fordeler med åpen fagfellevurdering? Tilhengerne hevder selvsagt at ja, fordelene kan være at

    • arbeidet som vitenskapelig ansatte legger ned som fagfeller, synliggjøres på en helt annen måte enn tidligere. Dette har jo som regel vært gratisarbeid, selv om det er prestisjefullt.

    • kvaliteten på det vitenskapelige arbeidet høynes i kraft av at fagfellevurderingen er åpen. Forfatter kan gå i dialog med fagfellene og diskutere åpent. Dette kan gjøre det enklere for tidsskriftredaksjoner å vurdere hva som er relevant kritikk og ikke.

    • selve publikasjonsprosessen åpnes opp, og de som er involvert, kan – gjennom å delta aktivt og diskutere fagfellevurderingene – få bedre innsikt i dens A–Å.


    Downsides? Vel, det er vel ganske åpenbart at en fagfellevurderingsprosess som åpner opp for direkte diskusjoner mellom forfattere og fagfeller, står i fare for å bli i overkant ineffektiv. Derfor kreves det mer innsats og nye innovasjoner innenfor dette segmentet av vitenskapelig publisering som kan gi grobunn for en god videreutvikling.

    • Tips om nyhetssak om åpen fagfellevurdering i Khrono her.

    • Tips til artikkel om dette temaet (der fagfellevurderingene også er publisert): Schmidt, B., Ross-Hellauser, T., van Hedig, X., Moylan, E.C. (2018). Ten considerations for open peer review. Published online 2018 Jun 29. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.15334.1


    Lisens: CC-BY-SA

  • 2. Define your research questions

    2. Define your research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av martho

    Which method we selected and why


    We used the affinity diagram method, because it seemed like the easiest and most structured way to organize our findings. Since we had a lot of information, the method made it easy to manage complexity and move the notes quickly. The affinity diagram also fosters collaboration within the group, where we can individually come up with ideas and then connect them afterwards. 

     

    How we applied the method selected


    First, we individually wrote down pieces of data on a mind-mapping website for about half an hour. In this part we went through our content (literature review, expert interviews, and cultural probes) and produced a list of the most important insights, such as words, phrases and sentences. When we came together as a group, we looked for natural groupings, patterns, and what categories these belonged to. We ended up with the main categories: parents, teachers, and both. Beneath these we placed the related data and after a period of reflection we grouped them into smaller groups. These were labeled: responsibility, needs, problems, and communication.



    The results of our Affinity Diagram




    In our diagram we have divided what's considered a parent's-, a teacher's, and both of their responsibilities regarding a child. This includes highlights such as a parent's responsibility for the child's upbringing; the teacher's responsibility for the child's education, and that they need to cooperate, be actively involved and responsible to positively affect the child's academic- and social life.

    The next category, called needs, addresses what our representative parents and teachers want when it comes to teacher-parent communication. From a parental perspective, they want a platform where they can share information, plus they want to reduce communication that is only initiated by a child's negative behavior. The teachers want to plan appointments beforehand, so they can understand the situation and therefor be prepared. They also want to only be contacted via their work phone, and not through a personal phone. A mutual want is more frequent and personal communication, to gather information about the child, and an easy way to share information.

    The communication category includes different used methods for teachers and parents to stay in contact. Because of our interviews and cultural probes, we could also include some thoughts and feelings attached to each method.

    After thoroughly analyzing the problem categories, there was one conflict in particular that stood out and piqued our interest. According to our research, there are disagreements between parents and teachers regarding time and availability. On one hand, parents would like more frequent communication, and even the possibility to contact teachers after their work hours. On another hand, teachers would like to use a work phone and keep the communication outside of work minimal. This is something we can keep in mind when thinking of a problem definition. 

     

    Our problem definition


    We have come to the conclusion that our problem definition will be: How can teachers and parents (who) communicate more frequently using a smart phone (what) without creating more workload for teachers (why). 

  • Hvilke tidsskrifter krever publiseringsavgift?

    Hvilke tidsskrifter krever publiseringsavgift?

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 23. oktober 2019 av Torunn Skofsrud Boger

    Selv om Open Access betyr at vitenskapelige artikler ligger åpent tilgjengelige, er det som regel ikke gratis å publisere i et Open Access-tidsskrift. For å få dekket utgiftene til publisering må forfattere ofte betale en publiseringsavgift eller APC (Article Processing Charge), som varierer fra tidsskrift til tidsskrift og fra utgiver til utgiver. En APC er en administrativ avgift som skal dekke redaksjonelle og tekniske prosesser knyttet til publiseringen, og har ingen sammenheng med copyright-rettigheter.

     DOAJ er et register som gir deg fri tilgang til fagfellevurderte, vitenskapelige Open Access-tidsskrifter fra flere land. Dette registeret gir også en oversikt over hvilke tidsskrifter som krever publiseringsavgift. Per i dag krever 3 695 av de 10 084 tidsskriftene registrert i DOAJ en eller annen form for APC.

     Ved HiØ har vi opprettet et eget fond der du kan søke midler til å dekke slike publiseringsavgifter. Les mer om publiseringsavgifter på www.openaccess.no.

     Det er etablert et Open APC-initiativ som jobber for å legge fram oversikter på institusjonsnivå over avgifter som betales til Open Access-tidsskrifter. I tråd med Open Science-tankegangen ønsker de å bidra til et mer transparent publiseringssystem, der opplysningene kan gjenbrukes og kvalitetssikre overgangen fra et abonnementsbasert marked til en Open Access-infrastruktur. 

     Skrevet av Kjell Erik Johnsen og Torunn Skofsrud Boger, biblioteket

  • 10 tips til Halloween-kostyme

    10 tips til Halloween-kostyme

    - Publisert den 22. oktober 2019 av intkomm

    Oktober eller Spooky Season som mange kaller det, er tiden for utkledning. Noen vil være søte, andre morsomme og noen vil rett og slett skremme. For meg er Halloween nesten mer hellig enn, tør jeg si det, jul. Som en selverklært (okei, andre har også sagt det) dramaqueen er det ingenting som er bedre enn et kostymeparty.


    Halden Studentsamfund skal arrangere Halloween-party fredag den 25. oktober. JEG VET! Det er ikke lenge til. I den anledning har jeg spurt noen venner fra BIK om tips til kostymer.


    1.  Deg selv, MEN død.




    Mange liker ikke å kle seg ut eller ønsker ikke å bruke mye tid på Halloween.

    Det eneste du trenger til dette kostymet er:

    • Klær (DUH!)

    • Falskt blod (Dette kan kjøpes på Nille, Flying tiger eller hvilken som helst lekebutikk)

    • Hvit maling (kan også kjøpes på nevnte butikker)


     


    1. Disney-Villains, men gjør det moderne!




    Jeg hadde tenkt til å foreslå hvilken som helst Disneykarakter, men vi vet alle at Ursula slår Ariel any day.



    Her er noen tips til Disney-Villains:

    • Ursula

    • Jafar

    • Hans (Kanskje den slemmeste av dem alle?)

    • Cruella De Ville

    • Maleficent

    • Hades

    • Gaston (Han er så stor, mørk, sterk og kjempekjekk)


     

     


    1. Jobb-Zombie




    Har vennene dine sagt du jobber for mye? Hvorfor ikke kombinere dette med et kostyme?

    Alt du trenger er:

    • Businessklær

    • Zombiesminke (Nille, Flying tiger og lekebutikken)

    • Fake blod


     


    1. E-Girl/Boy (TikTok Teens)




    For hva er vel ikke mer skummelt for den eldre generasjon enn den yngre?


    1. Galaksen




    Kle deg i svarte klær med glitter i ulike farger og vips, der var galaksen!

    Glitter kan man kjøpe så å si overalt, men til ansiktet anbefaler jeg glitter fra NYX.

    • Panduro har også mye glitter om du vil pynte klærne dine, også.




    1. Gruppekostyme




    Gruppekostyme er alltid en sikker vinner. Hva er vel Regina George uten sine lakeier?

    Her er noen tips til enkle gruppekostymer:

    • Mean Girls

    • Kim Possible og gjengen (Militærbukser ble jo så trendy, du må jo kjenne noen som har det?)

    • Salt og pepper (Gå i hvite og svarte klær og skriv S og P på en t-skjorte)

    • The Breakfast Club (Om dere gjør dette, vær så snill og lag sluttscene. Den er ikonisk)

    • Josie and The Pussycats (Fra Riverdale, ikke lat som om du ikke ser på det. Vi er alle hekta)

    • Grease




    1. Nightmare Before Christmas




    Dette er kanskje et mer komplisert antrekk. Jeg lover dere, om du vil så blir dette så kult.
    Jeg og venninna mi var Jack Skellington og Sally.

    Dette er hva du trenger til Jack:

    • Blazer

    • Skjorte

    • Svart bukse

    • Hvit og svart maling


    Dette er hva du trenger til Sally:

    • Rød parykk eller spray som går bort i vask

    • Blå strømpebukse

    • Fargerik kjole

    • Blå maling


     


    1. Kjendiser




    Kjendiser er veldig lette å etterligne, men sørg for at du velger en som har en typisk stil.

    Noen lette kostymer for kjendiser er:

    • Freddie Mercury

    • Ariana Grande

    • Lady Gaga (For kun den ene av hundre i rommet begynte å tro på henne)

    • Harry Styles

    • David Bowie

    • Britney Spears

    • En avdanket boyband-stjerne?


     


    1. Spøkelse




    Denne er så lett at hvem som helst kan få den til, alt du trenger er et hvitt laken.

    Om du ønsker å være mer avansert, hva med å kle seg ut fra 1800-tallet eller tidligere i tillegg?

    Eller hvilket som helst annet år for den saks skyld.

    Alt du trenger er:

    • Klær som viser til tiden du hører til

    • Hvit og svart maling


     


    1. The Decade




    Kle deg ut som et tiår. Mange liker å kle seg ut som fitnesskvinner fra 80-tallet, men det er ingenting galt med å skru det tilbake til de glade 20-årene eller det mørke og grunge 90-tallet

    Det som er så bra med dette antrekket er at trender går igjen, så man vil finne kostymer i alle slags vanlige butikker som:

    • H&M

    • BikBok

    • Weekday

    • Fretex

    • Carlings


     

    God Halloween!🎃

     

    Med kjærlig hilsen fra the Spooky Queen👻

    Emma

     

     

    Skrevet av Emma Østvik, med hjelp fra Anniken Heimstøl, Iselin Chantelle Karlsen og Alise Zachrisson


     

     

  • Generating ideas

    Generating ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den oktober 22, 2019 av cmjensse

    We started our IDEATE process with going back to our empathy stage and looking at the problems, and the problem statement we ended up with in our previous task. We then brainstormed using the ‘How Might We’ technique for half an hour. One of the students in our group wrote all of our HMW’s ideas up on the blackboard.





    After our half an hour was up, we moved on to brainstorming possible digital solutions for our ‘HMW’-questions. We spent an hour on this stage. We then voted on our three favorite solutions. These ideas were the ones that got the most votes:


    • Control interface that let teacher turn on and off and assign app access

    • Use more playful apps in teaching, like Minecraft

    • AI that guide pupils to relevant apps and help pupils stay focused


     

    Brainstorming: 


    HMW improve pupils focus?

    HMW make pupils stay on task?

    HMW remove distractions?

    HMW improve benefits of iPad?

    HMW make the apps feel more exciting? 

    HMW make iPads more controllable?

    HMW let teachers assign apps?

    HMW improve collaboration?

    HMW make communication more efficient?

    HMW block distractive website?

    HMW avoid pupils watching each others screen?

    HMW let pupils help each other to avoid distractions?

    HMW make school the favorite part of the day?

    HMW make learning more playful?

    HMW make the teacher more interesting?

    HMW create rewards for completing task?

    HMW make it more rewarding to stay on task?

    HMW the distractions as motivation?

     

    Possible digital solutions for our ‘HMW’-questions:


    Integrated screen(iPad) in each desk, remote controlled by teacher.

    Control interface that let tacher turn on and off, and assign app access.

    Autonome robots that distribute and collect iPads. They also control pupils use and report violations.

    Reward program for pupils that follow teachers instructions. 

    Use more playful apps in teaching, like Minecraft.

    AI that guide pupils to relevant apps and help pupils stay focused.

    Filter for web-browsing that teacher can control.

    Involve pupils more in development of learning apps.

    Implement elements from popular games in learning. Make educational apps in collaboration with game designers.

    Promote and facilitate more collaboration between pupils. 

    Privacy filter on all screens.

  • Egenarkivering i Brage

    Egenarkivering i Brage

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 22. oktober 2019 av Torunn Skofsrud Boger

    Egenarkivering i Brage

    Forskere som publiserer artikler med offentlig finansiering, skal i følge nasjonale retningslinjer gjøre artiklene sine åpent tilgjengelige. Vanligvis har forfatterne mulighet for å egenarkivere artikler i et åpent vitenarkiv ved sin institusjon etter avtale med tidsskriftforlaget. Enten kan det være mulig å arkivere en post-print versjon av artikkelen. Dette er den aksepterte fagfellevurderte versjonen av artikkelen, siste versjon før publisering, uten forlagets formatering/layout. Eller det kan være tillatt å arkivere forlagets publiserte versjon. Dette er den endelige versjonen av artikkelen, med forlagets formatering/layout og sidetall. Det er inngått nasjonale avtaler som innebærer at flere forlag tillater egenarkivering av publiserte artikler. Hvis HIØs forskere publiserer i tidsskrifter som ikke omfattes av de nasjonale avtalene, kan det søkes om støtte til åpen publisering, slik at den publiserte artikkelen kan egenarkiveres.

    Hvorfor egenarkivere

    Ved HIØ heter det åpne vitenarkivet Brage. Egenarkivering i Brage sikrer at artikler blir lagret for framtiden. Det fører også til at institusjonen har et arkiv over sin samlede forskningsproduksjon. Artikler som er arkivert i Brage, blir søkbare i Oria. Artiklene vil være synlige og tilgjengelige for alle.

    Hvordan egenarkivere

    Arkivering i Brage foregår via CRIStin. Etter at artikler er registrert i CRIStin, kan de lastes opp og leveres inn i Brage. Alle bibliografiske opplysninger som er registrert i CRIStin, følger automatisk med artikkelen over i Brage. Forfatterne kan laste opp og levere artikkelen selv, eller biblioteket kan hjelpe og veilede. Når artikler er lastet opp og levert til Brage, kontrollerer biblioteket at alle tillatelser er i orden før artikkelen blir åpent tilgjengelig.

    Ta gjerne kontakt med biblioteket hvis du har spørsmål eller ønsker hjelp til egenarkivering i Brage.

    Skrevet av Hanne Dybvik og Tatiana Volkova, biblioteket



     

  • 1.2 Expert Interview

    1.2 Expert Interview

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 27/09/2019 av gotu

    Intervjuet vårt ble holdt på engelsk, og her og ved Cultural Probe kommer vi til å skrive på engelsk med hensyn til internasjonale forhold.

    1. Who was interviewed?
    Nikolina Petrović - a teacher.

    2. Where was the interview conducted?
    In Halden.

    3. How was the interview conducted?
    By phone.


    4. What was the theme (s) of the interview?

    Digital media in schools, how they use it and predictions for the future.

    5. Why was the theme (s) chosen?

    This is what we were interested in after the literature review.

    6. Questions

    1. Whats your name?
    2. How old are you?
    3. Where are you from?
    4. How long have you been a teacher?
    5. Tell me quickly about yourself?
    6. What are your thoughts about using only books and a blackboard to teach?
    7. In which subjects do you think the kids will get most out of digital learning?
    8. How do you imagine the future of learning will look?
    9. Do you think your school should invest in more digital units for digital learning?
    10. Would you tell someone to look something up in a book or on the internet, if you were unsure of the answer?
    11. What do you think is important if you are to make a digital learning platform for kids?
    12. How would you use digital media in your classroom?
    13. Did you ever use digital media in your school for learning?
    14. How did the children react, was it successful?
    15. Have you taught the children about internet safety?
    16. What is your biggest concern of using digital media in your classroom?
    17. How do you suggest schools should approach this issue?
    18. Do you think schools are moving in the right direction?
    19. Why do you not support twitter and Instagram?

    7. Transcription

     

    1. Whats your name?

    Nikolina Petrović

    2. How old are you?

    Twenty-four

    3. Where are you from?

    Serbia

    4. How long have you been a teacher?

    Two years

    5. Tell me quickly about yourself?

    I finished a five-year master's degree as a teacher, at the teacher's education faculty. Before I studied at the gymnasium and chose mathematical direction, instead of language. I was also replacing teachers as an assistant at one point. I have known of this type of job as a teacher since I was born since my mother is also a teacher. It has let me know more in advance of entering the occupation than if I were to not have known anything of it prior to studying it.

    Currently I am educating children aged seven years, and I am appreciating the opportunity to do so.

    6. What are your thoughts about using only books and a blackboard to teach?

    I support that, the books are the source of knowledge. If you’re asking me blackboard is much better than a whiteboard, because writing with a chalk is better as its much softer, whilst a marker is more slippery on the surface.

    7. In which subjects do you think the kids will get most out of digital learning?

    Native Language, maths, science and nature, music.

    8. How do you imagine the future of learning will look?

    Kids will not improve, they will regress intellectually, and motor skills will deteriorate. They will improve their English and know more about technology than everyone else before them. Books will have more simple material in them which will be harder for the kids to learn from. Everything they will learn will be reduced because they’re regressing intellectually.

    9. Do you think your school should invest in more digital units for digital learning?

    Yes, I think so all through the entire country, but also elsewhere. The kids should have access to the digital learning platforms at home as well, so they can always have the ability to learn in their free time as well.

    10. Would you tell someone to look something up in a book or on the internet, if you were unsure of the answer?

    I’d tell them to look it up in a book, because the internet is full of misinformation. Wikipedia should be banned from learning, due to it not being a secure and reliable source. For videos I’d use the internet to find material.

    11. What do you think is important if you are to make a digital learning platform for kids?

    The teachers need to be educated in using the platform, which in my country requires English knowledge. It would be good to have instructions about the platforms the teacher can use, but the best solution would be to have one platform for every country that needs to be upgraded with the program of education. Digital platforms should be based on the law, for educational programs of every cycle in the school.

    12. How would you use digital media in your classroom?

    I would use it for introductory activities, in systematization. Also, to raise interest in the classroom for the new lessons. I would use it for video and music, maybe educational games. There is not a lot of educational games in Serbian, and the ones that are available are poorly developed.

    13. Did you ever use digital media in your school for learning?

    Yes, I did, I used YouTube and educational games in English (that I translated to the students in Serbian). I was using digital media for interactive teaching, where they get the info they need from the internet and from the “checked sites”, the sites where the info is verified by the teachers prior to the students going there themselves.

    14. How did the children react, was it successful?

    The kids liked it when the teaching was different from the usual type, they also liked when they explored by themselves. It was successful.

    15. Have you taught the children about internet safety?

    No, I have not cause I’m the one that’s controlling their web searches as for now. I also think that’s something they should learn when they reach the age of nine, or ten. Then I would do it cause that’s when they start to use their own computers.

    16. What is your biggest concern of using digital media in your classroom?

    I’m concerned the digital media will replace the books, which the ministry of education science and technological development is trying to implement in the educational system.

    Teaching would get poorer, and more miserable, and motor skills would not be developed properly, and some classes such as music, art and physical education cannot be properly learned over digital media. Also, my biggest concern, is that the programs are not very well developed. So, then advertisements can pop out as for example inappropriate ads on YouTube.

    17. How do you suggest schools should approach this issue?

    Improve the program without any glitches, and digital medias shouldn’t push away the books.

    18. Do you think schools are moving in the right direction?

    Schools are not moving in the right direction; they are moving backwards. The schools are implementing new programs and are not educating teachers for it, and all the teachers get the blame for not teaching the kids properly.

    How can the elementary schools use modern children (social) media usage to improve the everyday classroom experience?

    I don’t support Twitter, and I wouldn’t use Instagram. I would make more like a blog, that will show children´s work, and their improvement throughout the years. But the internet is never secure.

    19. Why do you not support twitter and Instagram?

    There are different types of people on Instagram, pedophiles and such. Also, for the kids work to be shown, the child’s account would have to be public. Their location, how they look, so there is a big risk for pedophiles to find the children and contact them.

    Facebook would be good, because you can choose the people who can read your page, and who you want to share it with. I’d probably have the children make a blog instead, if not I would have them write on paper. For example, have the children make a class newspaper every month.

     

    8. Analysis and summary of findings with quotes

    We wanted to get an idea of how the schools are using digital media today and if they think this is a good thing or a bad thing.

    She thinks that the future of learning will make the kids better in terms of technology and language but that they will regress intellectually, because she predicts that the content in the books will be way to simple and make it harder for the children to understand. She also says that books are the way to go for looking up information because the Internet is free-for-all when it comes to publish information and therefore is not a reliable source.

    After the literature review, our research showed that schools that are using digital media and modern technology doesn't provide enough education for the teachers in charge of it, as Nikolina also describes this after we asked if the schools were moving in the right direction.

    "Schools are not moving in the right direction, they are moving backwards. The schools are implementing new programs and are not educating teachers for it, and all the teachers get the blame for not teaching the kids properly."

     

     

  • 2. Define your research questions

    2. Define your research questions

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 15/10/2019 av gotu

     


    • Hvilke metoder har vi brukt og hvorfor? 



    • Vi valgte Affinity Diagram som vår metode denne gangen. Vi evaluerte hvilke metoder som ville gi oss det beste svaret i vår undersøkelse. Affinity Diagrammet var mest oversiktliggitt oss mulighet med å kartlegge over neste steg i prosessen. Vi føltes som det beste valget til å finne kontekst mellom våre samlede post-its. Digitale post-its naturligvis, for å spare på miljø. Fordi vi ønske å redde Amazonas like mye som nestemann. 

       

    • Hvordan brukte vi metodene som var valgt? 

    • Først skrev vi digitale post-it notes ved hjelp av en nettside, her skrev vi forskjellige utfordringer, fordeler, og potensielle løsninger. Dette ble gjort i omtrent i en halv time. Så gikk vi gjennom post-it’ene og plasserte de i grupper samt slo sammen de idéene som var like. 



    • Resultatet av afinity”-diagrammet, empatikartet, eller innholdsanalysen 






    • Kartet ga oss en visuell representasjon av våre tanker rundt temaet vi hadde valgt. Vi idémyldret og kom fram til at det er tre hovedgrupper i post-it´ene som er underliggende “barn og digitale læringsplattformer”. Første var utfordringer; mest knyttet til barns evne til å kunne bruke digitale verktøy på en god og effektiv måte, så vel som voksnes kompetansenivå til å lære bort til barna. Den andre gruppen var positive sider relatert til utfordringen, vi tok det viktigste fra idémyldringen og matchet det med hvilken utfordring vi kom fram til. Den tredje er konstruktive områder relatert til begge, hvilke mulige løsninger som kan implementeres og hvor det er rom for forbedring. 


     

    • En klar definisjon av problemet som vi vil jobbe med fra nå av (logically deriving from the results of the methods presented above) 


    Etter idémyldringen kom vi fram til at vi videre vil utforske hvordan kan barneskole-elever utnytte digital kompetanse i klasserommet? 

     

     

  • Cultural Probes

    Cultural Probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av cmjensse

    The users for our probes are 5th grade pupils at Bogstad skole in Oslo. We also included a probe meant for teachers at the same school. Together these two user groups could give us valuable insight into how iPads are being used in education and how it affects communication flow in the classroom. We chose Bogstad skole because it is one of the schools in Norway with most experience using iPads in education. We made an appointment with the headmaster Karoline Hoel who we also met when we delivered the porbes at school.

    Bogstad skole in Oslo where we handed out our probes.



    The goal of our cultural probes were to get feedback from both teachers and pupils on their experience using iPads at school. How does it affect their communication and what are the benefits and challenges? We also wanted to know if they had any ideas on improvements.
    We designed our probes to be an easy, interactive and playful method for the kids to give us information about their user experience. We made a scrapbook for them to draw and use clip art to express themselves. With the freedom they get from drawing the keywords sets the subject matter. In that way they could share how they see the iPad as a tool for learning in their “own language” while we still get relevant information. For the teachers we created a simple word cloud with keyword from our interview. The teachers were encouraged to comment on the keywords they felt most relevant for them. In this way it felt more inviting and free than a questionnaire. We also included a chocolate treat for the teachers.

    All the teachers at this school is iPad certified. They have to do a online course where they get insight into the different solutions available.


      Our probes consisted of:
    • Two mailboxes with customized top. One for the teachers and one for the pupils. The mailbox for the teachers had more information about our project and described what we wanted them to do. The box for the kids were simpler and with less information.

    • For the kids: An envelope containing; A scrapbook with a front page where we described two simple tasks we wanted them to do. The second page was page with emojis they could use and two blank pages for 1) expressing what they liked/disliked about iPads and 2) drawing/writing they're app-idea. The probeds also included laminated keywords carefully selected for them to use in their scrapbook.

    • Empty iPad with a word cloud inviting the teachers to comment words they felt most relevant and/or they had an opinion about.
      Chocolate treat for the teachers. We put this, and the pages with word cloud, inside the mailbox.


    Her are pictures of our probes:

    The way the probes were delivered to the school. Two "mailboxes".



    Scrapbook for the pupils:

    Front page of the scrapbook for the pupils



    Emojis for the pupils to express themselves.



    The first "assignment" for the kids. Whats good and bad about using iPads in school?



    The second "assignment". Whats your app idea?



    Wordcloud the teachers:

    Wordcloud for the teachers. They were asked to comment the keywords they felt most relevant for them.



    Result of the scrapbook:

    Good/bad:

    All the answers from the pupils first assignment. We read through and found what was the most supprising and gave us insight.



    App idea:

    All the answers from the pupils second assignment. Not many had a idea but the once who did is represented here. We read through and made comments.



    Result from the teachers:

    All the answers from the teachers. A total of 13 teachers answered. We read through and found what was the most supprising and gave us insight.

  • Define your research questions

    Define your research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 3 - Publisert den oktober 14, 2019 av idamle

    We chose to work with an affinity diagram, because we thought that it would provide the best help in defining our research questions. It is a great method to discover similarities in our data, and to best group them together and understand our data.

    We also chose the affinity diagram because it seemed the most fun activity for our group to do together.

    We split up the data from our blog between us, and each and one of us wrote down some interesting points on our post it notes. We put all the post it notes in a big pile and started putting them down while using the floor as our surface. We followed the method of placing first down one post it, and then when we placed the next, we asked our self the question “is this similar, or different?” This really helped in grouping them together.

    We found that a lot of our data was similar to each other, and we ended up with three groups. Student behavior, information flow, and available information. It gave us a clear picture of our data and made it very easy for us to find a definition of the problem.

    We have found through this process that students don´t know how to manage their budgets and need help with this. There is a lot of information available for the students, but the information is not reaching them.

    Our users need help with managing their budgets, and their savings, because they don´t know how to do this themself.

    Onward we want to explore what we can do for these students, and how we can help them in managing their budgets.

    How can we help students with changing their behavoiur, and reach their budget goals?

     




     

     

  • 3.1 Generating Ideas

    3.1 Generating Ideas

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den oktober 17, 2019 av Mohamed

    We generated different ideas based on our problem statement from the define assignment. Some of the ideas were also generated based on an exercise in one of Klaudia’s lessons. The brainstorming method was used to generate these ideas.

    One of the members of the group was chosen to be the designated leader for the brainstorming activity. After that the group generated a HMW (how might we) question based on the problem statement from last assignment. The HMW question generated was the following: How might we make students at Østfold University College feel more included in real life socialising? 

    The designated leader was responsible to write down the different ideas which the group came up with on sticky notes. Once all the ideas were written down and visible for the group, we discussed in plenum about which of the ideas were the most rational one, the most delightful one as well as the long shot choice. We felt that using the “Four Categories Method” alone didn’t help us with the idea selection. Because of this we ended up using the post-it voting method, so the designated leader set a 5 minute time limit for all of the members to vote on the different ideas individually.

    The group sat down with each of their own blank post-it notes where they numbered the top 4 ideas of all the generated ideas by using points from 4 to 1 individually. 4 points was given to the most liked idea. After this the members gathered again and wrote their numbers down on the post-it notes with the ideas so everyone could see each others votes. After that the votes were counted up, and one of the ideas was chosen as the winner. The 3 ideas that received the most points were a calendar, an app and a diary. 

    Please visit link for better quality (https://imgur.com/a/xtSoSRM)



     

    Our first idea was to have a physical diary. In this diary students could write different social events that would happen during the week. This diary could be located at a place where it would be easily accessible for every student. This idea received 4 points in total. 

    Our second idea was to make an app for keeping track over different social events. Each student could create their own event (using their student ID to log in) which would then be visible for all other students. One would later be able to change or delete their own event, however they can only do this for events that they created themselves. This idea received 8 points and was close to winning, but we thought that going for an app would be boring, and we didn’t want to limit ourselves to an app. We wanted to think outside the box, to avoid the Man with the Hammer Syndrome.

    Our third idea is kind of a combination of our first two ideas, in the fact that it is an overview of all social activities happening around the school area, where every student can create their own events. The idea was to use TV screens to display a calendar which would be easily visible all around campus. An iPad is connected to the screens, this is used to register events. A student would scan his/her student ID to log in, they would then be greeted by the first screen where you could choose to add an event or view an existing event in more detail. If you choose to create an event you are presented with the options of choosing a category, location and date/time. This idea received 12 votes in total and won the voting, which resulted in a new and final problem statement. The new statement is as follows:

    How can a local calendar help students at Østfold University College to feel more included in real life socializing?

  • 1.3 Cultural probes

    1.3 Cultural probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den oktober 8, 2019 av Tora Magnusson

    1: Describing your cultural probe package (involve pictures).

    What was the goal of the probe? Who are the users?
    The users who received the probes were young adults between the age of 18-25. The goal of the cultural probes were to gather data, feelings and thoughts about the negative sides of online communication from our findings from the literature research and expert interview. The three negative sides from our literature review and interview were about bullying/harassment, addiction and loneliness.

    How you thought the probe would help you achieve the goal?

    The different probes were designed based on our probe goal above. The probes would help us achieve the goal by gathering the probe takers’ thoughts and feelings regarding the different negative sides of online communication. This is possible by having part of the probes as open answers, were the probe takers can share exactly what they want.

    Describe the probe artifacts and tasks

    Since our probes were all about the negative sides of online communication, we wanted to give the probe takers positive feelings and thoughts as well. Therefore we included candy such as caramel, gum and pastilles in the different probes, and wrote positive words and possibilities of socializing via technology on the different containers. 

    In our first probe we had two different parts on each side of the paper. Part one included different icons for different social media, and asked our probe taker to rank these in their own order considering which platform has the most bullying & harassment in their opinion. The probe taker could rank the worst social media with most bullying and harassment in their opinion with a 1, all the way up to the social media they felt includes the least amount of bullying and harassment with a 6. 

    Part two of the first probe included 3 different text messages with increasing levels of bullying and harassment. The probe takers were asked to share their feelings about these 3 messages, as well as how they would react if they themselves received these messages.
    At the end of this part we asked the probe takers to write their own example of a text message that they experienced as bullying/harassment.

    The second probe includes a picture of one handcuffed to a mobile phone, which is a symbol for addiction. The probe taker was asked to write down his or her thoughts and feelings about the picture, and what they thought the picture symbolized. We also asked the probe taker to use his or her phone and navigate through to the time usage section within the options, and select the last 7 or 10 days (depending on Android or iOS). The probe takers would then write down the 5 most used apps the last 7/10 days, as well as their time usage for the individual apps, for example: Snapchat - 37 hours.
    At the end of the probe we included an open question asking what they felt about these numbers, and if they were surprised or shocked.

    The third probe was formed as a diary, and it was a way to measure loneliness/isolation on a very small scale. The probe takers were asked to write down who they talked to either face to face or via phone calls everyday for 3 days in a row. If they didn’t talk to anyone in person or via phone calls, we asked them to note that down, and why they didn’t talk with anyone during a whole day.

    Our probes:


    Please visit the following link for better quality of the images - imgur.com/a/RwKuYfD



    2: Show with pictures examples of the answers that you got for each cultural probes in the package


    Please visit the following link for better quality of the following images of the results - imgur.com/a/Hlw4dsE


     

    3: What was most insightful or inspirational, and what suprised you the most?

  • 2. Define your research questions

    2. Define your research questions

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den oktober 10, 2019 av Mohamed


    • Which method you select and why (use arguments from the lectures)



    We decided to use the method with an affinity diagram as it was the best solution for our problem, because an affinity diagram is open and lets us share what the different group members think of the topic question. Affinity diagram makes it easier to discover relationships among our ideas and to recognise their similarities.

    An empathy map could also be used as a method for defining the problem statement, but that method focuses more on the user him/herself.

     

    • How you applied the method selected (read carefully the slides and the procedures for each of the methods)


     

    First we agreed on our question for the Affinity diagram, which ended up being: What can be improved with online socializing among young adults?

    When we had our question set, we started writing down some pieces of data on our computers individually. We wrote down words and sentences that answered the set topic question. After that we gathered and shared our pieces of data with each other. Some of our ideas were similar and these got grouped together. Eventually we ended with seven different groups of ideas.

    The next thing we did was putting a label on each group. Then we developed a new card on each group/category with a short description about each group’s content. Finally we put everything in a document in an online mapping tool (Lucidchart), and we included name, description and individual content elements as seen below.

    Our affinity diagram:

    Please visit link for better quality (https://imgur.com/a/l6tzSjH):

     



     

    • The result of your affinity diagram or empathy map or content analysis (include the graphic representation for each of the methods chosen)


    The groups we ended up with in our affinity diagram were bullying, anonymity, curiosity, addiction, loneliness, security and pressure. Each of these categories had their own ideas or data pieces. 

    What we found out after creating our affinity diagram was that it’s very easy to bully others as you can’t see their faces in real life. To prevent online bullying, one could add a built-in filter on the different social medias and platforms that gives a warning or deletes a comment or message if it’s includes certain words or sentences that may be offensive to someone.

    Another thing we found out from our diagram was that we think it is too easy to be anonymous online, because of the possibility of having a fake name with nothing attached to your profile. Therefore it should be more strict requirements when registering a new account for different social platforms, for example by having to link your profile with bankID. In this way, all profiles are linked with the ID of real persons.

    Further in to the diagram we wrote about stalking and how it is easy to find information about someone while stalking across several platforms. This could in the worst case scenarios lead to blackmailing of the victims.

    With all the technology today it is very easy to become addicted, and spend several hours a day using technology. It is also easy to feel lonely, because one may sit home alone chatting with someone online which result in less face-to-face-interaction. 

    The development of technology has also made it difficult to secure all your data online and control who sees it.

    Social media as a part of online socializing today contribute on making body, shopping and popularity pressure. Therefore, among other things, it shouldn’t be allowed arranging competitions to get more followers when this only contributes to making pressure on having as many followers as possible. 

     

    • A clear definition of the problem that you will work with from now on (logically deriving from the results of the methods presented above)


    When reading this last task, we were unsure what problem we wanted to work with from now on. Therefore we made an illustration of all the positive and negative sides we got from our literature search, expert interview and cultural probes about our topic. 

    Our illustration:

    Please visit the following link for better quality (imgur.com/9BlQWsQ.png)



    Here we looked into if we got any conflicts between our data collected from the literature search, interview and probes. The only conflict we found were that loneliness fitted in both negative and positive sides, as the data found in the literature research about loneliness said one thing, and the interviewee said the opposite. On the other hand we wanted to find a problem that we knew we could come up with a solution for. Therefore we ended up choosing online bullying and isolation among students as our main problems. Therefore our problem statement is as follows:


    How can a technological solution help students at Østfold University College to feel more included in real life socializing? (see the end of blogpost "3.1 Generating Ideas" for updated problem statement)

  • Probes

    Probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den oktober 15, 2019 av tadaso

    La ut ein Powerpoint som skal vise alle probsa våre som ble utført av Studentane som bor på Ringveien 3.

    https://hiof-my.sharepoint.com/:p:/g/personal/tadaso_hiof_no/Ea2un0LdzwJCihVJ4ztUZacBxH8tz3RNEq8aLlOBsM9wiw?e=a509PL

    her er linken, får håpe alle kan se den. Viss ikke kan vi fikse det på en annen måte.

  • Livet på 10 kvadrat

    Livet på 10 kvadrat

    - Publisert den 15. oktober 2019 av intkomm

    Alise bodde i åttemannskollektiv i halvannet år og storkoste seg. I åttemannsboligene deler to-og-to bad, mens alle deler kjøkken. Det funker veldig bra, siden det er to fullt fungerende komfyrer med stekeplater.

    -Jeg opplevde aldri noe kø på kjøkkenet. Siden vi “bare” var åtte stykker, var det veldig lett å bli kjent med hverandre. Vi hadde stadig vekk spillekvelder eller filmkvelder hvor vi bare chilla sammen. Naboene syntes også det var greit med vors, så lenge man oppførte seg som mennesker, sier Alise.

    Alise har vært på utveksling i Australia, og flyttet inn i 16-mannskollektiv da hun kom tilbake.

    - Nå har jeg mitt eget bad med inngang fra rommet og jeg eeeelsker det. Likevel blir kjøkkenet litt lite siden vi fremdeles bare har to komfyrer på deling, sier hun.

    Bilde av jentegjengen, utkledd til halloween

    Gjengen kledde seg ut som Addams family for Halloween-festen, arrangert på skolen.



     

    Daniela har også bodd i åttemannskollektiv i halvannet år, men flyttet inn i en av parleilighetene etter utvekslingsopphold i Newcastle. Det har ført til både små og store forandringer i hverdagen.

    -Det positive med å bo i kollektiv var at alle var med på å spleise på ting og dele på ansvaret i fellesområdet, noe som gjorde det litt enklere økonomisk og gjorde at man fikk bedre samhold (så lenge alle var med på det så klart). Der delte vi også kjøkken, men to-og-to delte bad. Det er det som er litt deilig med parleilighet nå, at jeg har eget kjøkken og bad. Det gir mye mer frihet, sier Daniela.

    Hovedforskjellen mellom kollektiv og egen leilighet er at det i kollektiv kan være enklere å delta i sosiale aktiviteter. Dette er jo spesielt viktig hvis man er ny student og ønsker å bli kjent med medstudenter. Men, selvfølgelig, hvis man foretrekker å bo alene eller med færre personer, så har man mulighet til det.

    Felles for alle som bor på Remmen, er at de synes det er lett å bli med på fester siden det stadig vekk skjer noe. Blant annet er det en egen gruppe på Facebook for alle som bor på Remmen og Stadion – der blir det stadig lagt ut hva som skjer og hvor ting skjer! Halden Studentsamfund (HSS) arrangerer ofte quizer og semesterfester rett ved studentboligene, samt at det finnes mange klubber og foreninger. Det er altså ekstra mye liv i kollektivene på disse kveldene. HSS har også flere klubber du kan bli medlem av. Alt i alt er det aldri et kjedelig øyeblikk når man bor på Remmen.

     

    Skrevet av Daniela Dahle og Alise Zachrisson 


     

  • Empathy map

    Empathy map

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den oktober 14, 2019 av kmkarlse

    We selected Empathy map because we want to know what det users emotions are and how they can help make a better product. With the help of what the users feel. 

    We used pictures of people that were injured and not injured by e-scooter driving and its environment to learn what people from the outside would feel from what experiences they see have happened to other people and maybe they have some insights themselves about e-scooters.  

    Generally e-scooters are a health hazard witch we have learned from our user interview and expert interview, and they are a environmental danger because they break often and the batteries don’t last very long so the e-scooters often need repairs and often cheaper to make new once than fix the broken once.

     

       

  • Hvordan kan HiØ lykkes med offentlig ph.d. prosjekter?

    Hvordan kan HiØ lykkes med offentlig ph.d. prosjekter?

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 11. oktober 2019 av Ivan Dragicevic

    Det er mange muligheter å øke forskningsaktivitet på HiØ. I begynnelsen av oktober fikk jeg flere forespørsler om hvordan kan HiØ lykkes i offentlig sektor-ph.d. prosjekter. Fra utlysningstekst på NFR nettsider offentlig ph.d. beskrives på følgende måte:

    «Arbeidsgivere i offentlig sektor kan søke ordningen Offentlig sektor-ph.d. for ansatt som skal gjennomføre et doktorgradsprosjekt. Prosjektet må være relevant for virksomhetens ansvarsområde.»

    Mål er at doktorgradsprosjektet skal være relevant for virksomhetens ansvarsområde og bygge kunnskap og kompetanser som er relevant og viktig for videre utkiling for den offentlige virksomheten.

    Det kan søkes om støtte til tre eller fire år prosjekter. Et offentlig sektor-ph.d.-prosjekt er et samarbeid mellom tre parter: den offentlige virksomheten, en gradsgivende institusjon og kandidaten. Hvordan kan HiØ, som er ikke gradsgivende institusjon per i dag, inkluderes i et offentlig ph.d. prosjekt?

    Svaret på forrige spørsmål ligger i veiledningskompetanse og god kontakt med offentlige virksomheter. Hvis du er FoU ansatt på HiØ som har god publiseringsløp og kjenner noen som jobber i offentlig sektor som har lyst å ta doktorgrad i samme fagområde du har også kompetanse i, da kan veilederrolle i offentlig ph.d. være aktuelt for deg. De fleste gradsgivende institusjoner er åpent for samarbeid og det kreves ikke at hovedveileder må være ansatt på gradsgivende institusjon.

    Det er viktig å påpeke at et offentlig sektor-ph.d.-prosjekt gir også virksomheten mulighet til å etablere eller videreutvikle et verdifullt samarbeid med relevante fagmiljøer ved Høgskolen i Østfold.

    NFR offentlig ph.d. program kan dekke opp til 50 % av totale kostander knyttet til doktorgradsprosjektet.

    Ikke nøl med å ta kontakt med forskningsenheten hvis du har planer/ideer for deltagelse i et offentlig ph.d. prosjekt.

  • Hvorfor din nettprofil er så viktig

    Hvorfor din nettprofil er så viktig

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 10. oktober 2019 av Solveig Kristine Østby Vitanza

    Alle ansatte på HiØ har sin egen personprofil som dere selv har ansvar for å vedlikeholde, både på norsk og engelsk. Som forsker ved HiØ er din egen personpresentasjon et viktig ansikt utad. Denne siden er ofte et av de første treffene hvis noen googler deg - så vær strategisk med din side.


    Hvorfor?



    1. For studentene – la studentene bli kjent med din kompetanse, bakgrunn og arbeidsområder. Dette er nyttig informasjon for studentene allerede fra de vurderer å søke opptak ved HiØ. Gjør det enkelt for studentene å kontakte deg, legg inn nok, oppdatert og god informasjon, inkludert et oppdatert bilde.

    2. For andre forskere, nasjonalt og internasjonalt – dette er spesielt viktig ved ansettelser. Mange sjekker ut fagmiljøet og kollegaer før de vurderer å søke, våre nettsider gjenspeiler institusjonen. Det er også viktig når du eller dine kollegaer ønsker samarbeidspartnere. Tenk gjennom hva du selv ser etter før du skal ta kontakt med potensielle samarbeidspartnere.

    3. For søknader om eksternfinansierte forskningsprosjekter – De store utlysningene har alle formidling og kommunikasjon som ett av vurderingskriteriene. Vær troverdig som formidler gjennom din digitale profil som forsker. Alle forskere har en tilstedeværelse på nett, og du kan til dels selv styre hvilken informasjon andre finner om deg. For å vise prosjektets faglige forankring bør du tilpasse din profil for å synliggjøre relevans i prosjektet.

    4. For kontakt med samfunnsliv og media – høgskolen skal bidra til å formidle resultater fra forskning, delta i samfunnsdebatten og bidra til kunnskapsheving, verdiskapning og samfunns- og næringsutvikling. Vi må derfor synliggjøre vår kompetanse slik at vi blir lettere tilgjengelige når samfunnsliv og media trenger oss.


    Her finner du veiledning til vedlikehold av personprofil. Du kan også kontakte lokal web- ansvarlig på avdelingen. 

    Skjermbilde fra en ansattprofil på HiØ. Det er dessverre fortsatt  mange profiler som mangler innhold.

  • 1.3 Cultural Probes

    1.3 Cultural Probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den oktober 3, 2019 av malik

    The Cultural Probe package.Our cultural probe starts with a paper bag and a welcoming note on the outside.



     In the paper bag, there are a questionaire paper, a pen, and stickers.



    The next items in the bag are fifteen flyers and brochures for museums located in Østfold and two envelopes: one yellow and one green.



    The last thing in the bag is markers in different colours. With the phrase «make your own art» on the outside, just for fun and inspiration for the participants.




     

    The goal of the probe and the participants.

    We personally delivered the probe to the students age 18-25 on a Tuesday and explained the content of the probe. We gave them the task to take the probe home and meet us on Friday to deliver it back after they had the chance to go through the probe and answered the various questions. The timeframe would have given them time to think on and thoroughly go through the probe and the questions. The goal of the probe is to gain insight about the students' last visit to a museum and their preferences for a museum visit. Questions consist of whether they were on vacation or in their hometown; which museum they went to; and what kind of museum they would like visit in their local area; if they prefer science museums, war museums or more modern museums; and lastly, if they would follow the museums on their respective social media accounts.

    The probe can help us achieve the goal.

    By the help of the students and their participation through the probe, we can find out what their preferences are. The students need to answer what kind of museums they prefer in the probe. It helps determine when the students last visited a museum and with whom, and acquiring additional information about what the students see as art in their everyday life. The probe can help us find out if the participants would be more likely to go to the museums in their hometown or in another city when on vacation. By answering the questions about social media, we find out if the students will follow the museum's respective social media accounts. If the students take the task seriously, we can find out if they deem the museums in the probe attractive, and it would also give the students inspiration and information about the different museums in Østfold which they can visit.

     The probe contents and tasks.

    First, the students were given a paper bag with a welcoming note on the outside. Beforehand, we start by saying "Hi!" and introduce ourselves and the task at hand. Afterwards, we ask them if they would help us answer some questions.

    When the students opened the paper bag, the first item was a questionnaire. The first task is to put a sticker to determine their age, since our target group are students between 18 to 25. The next questions are about their last visit to a museum: when they last went to a museum, which museum did they visit and with whom they visited with. They needed to use the pen, which was provided for in the probe, in order to answer. The third task on the paper was asking if they could take some pictures of things in their everyday life, which they either deem as art or inspiring. If the the person's are taking the pictures we can learn about a persons life, that's way having them take photos is good.

    When they turned the paper on to the next page, the students had more questions about their last visit to a museum. In this task, they were provided with stickers to put their answers on the scale for each question. The questions were: Was it fun on the last museum you visited?; How did you feel on your trip to the museum?; And lastly, if they would follow the museum on social media and which one.

    The next task we gave the students was to figure out what kind of museum they would like to visit. They were given the 15 different flyers/brochures about the museums in Østfold and two envelopes. The green envelope is where the students can put the museums they would like visit, whereas the yellow envelope is where they can put the museums they would not like to visit. This is meant to figure out which kinds of museums the students would either visit or not visit.

    The last item the students were given in the probe was markers in different colors, with the phrase «make your own art». In truth, this is was not meant as a task, rather just for fun and inspiration for the participants. This was our way to thank the students for their participation. Some of the participants made some fun and interesting drawings on the paper bag when they returned the probe, which was a nice surprise.

    Inspiration






     


    The Collage




     

     


     

     

     




     

  • Ny episode av Generasjon Hæ? "For miljøet"

    Ny episode av Generasjon Hæ? "For miljøet"

    - Publisert den 11. oktober 2019 av intkomm


    Synes du det er vanskelig å redde miljøet helt alene?

    Fortvil ikke, det synes Generasjon Hæ? også. I denne episoden snakker Alise, Emma og Iselin om tips de har lært og hva de prøver å gjøre for miljøet. 🌿🥕🥑






    Alise og Emma inviterer Iselin for å snakke om miljøet. Emma er som vanlig litt intens og engasjert i kjøttindustrien. Alle jentene forteller om hva de synes er vanskelig, men også hva de mestrer når det kommer til å være miljøvennlig. Radical Broccoli, Trashisfortossers, Fattig Student og Finnsta er noen av insta-kontoene jentene har tatt inspirasjon fra. Visste du at det så og si er plast i nesten alt? Til og med SOLKREM?

  • 1.2 Expert Interview

    1.2 Expert Interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 13 - Publisert den september 27, 2019 av malik

    Expert Interview

    We interviewed an employee at Halden tourist informaiton and that gave us more knowledge about museums.  

    The interview was conducted at Visit Halden (Halden tourist information) office.  We conducted the interview by visiting the office and asked if some of the employees had the time to answer some questions about students, museums and social media. Letting the person know that we are looking in to how they can make themselves more attractive for students between 18-25, and how the try to reach the students. After the presentation the person agreed to answer the question. We asked if the person wanted anonymous and if it was okay to post everything from the interview on a blogg for hiof. We got permission. The interview lasted about 15-20 minuets. There was one of us that asked the questions and one that took notes.

    The theme was chosen to see if we could find a solution to make students appreciate and visit museums more often, what the museums can do, and if they need to be more active on social media to market the museums. 

     Interview

    The interview was done in Norwegian, with the following questions: 

    Er det mange studenter i alderen 18-25 år som besøker museet? 


    • Nei i grunn ikke, spesielt ikke når de kommer fra samme by. Det er kanskje litt mer attraktivt om man besøker en ny by da man ikke kan like mye om den som man gjør med sin egen 


    Hvordan markedsførere dere museet for studenter i dag? 

    • Vi hadde stand Høyskolen i Østfold under de første dagene i  august. Vi har også lagt igjen brosjyrer i resepsjonen. 


    Hvilke sosiale medier bruker dere i dag? (app, instagram, facebook, snapchat) 

    • Vi bruker for det meste Facebook og Instagram.  


    Er studenter er del av deres fokusgruppe 

    • Ja det vil jeg absolut si at de er 


    Vurderer dere å bruke mer digitale verktøy(app) i museet for å studentene? 

    • Jeg føler at vi allerde bruker det. 


    Har dere i dag studentrabatt- hvor mye? 

    • Vi har rabatter for ungdomsskole elever, men desverre ikke for høyskolestudenter. Vi har også rabatt for våre medlemmer av visit halden.  


    Hvordan kan dere forbedre tilbudet for studenter? 

    Føler dere at museet følger med i den stadige mer digitaliserte hverdagen? 

    • Ja, flere og flere utstillinger blir digitaliserte. Vi prøver jo å følge med. 


     

    We only took notes on paper and have no recording or video of the interview.We asked the person if it was okay if  we wrote down what was said. Looking back at how the interview went, we came to the conclusion that it could have been better to record the interview. By using this technique, maybe the person would have felt more comfortable and given us better and fuller answers.

    We found out that we could have been more prepared before conducting the interview, and spent more time preparing the questions to make them better. During the interview there were some questions that did not fit in, so we ended up not asking them. After some questions we felt that maybe this were not the expert person we should have interviewed, so we went in the typical beginner mistake for conducting an interview. Looking back, we could have used the 5 WHY technique.   

    We found out by the employee who agreed to speak with us that students don’t go to the museums as much as the museums would like them to. The person at visit Halden said that since the students already had been to the museums in a younger age on school trips, they feel like they know everything about the local museums. When they go on trips to other cities, they feel like students visit the museums more. The employee felt like they are keeping up with social media that the student use such as Facebook and Instagram. During the interview we got some information brochures but when we looked through them, we could not find” follow us on facebook or instagram” anywhere, it was only the homepage. If we go on the homepage to Østfoldmuseene there were a lot of good information about the museums, and links to all the social media the different museums are active on. To conclude this expert interview, we can agree with the expert we talked to that students between the age 18-25 do not visit museums that often.

  • Din formidlingsinnsats gir penger til avdelingen 

    Din formidlingsinnsats gir penger til avdelingen 

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 10. oktober 2019 av Øyvind Gjems Fjeldbu

    Ifølge en undersøkelse om formidling blant fagansatte ved HiØ mot slutten av 2018 er det mange som ikke er klar over ordningen der din avdeling får bevilget penger for din formidlingsinnsats. 

    Undersøkelsen ble distribuert til 262 ansatte, og svarprosenten var på om lag 89 prosent. 

    Totalt 65 prosent av dere som deltok i undersøkelsen, svarte «ja» på å ha «formidlet forskningsresultater til et allment publikum på en eller annen måte i løpet av 2017/2018.» I dette ligger formidling som kronikker, intervjuer, foredrag, sosiale medier, hiof.no osv.  

    Overraskende nok svarer så mange som 58 prosent at de ikke kjenner til at HiØ har en ordning som belønner avdelingen økonomisk dersom de formidler. 

    Formidlingskomponenten i budsjettet er en ordning som fordeler midler til din avdeling basert på hva slags formidling du har bedrevet. Eksempelvis gir én kronikk i en avis 12 000 kr til avdelingen, mens ett intervju utløser 2 400 kr 

    Hensikten med denne ordningen er å stimulere til økt formidlingsinnsats ved Høgskolen i Østfold. Vitenskapelige publikasjoner som er rapportert i Cristin (såkalte NVI-publikasjoner), teller riktig nok ikke i denne ordningen. Alle andre poster som er registrert i Cristin innen fristen 31. januar, teller. 

    Dersom du tar deg tid til å registrere din formidling i Cristin, blir altså din innsats dokumentert, og din avdeling får tildelt midler. Hvem vet, kanskje du også legger grunnlaget for en mulig nominasjon til en framtidig formidlingspris? 

    Innlegget er skrevet av Nina Skajaa Fredheim og Øyvind Gjems Fjeldbu.

    Kilde: Colourbox

  • Scooter gang

    Scooter gang

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den september 9, 2019 av designmetoder

    Exploration through literature 

     

    INTRODUCTION 

    We have chosen to write about electric scooter system for students and how it affects the lives of students and the general public in the town surrounding the campus, also in the way it affects the environment. 

    We had differently composed search words so we might find different articles about electric scooters on campus and public areas and what ways that they have affected transportation and if they are a good thing for students to have the ability to use to get around instead of buss and other ways of public transportation. 

      

     We used three search engines: Google search, Google scholar and Bing 

    We decided to find literature about Electric Scooters in campus. Specifically, how it would or will affect the lives of students and teachers alike and if the Implementation of this kind of transportation would go for the better or worse.  

    We also decided to find literature about how much the implementation of these transportation devices would cost for the schools or for students, if they decide to buy one for their own use.  

    2 Search 

    The reason we used only three keywords in the search is because considering the way search engines are built, they are generally looking for the selected words and applying most relevant article, or website according to it, so if we only use these selected words, we are hoping that the search engines find relevant articles about electric scooters in campuses. 

    When we searched for “electric scooter campus” in google search we got 11,800,000 million results. While that’s quite a lot the most relevant results ended up in Scooters for sale, videos about schools using these scooters and articles about electric scooters in school campuses. There were also some websites that offered to sell these scooters.  

    When we searched for the same keyword in Google Scholar, we ended up getting mathematic articles about how different types of transportation vehicles such as golf carts and scooters. We also got some relevant articles that had information about electric scooters in a campus. Most of these articles were quite mathematic, but there were also a good number of relevant articles. Google scholar found 4500 articles with the keyword “Electric scooter Campus”. 

    The last search engine we used word the keyword “Electric scooter Campus” was in Bing.com. Bing had 86 300 000 different links, and the first ones weren’t relevant since they were ads. Under the ads they had some videos about electric scooters in a college campus, some images about scooters in campuses and top 10 list-articles on the best scooters for different occasion. Bing promoted mostly articles that encouraged purchase, and that was not what we were looking for with the keyword. 

    The second keywords we used to search with were “Electric scooter university”. Google search, again found some scooters for sale, articles about how the scooters affect, the lives of students and the environment. Google mainly found articles about how the electric scooters affect lives of students and people in general. This time google found 22,500,000 million different links.  

    Google scholar also got an increase in search results. This time it found 20,300 result, and again with similar results, mathematic articles about how the electric scooters work, different types of analytic articles that were about the electric scooters, and different types of schematics and research about electric scooters. Some links were relevant as in how they would affect lives of students and teachers, but they were not on the first result page.  

    Bing also had similar results as previous, most of the links were ads, some videos and Electric scooters for sale and other services that were about the electric scooters. This time however, Bing.com was a little more reliable with, showing articles that were about the lives of students and people who would get affected by the implementation of electric scooters and not only websites that wanted to sell these scooters  

    3 Selection 

    We selected 4 articles that fit our goal. They were mainly from google seeing as Bing.com is usually filled with paid promotion is not trustworthy. The articles from google scholar are fantastic but the relevant ones required us to pay for them, and we are not doing thatSo, the 3 we chose to talk about are from google, we checked the background from the publishers and they have a pretty good reputation so we are confident in using them as our sources. 

    Three of them are from google and one is from google scholar. These articles talk about different things. About the positive and the negative effects on the implementation of electric scooters, how the electric scooters affect the environment and academic research about these scooters in how they affect the environment. 

    4 Evaluation  

    The first link if from The Chronicle of Higher Education. To summarise the article: they were quite negative towards the implementation of these electric scooters. Their key points were that, these scooters have swarmed the school campusesthey are also quite popular so there are quite a lot of them. (Quintana, 2019)

    There were a lot of people who left them laying in the middle of the streets, so they had to make specific parking areas, if the person using the transportation device is not able to park the scooter in the specific area, they will get fined. 

    They also did some digging on injures caused by these scooters and, there were about 250 people according to the article. This article shows how the implementation of these scooters will affect the lives of people in campuses, however, they there is also some positives even if the article was against it. They said that these bikes were widely available, and are effective means of transportation for short distances, if there is a parking spot near the desired location. The parking requirement would certainly be a requirement for this kind of transportation. 

    So, in conclusion this article said that if implemented, these scooters would be easy to access through the app and easy to find because of the parking spaces.  the parking spaces could also be a bit of a negative if placed incorrectly or if there are too few of them. The implementation of these bikes could also be a negative outcome if the campus gets oversaturated with the scooters.  

    The second article is from the Verge, and they say that the Electric Scooters are not as climate friendly as we thought. The article says that generally the scooters are more environmentally friendly than most cars, but there are other methods of transportation which is “greener”. They say that the production, transportation, maintenance and upkeep of these scooters quickly add up in polluting earth. They say that if you look at the life cycle analysis of the dock-less scooter industry, which means looking at all the emissions that has to do with the electric scooters.  

    They say that the production of these transportation devices is not sustainable. They produce materials such as the lithium-ion battery which is very damaging for the environment. The manufacturing process and shipping which is mainly from China to a city thousands of kilometers away, and then charging.  

    The study verge was talking about, concluded that driving a car was still worse, but taking the bus was better than using these scooters. The study also said that with all these factors into the fraction, a car would use 400 grams of C02, while the Electric Scooter would use grams of C02. While the electric scooter halves that usage, it is still a significant amount of C02. A bus is more environmentally friendly than the Electric scooter. The reason the C02 emission per mile is high on these scooters is because their life cycle is so short. If these scooters could live function longer without the increase of manufacturing costs, they could be a good alternative to driving. If five people used five different Electric scooters, it would be more damaging to the environment than five people in a single car.  

    So, to summarise the facts in this article, the production costs of the Electric Scooters are not environmentally friendly since their life span is too short. 200 grams of C02 per mile from an electric scooter is not a sustainable form for transportation. If the life span could get longer, without the increase in manufacturing costs or rather emissions, they would be a good alternative, but not as of today.  

    The last article is from the guardian and they ask the question if a city can cope with electric scooters. They say that the electric scooter is an easy way of transportation but not a safe way. They also gave some examples of people using these scooters in a very unsafe way. They said that over 100 cities started using these E-Scooters and the number of injuries has started piling up. They have even said that there are some deaths from electric scooters 

    The guardian says that these Scooters are risky and unnecessary, pushed by tech investors. The guardian reports angry pedestrians who complain about scooters that are strewn across the pavements. The scooters could result in a hazard for blind people and for people in wheelchairs. The Scooters are also used a lot illegally by people who ride them over the alcohol limit.  

    So, to summarize the article from the guardian they had mostly negative points about the E-scooters, they said that they are a potential hazard to ongoing pedestrians and an unsafe way to travel. They talked about a good number of injuries including a death. They concluded that the electric scooters are not a good way to travel. 

    In conclusion the electric scooter would affect the lives of students, teachers and people in general in a negative way. From these articles we can see that the scooters can be a health hazard, on school campuses they usually are oversaturated in number, and they are not good for the environment. People have been injured and killed by using these Electric Scooters. If used irresponsibly they could also harm others for example riding a scooter under the influence of alcohol. 

    These scooters promised an environmentally friendly way to travel around both the city and schools but resulted in a safety hazard for both the people using the people surrounded by them. In theory they could be a good alternative to driving but as they are today, they are neither a good solution for transportation nor an environmentally sustainable alternative to driving. 

     

    Quintana, C. (2019). On Campuses, Electric Scooters Meet Speed Bumps. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.chronicle.com/article/On-Campuses-Electric-Scooters/245757

    Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis

    Longo, M., Hossain, C. A., & Roscia, M. (2013, December). Smart mobility for green university campus. In 2013 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

    Hawkins, A. (2019). Electric scooters aren’t quite as climate-friendly as we thought. Retrieved 9 October 2019, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/2/20751610/scooters-electric-dockless-carbon-emissions-study-life-cycle-analysis

     

    https://medium.com/@catherinelegros/designing-cultural-probes-31f2c62b9dcf

    What is the design goal of the cultural probe?

    to  learn more about food habits and philosophies of 20–30 year olds 

    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

    the probe is made with a camera to document and take pictures of the food they eat, a journal to document what you think about a person trough what they are eating, a colour pallet to colour the colour pallet of the plate you eat off at home, a placemat to eat on top off take a new one every time you eat and sirkle around four different mood faces that are on the placemat, and envelopes with instruction.

    What inspiration did the design team get from the probe

    results?

    they found out that food are a place for playfulness and humor, there are deep habits when eating outside of your home like eating ate the same places, those who participated found it hard to judge other people off their eating habits.


    Experimenting with cultural probes redefined what research is and can be. It created an interesting relationship between designers and participants: They felt like they were given a gift (hence the importance of a well designed probe kit) and gave back by participating in the activities in a generous and personal way. The types of insights we got were varied and opened various discussions.




    exercise

    design a probe for your project:

    what is your design goal? who users?

    to be environmentally friendly the users are students.

    what is probe made of ? (artifacts & tasks)?

    plastic, rubber, lithium batteries and aluminium

    how to you plan to follow up your probe?

    we are planing to run a survey once a week to get information about how they function in a student society

    exercise

    how distribute

    how / when do you contact users?

    i would use a facebook group

    how / when do you deliver probe?

     i would have a pickup point on campus, would have them come pick them up through a day we have design methods 

    how/ when do you collect the probes

    i would have a delivery point on campus  and would collect after a week of the probes being with the students on the day we have design methods 

     

     

  • E-Scooter Expert Interview

    E-Scooter Expert Interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den oktober 1, 2019 av kmkarlse

    We are interviewing an expert who has a lot of knowledge in E-Scooters. There are not a lot of electronic scooters in Halden, so we must interview an expert in a bigger city such as Oslo. Since we are interested in finding about experiences related to health, we have decided to interview a person who has good knowledge about health-related issues regarding E-scooters. A good candidate could be a person who has experience in transportation safety or something similar, example of this could be a person who works in Statens Vegvesen 

    In total we interviewed two people, one is an expert, and the other is a person who has ridden these scooters for an extended amount of time, and quite often, making him a good candidate to get user experience from.  

    The person we chose to interview wanted to stay anonymous. But he has a good amount of knowledge within transportation in Oslo including E-scooters. This is a man in his fifties, working for Vegvesenet in Oslo. The other person we interviewed is a student who uses an e-scooter for transportation quite frequently 

     

     

     Where? 

    Over skype at evening.  

     How was the interview conducted? 

    We had one asking questions 

    One observing  

    Third one taking notes  

     

    What was the theme of the interview? 

    The theme of the interview was to focus on the user experience using el-scooters, either good or bad. 

    It was very neutral, each side were polite, but we were only interested in the questions. So, it went by quick   

     

    Why was the theme chosen? 

    The theme was chosen because of the possibilities it could bring students in the way of transportation to make it easy for everyday use.  

     

    What have we learned through the theme?  

    We have learned that the e-scooters are not as environmentally friendly that we first thought, because they break easily so they are mass produced and they run on lithium batteries that don’t last very long. Pluss little regulations on them like you can drive them under the influence of alcohol and can be driven on sidewalks in high speeds and on roads.   

     

    Questions for the expert in road security in Oslo (vegvesenet) without the answers:

    Q: Over the year, these Electric Scooters has become a very popular method of transportation, is this new wave of transportation a good development for the bigger cities or just a health hazard?  

    Q: why it is a health hazard 

    Q: why are they so unsafe?  

     

    Questions for the expert user of El-scooters 

    Q: Have you ever ridden an electric scooter before? If yes, how was it? if no then why didn’t you? 

     if the person says yes, we ask what experience of emptions did you feel while riding it? 

    Q:  You’ve given quite a lot of information already but considering your own user experience, is there something you would like to see improved with the technology, or the experience itself?  

     

    Questions for the expert in road security in Oslo (vegvesenet) 

    Q: Over the year, these Electric Scooters has become a very popular method of transportation, is this new wave of transportation a good development for the bigger cities or just a health hazard?  

    A: while I can see that these electric scooters can be more convenient than cars, they also come with a good amount of risk because these scooters are built without much safety in mind. Injuries related to these scooters rise. So, I believe they are a health hazzard yes. 

    Q: why it is a health hazard 

    A: people ride it irresponsibly, under the influence of alcohol, and these things are generally unsafe to ride, with no safety measures. 

    Q: why are they so unsafe?  

    he said that there are not enough regulations and laws yet about these scooters and therefore they are so risky. If there were laws and regulations about these scooters, then it would be more beneficial for the general public to use these electronic scooters more safely.  

     

     Questions for the expert user of El-scooters 

    Q: Have you ever ridden an electric scooter before? If yes, how was it? if no then why didn’t you? 

     if the person says yes, we ask what experience of emptions did you feel while riding it? 

    A: I’ve ridden different el-scooters for the better part 2 years now, I think. While riding an el-scooter you get a feeling of freedom and being one our nature and with your surroundings. It's something different then biking and other electronic transportation devices, in my opinion its better. More stability, better control.  It’s a good feeling to have the possibility to go anywhere and anytime you want, assuming the battery is sufficiently charged. Its practicalities are quickly discovered by the user because of its small form factor and its portable characteristics. You can basically take it with you anywhere. 

    Riding an el-scooter makes you more aware of your surroundings, especially around busy streets and around campus. In my opinion it’s a good thing to practice your reflexes, on the other side it does requires your full attention to avoid any accidents with pedestrians. They can be quite unaccountable! And I think that's the reason there have been quite a lot of negative reports about these relatively new devises and because concerning lack of coaching from the government and the exploding amounts of el-scooters suddenly releasing overnight in the big cities 

     

    Q:  You’ve given quite a lot of information already but considering your own user experience, is there something you would like to see improved with the technology, or the experience itself?  

    A: It can be quite difficult to lock them up, if you go somewhere for example the mall or work, you would need a space to put it If you lock it in a bicycle stand, it will stand out and attract attention because it’s an easy prey for thieves. It has no key, at least not a physical one. A chip with GPS or some other device to make it more secure would be nice. 

     

     Analysis and summary of findings with quotes 

     At first, we chose to just interview an expert in El-scooters, but since we only got answers in how el-scooters affect the city or community in a specific area and not the actual experience around it, we also chose to interview someone who is arguably an expert in these scooters, mainly a person who has used one for transportation for about 2 years. We thought that maybe that person could maybe give better insight in the actual experience in the use of these scooters.  

    Since the first person who was interviewed was expert in transportation on roads in Oslo, we chose to ask him question on a little broader scale such as, are they a new wave of transportation or a health hazard. Whatever he answered, we wanted a broader understanding on the experience of el-scooters for the general population. We observed from the interview that even though he said that it is convenient for the general public, but in his experience, he said that injuries have gone up since the implementation of these el-scooters. 

    The second interview we had, was to the expert user and we narrowed the questions more to him and his experiences to these el-scooters. If there is something, we can take from the interview is that, his experience was overall good from these transportation devices. He told that his experience was of “freedom and convenience”. To summarize the expert opinion from road security. 

      

  • 1.3 Cultural Probe

    1.3 Cultural Probe

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 27/09/2019 av gotu

    The goal of our cultural probes was to extract information from other students to get other perspectives and opinions related to our topic. We were not aware that we rather should've gone to a school and put our cultural probes into action there, we thought we only could give it to fellow students, so we were advised to mention this.

    We thought our probes could expand our mindset a little as our Literature Review and our Interview showed us that the general opinion are all over the place, people are divided on the issue that digital media and tools should be in the classroom every day but the concerns are rather similar.

    We started with a simple and easy diary with a question and another page set aside for the answer. The question was "What is my biggest concern if kids start using digital media in their class?", the question is broad but at the same time simple. The goal was to get opinions we could compare to our research.

    The second probe was an experiment using sponge dices and markers where students were asked to rank from 1 to 10 how often they feel the need to look up information during lectures. For fun a bonus was added where they could try use the soft sponge as an anti-stress tool and then write down their experience. The goal was to get an idea of how often an student would use Google or similar during class.

    The third and final probe was a two different cardboard boxes. One of them contained a question and three different answers with a checkbox, and each question was related to how the student used digital media outside and inside school. The goal was to gather information in an engaging, fun and quick way as the user group only have to check the box they relate to.

     

    Collage of our probes



     





        1. What was most insightful or inspirational?
          Probe 2, as we misunderstood which group we could use this was the one task that was very open and we got the most impression out of since it can apply to a broader audience.Probe 1 and 3 weren't as relevant since the answers don't relate to the group we were researching, though we include two answers that related the most to what we found out in our literature search. One might argue that the answers we got from the student would be similar to younger students who are familiar with using the web to acquire desired knowledge.

        2.  2. What surprised you the most?
          The rating the students gave, it showed us that our testers look up things during lectures more often than we anticipated. We were also surprised that no one put a rating under 7 out of 10.

        3. 3. What probe results will help you with future designs?
          Definitely probe 3, it's such a fun concept and we will use this to target our current group to get more results to this particular project from the correct user group. Susanne asked us to mention that we misunderstood which groups we could use and that's why some of the answers aren't included though we are psyched to get some elementary school kids working on these.





  • 1.3 Cultural Probes

    1.3 Cultural Probes

    - Publisert den oktober 4, 2019 av hmpeders

    Målet i denne oppgaven var å få mer informasjon av brukerne om hvordan hver enkelt kommuniserer med helsevesenet, når de gjør det, hva de bruker til å gjøre det og genrelt litt om hva slags teknologi de benytter seg av i hverdagen. Brukerne våre er eldre som bor hjemme.

    Vi håpet at de eldre som hjalp oss med å løse oppgavene ville gi oss et annet perspektiv enn det vi allerede har fra før. Kanskje de ville gi oss et bedre perspektiv da de må beskrive ting med egne ord, og mer presist fordi de vil få bedre tid på seg, og har tid til å reflektere over spørsmålene og oppgavene.

    Våre pakke består av en eske hvor svarene fra oppgaven skal legges. Et instruksjonsark hvor det står klare og tydelige instruksjoner. Den inneholder også en liten mappe med skriveutstyr, og lapper som de eldre kan skrive ned svarene sine på.  Se bildet under.

    Under er det bilder med eksempler fra proben vår, og noen ulike svar vi fikk i pakken.


    Under har vi laget en kollasj som skal fortelle litt om inspirasjon, overraskelse og resultater.



     

  • Expert Interview

    Expert Interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 27, 2019 av ludvigbh

    Interview Guide


    1. How does adult refugees experience learning Norwegian?

    2. How do different age groups experience the learning process?

    3. What are the biggest issues for young adult refugees while learning Norwegian?

    4. How does a pre-knowledge of the English language influence learning Norwegian?

    5. What are your thoughts on things that can be improved?

    6. What impact does social interaction in Norwegian outside of the class have?

    7. Do students generally succeed?

    8. Are you happy with the level of fluency that most of the students reach during the course?

    9. Have you heard of digital apps like duolingo etc, how do you think they supplement the course?

    10. Would you recommend more people use duolingo or a similar app, Why? Or Why not?


    Who was interviewed?


    The interview subject is Jon Bjerkan a Norwegian Teacher who has taught Adult Refugees.

    Where was the interview conducted?

    Both of the participants in the interview where in the comfort of their own home using digital video chat.

    How was the interview Conducted

    The semi structured interview was done using digital video chat. Omar from the research group was conducting the interview and the interview subject, Jon Bjerkan, was participating. A screen recording was made on Omar's computer.

    What was the theme (s) of the interview?

    Understand how Adult refugees learn Norwegian.

    Why was the theme(s) chosen?


    The themes were chosen because we wanted to get an insight in what issues there currently are in the situation of our topic. The person that was interviewed has an overview of how multiple people experience this situation and could be able to find an answer or suggestions to improvements for more people as his experience does not differ as much from personal experience as the students might be. We also wanted to know his thoughts on supplements to a Norwegian Language course, how they work, how they could be improve and how much of an impact these have in motivating and activating the learning process outside of class.

    Transcription

    Interview transcription (attachment)

    Analysis and summary of findings with quotes




    Learning Norwegian can be quite challenging. But it really depends on the person, and their background. Whether they have had the experience of learning another language, or not. Students who have learned another language have an advantage because they have the experience but also knows what methods and learning techniques they can use when learning Norwegian.

    However, the young students seems to have an advantage. Bjerkan states that he believes the younger students learn faster. And he also states that it is easier for them to get to use the new language. Some of the older students seems to have more trouble getting into the new language and ends up helping each other in class, using their mother tongue.

    But regardless of age, students have different challenges. For some, writing is easier. And for other, speaking is easier. Many of the students are also struggling with understanding the language as a whole as well.

    Those students who already have experiences with the English language seem to have an advantage. They are more used to a similar language to Norwegian. Both English and Norwegian have several similar words in the wocabulary, and the grammar between the two is pretty similar.

    In order for the students to learn more efficiently, they have to use the new language in their spare time as well. Using the new language with friends and family will have a big impact on the learning process.

    A good thing to know is that most students generally succeed learning the new language. Bjerkan states that if the students happen to get a job, where they are engaged in using the new language, they will get more motivated to keep using and learning more of it as time passes.

    Bjerkan says he's satisfyed with most of his students. As long as they do their best, and work hard to achieve their goals, he is more than satisfyed.

    Tools are also an important tool in the learning process of a new language. Bjerkan claims that these tools are very handy to use on your spare time, when you don't really have anything else on your schedule anyway. It is a good way to spend some time, in order to improve the learning process. He highly recommends them to any student who are trying to learn a new language.



  • Expert interview and Observation

    Expert interview and Observation

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 27, 2019 av larscb

    Interview


     

    Contents:



    •  Who was interviewed?


    An advisor at Østfold University College.

     

    •  Where was the interview conducted?


     

    The advisors office at Østfold University College.

     

    • How was the interview conducted?


     

    Writing notes and sound recording. We did a semi-structured interview

     

    • What was the theme (s) of the interview?


     

    How lectures convey information to bachelor-students in a classroom. 

     

    • Why was the theme (s) chosen?


     

    It is relevant for us, we can relate to the problems about this exact topic. 

     

    • Interview Guide (questions)

    • What school-related problems do students most often encounter? Why?

    • Are there any challenges associated with exchange students?

    • Will a large class affect teaching in a negative way? Why? Why not?

    • Is the failure rate higher in international subjects than those in Norwegian? Why? Why not?

    • Are there some teaching methods that proves more effective than others? if so, elaborate.

    • Why do you think so many students drop out in lectures?

    • What measures can be taken to improve lectures?

    • Are enough measures being taken to improve lectures?


     

    Transcription (voice recorded in Norwegian)


     André: Så da starter vi bare da?

     Advisor: ja!

    André: eeeh det første spørsmålet er; er det noe problemer eller skolerelaterte problemer studenter kommer i vei? liksom går igjen ofte...

    Andreas: liksom kommer noen ofte til deg når det gjelder skolen?

    Advisor: mhm tenker i forhold til informasjon i forelesning?

    André: ja, eller om forelesere til deg om de faller ut

    Advisor: eller hva de..

    Andreas: ikke bare.. noe hovedsakelig, noe skolerelatert de kommer ofte til deg

    Advisor: mhm… eeeh, eller det som er kanskje har mest eeeh det er kanskje de fagene som er på første året for studenter i forhold til å overgangen mellom elev - student, nytt sted, nytt miljø, flyttet hjemme ifra..

    André: mmm

    Advisor: at den tar jo litt for lang tid noen ganger føri de kommer igang med studiene fordi det er så mye nytt.

    André: mmm

    Advisor: også er det kanskje sånn for første studentene mye frister i forhold til arbeidskrav i emnene på første året.. ja, det er vel mer sånn rundt studie situasjon da

    André: ja..

    Advisor: som de kommer med.. mhm

    André: også lurte vi på om det er noen utfordringer i forbindelse med utvekslingsstudenter som er bare er kun de internasjonale kursene men og de kombinerte norske og utenlandske studenter

    Advisor: eh de som kommer hit på utveksling? mhm..

    André: ja

    Advisor: ja, en utfordring for noen kan være er at da hvor holdt på si forelesningene er jo på engelsk og det er jo ikke alle som synes takler like bra da mhm

    André: nei..

    Andreas: men får du.. er det mange utvekslingsstudenter som kommer hit…

    Advisor: ...nei..

    Andreas: ...og spør deg om ting fordi foreleserne er på norsk eller noe sånt?

    Advisor: nei, jeg har lite med det ..

    Andreas: lite med utvekslingsstudenter men det er mere fra de norske som har problemer fordi de bytter til forelesningene på engelsk?

    Advisor: mhm ja.. det gjør det..

    André: også det tredje spørsmålet som er om eeh: er det forskjell på store og små klasser når det kommer for eksempel på strykprosent og hva er det som er forskjellen på en stor og en liten klasse? Hvis det er mye forskjell idet hele tatt? 

    André: det er jo noen emner som har høyere strykprosent og det er for eksempel innføring i programmering som ligger oppi der, og det er jo derfor man i år oppretter nye - for dere går i digitale medier?..

    Alle: ja

    Advisor: .. ja dere har annet programmering emne eller får til neste høst eller? nei *mumler for seg selv* ja, og det er nettopp fordi det er at har vært ganske stor strykprosent ehm.. men om det har sammenheng med stor og liten ja.. det kan jo være, på første års emnene så er det jo mange for det er mange fellesemner, eller det er mange som har de samme emnene også deler det seg utover i året

    Andreas: tror du at det har noe kanskje med at det blir mindre liksom oppfølging i sånn enkeltvis på studentene fordi det er store klasser og sånt? eller er det noe med det å gjøre folk- siden det er store klasser føler ikke studentene de har noe direkte kontakt med foreleser?

    Advisor: mhm ja det kan det være for det er nok at det er sikkert vanskeligere og tøffere å spørre-  stille spørsmål i en forelesning med så mange enn og da- enn i en klasserom og kanskje flere kjente og føler seg rundt seg mere trygg da, enn der, men samtidig så har man jo mye tilbud på øvingstimer med studentassistenter som de blir brukt og nytte av 

    André: eh strykprosenten er dem høyere enn de internasjonale fagene enn de som foregår på norsk? da snakker vi om både nordmenn og de utenlandske studentene og de engelske kursene og.

    Advisor: eh det vet jeg ikke, for vi har egentlig ikke hatt så mange forelesninger som har foregått på engelsk tidligere men det er vel nytt i år med at vi har både forelesere som er engelske så det ble jo litt spennende å se ooog at vi har nå i utvekslingsstudenter på et par fag som de også foregår på engelsk da, men nå må jeg bare spørre holdt på si dere har designmetoder gå det på engelsk?...

    Alle: ja

    Andreas: det og prosjektledelse går begge på engelsk..

    Advisor: .. ja går på engelsk ja.. men er det på grunn av - det har vel ikke akk- designmetoder har vel gått engelsk tidligere også på grunn av hun Klaudia da, eh men jeg trokke det har utpreget seg med et fag med høy strykprosent, nei det kan jeg ikke..

    Andreas: … det har ikke påvirket i noen form?...

    Advisor: .. neeeei.. tror ikke det, det er ikke noe som vi liksom har tenkt på eller har tatt tak i at det har vært et problem og det har ikke vært noe i sånn i forhold til studenter på døra heller og at det da har vært noe utprega eller mye av det nei.

    André: eeeh neste spørsmål om det noen måter forelesning metoder som er mer effektive eller bedre enn noen andre?

    Andreas: kanskje det er litt vanskelig spørsmål?

    Advisor: mhm ja.. det vet jeg ikke om jeg tør å si noe om jeg..

    André: nei.. da hopper vi videre til; hvorfor tror du så mange studenter faller ut i forelesningen? Tror det er kanskje mye av det samme tror jeg

    Advisor: hehehe ja

    Andreas: ja blir litt for vanskelig 

    Advisor: … haha jaaa det blir jo litt synsing da, så tror jeg at det har kanskje er veldig personavhengig på min oppfatning hehe på hvem som har forelesningen

    André: da har vi neste spørsmål; hvorfor tror du hvorfor mange studenter faller ut i forelesningen? 

    Advisor: da tror jeg kanskje det er engasjementet på forelesere jeg da om de klarer å engasjere, holde oppmerksomheten, gjøre forelesningen interessant..

    André: men tror du at det er for eksempel //?det kan at de andre ikke kunne?// for eksempel med 4 timer kun snakking og mer effektiv litt ikke kun teori men litt praktiske og ?

    Advisor: ja det er klart… eh ja det er vel noen fag som har sammenhengende med kanskje mye teori og at det blir veldig trått når man ikke har noe variasjoner i forelesnings formen da

    Andreas: da lurer jeg på- har du noen spesielle erfaringer med at studenter har kommet til deg på grunn av at de faller ut av forelesninger og sånt og om hva de eventuelt har sagt til deg om at det hvorfor det skjer?

    Advisor: mmmm nei men det kan bare være ikke noe sånn eh som er liksom sånn mønster da, hvis det kommer seg liksom sånn holdt på si “slengere” i en nå da på grunn av et eller annet det er liksom ikke sånn at jeg ser et mønster, det kan være årsak da…

    Andreas: ..det er bare veldig sånn enkeltvis fra person til person 

    Advisor: jaa det er egentlig det, noen liker det og noen liker datt og ja 

    André: yes, eeeh i hvilket tiltak kan gjøres for å forberede forelesningen?

    Advisor: for å forberede forelesninger… mhm.. nei bare for å - kanskje at man har sånn kollegaveiledning da? At de foreleserne går på hverandres sine- ja kollegaveiledning, at de har noen til å evaluere seg og ikke bare studentevaluering /mumling/ ja, evaluering da

    André: det er litt samme spørsmål og: gjøres det nok tiltak for å forberede forelesninga? for det blir tatt evalueringen men føler at det ikke har tatt noen konkrete tiltak for det da.. 

    Advisor: neei.. vi har jo- det er jo studentevalueringer og som vi går gjennom og ser på og prøver innimellom med noen tiltak da og noen forelesere har har kanskje ikke tatt det faget men tatt noen andre oppgaver eller man har satt flere personer i timene så noe er i gjentakere problemer eller noe sånt enn de som er fra flere år da, så prøver jo man å bytte litt og sette flere personer eller ha litt variasjon da 

    André: yes.. som du har nevnt i programmeringsfaget som ble det nå ja..

    Advisor: mhm..

    André: er det noen annet du kan tenke på at det er relevant for oss å skrive om temaet vårt?

    Advisor: mhm..

    Andreas: som vi tenker da er jo veldig forskjellig når det kommer til hvordan folk tar imot informasjon og sånt fra foreleser også da, det er jo veldig på person til person også er det veldig vanskelig tiltak til tilfredstille mesteparten 

    Advisor: ja, ja.. eller.. noen av foreleserne er jo veldig flinke på å ha åpne kontor da, det er veldig lett å gå inn og spørre om hjelp og det tror jeg at det er viktig at man skal kunne å spørre om hjelp da, det er noe av det vi prøver på da og markedsføre da med at vi er liten og tett høgskole da, det skal være kort avstand eller god kontakt mellom studenter og foreleser.

    André: de fleste foreleserne vil jo at studentene går til studassene? så de slipper alt det selv da..

    Advisor: joda det er klart, hvor det er de kullene hvor der det er 250 stk studenter så haha..

    André: ja det blir litt mye ..

    Advisor: haha.. ja det blir litt mye ja, ellers er det også at man er flinke til å bruke canvas da til å legge ut forelesningsnotater og tror at de har blitt flinkere etterhvert men det er ikke alle som er.. ja bruker det like aktivt da, tror det er - nei jeg vet ikke jeg tror det er variasjoner i faglæreres eller hvor mye de bruker canvas da, hvor flinke de er til å legge ut stoff og tips

    André: har vi noen mer? noe som er aktuelt?

    Andreas: nei jeg tror vi fikk noen koblet og det var noen spørsmål som var vanskelige enn de andre, kanskje for deg kanskje når det kommer mer direkte om studenter

    Advisor: eeeh ja det er det jo.. ja

    Andreas: ting må jo gi mer langsiktig om det skjer rundt, men det er ikke noen sånn generelt trenger ikke akkurat å være noe om det her liksom, det er ikke noe ofte klare gjenganger om hva studenter kommer til deg og sånn? når det er omhandler om skolen? 

    Advisor: .. nei, som studieveileder så er det veldig mye det at man kanskje har strøket et fag og må ta opp igjen og lage en utdanningsplan da for studentene og ja også skal man plutselig ta igjen fordi at man har vært litt slapp da i et semester også ahaha ja.. så det går mye igjen på studenter som har strøket et fag 

    Andreas: som faller ut og kommer tilbake på skolen liksom?..

    Advisor: ja..både og om de har kanskje både falt ut og noen sliter litt med motivasjon, noen syns det er vanskelig fa.. hold på si fremlegg eller presentasjoner, selv om man har kanskje hatt mye av det på videregående og barneskolen eller hele veien så syns dem...

    André: for det er eller blir så større klasse 

    Advisor: ja at det kan bli en utfordring ja og ja.. og det å jobbe i grupper er det mange som sliter med fordi at det ; det å finne grupper og hvordan det fungerer dynamisk på en som ikke bare henger på og vet ikke hva man skal gjøre og ja.. litt sånne praktiske ting også som de kommer med ja

    André: yes.. skal vi si oss ferdige, eller hvis ikke dere har noe mer ?

    Andreas: nei, tror ikke vi har noe mer nå hvertfall.. takk veldig bra, takk for samtalen og takk for tiden

    Advisor: bare hyggelig, håper dere gjør det bra på oppgaven haha


    Analysis and summary of findings with quotes


    We chose to interview a counselor at the school who represented out expert in this field. She was relevant to out information flow situation because she had complementary experience with insight in various school-related issues students have. Even more specific to our information flow, issues related to how bad performed lectures affect their studies. In order to achieve the desired results, we explained our communication flow situation before the interview and therefore asked our questions related to it. 

    According the the expert we chose to interview the most overtly school-related problems that students come to her with are the following. “Mainly, it is the first year students who seeks counseling from her. Counseling aimed at the transition from high-school to university. New location, new environment, new living situation, a lot of deadlines in terms of work requirements and so on.” This transition ended up putting these freshman students in a councilors office with a lot of doubts. They may have failed a class, lagging behind, lack of motivation or maybe they have anxiety performing in front of the class. All these problems do not always come directly from poor communication flow between the students and the lecturer, but it is definitely a part of the cause.  

    We would also like to focus a little on exchange students and problems they may come across dealing with the language barrier and the fact that some courses are taught in english and others in norwegian. According to the advisors experience, exchange students almost never come to them with problems related to norwegian courses - it was rather the opposite. “Their had been occurrences with norwegian students coming to them because they had difficulties with courses running in english.” So either, exchange students don't have a problem with the language barrier, or they are not aware of the services the school offers in counseling. 

    Another factor which affects the communication between lecturer and student, is the size of the class. “The failure rate in courses with high student numbers have a tendency to be a little higher than small classes.” The difference is maybe even clearer among freshman courses. The reason for this is impossible to point out directly, since the reason for failure can vary a lot from one student to another. A general observation from the expert was that in the larger courses the students lose their direct contact with the lecturer as they were used to from their high school. For that reason they feel more helpless when they are struggling in a course.  To make up for lack of direct contact, there are offered student assistants in many larger courses, but for many these are not filling the educational needs the same way.

    At the end of the interview we wanted to find out how we could improve the information flow situation. Therefore, we asked the advisor what they saw as the main reasons why a lot of students fall out during lectures. They believed that the main reason why lecturers lose students is lack of engagement when lecturing, as then it can seem that the lecturer doesn’t care about what she/he is teaching. If there is little variation in the methods the lecturer uses to teach, students can also lose interest and get bored.

    So what can really be done to improve the situation? The advisor had some suggestions; “It can be added colleague assessment between lecturers, to have the lecturers give criticism to each other about what is good and what should be changed to engage the students.” Many students think that the student assessment of the lecturers is not received as seriously. It can be applied more lecturers in a course as there is greater opportunity for direct contact with the students. “In cases where this is not possible the lecturers need to have an open office for students to enter with questions.” Most importantly, the lecturer needs to make sure to have clear communication with the student assistants so that both the lecturer and the student assistants convey with the same goal and focus in mind. Otherwise the students will only get more confused. Because the issues can be so diverse within a course, several measurements needs to be put in place for it to make any impact. 

     

    Questions:


    Hvilke skolerelaterte problemer er det studenter oftest kommer med til deg?

    Det som går igjen mest er fagene på første året i forhold til overgangen mellom elev og student. Nytt sted, nytt miljø, flytte hjemmefra. Det tar for lang tid for flere å komme i gang med studiene fordi det er så mye nytt. Det er nok også for førsteårsstudentene mye frister i forhold til arbeidskrav i emnene på første året. Denne overgangen fra elev til student får studenter til å gå til rådgiver med mer spesifiserte problemer som, stryk i fag, henger etter i fag og trenger å komme tilbake på spor, motivasjon i kursene, prestasjonsangst, jobbe i grupper etc. Og med dårlig kommunikasjon og misforståelser mellom studenter og forelesere så kan det være med på å forsterke disse problemene enda mer. 

     

    Er det noen utfordringer i forbindelse med utvekslingsstudenter?

    Jeg har lite utvekslingsstudenter som kommer hit, det er mest norske studenter som sliter fordi forelesningene er på engelsk. dette betyr at enten så sliter ikke utvekslingsstudenter med norske kurs eller så har de ikke fått klar nok informasjon angående skolens tilbud innen rådgiving. 

     

    Vil en stor klasse påvirke undervisningen på en negativ måte? Hvorfor?

    Det er jo noen emner som har høyere strykprosent, det er for eksempel Innføring i programmering, derfor har man i år oppretta et nytt programmeringskurs for 1. årlig digitale medier studenter som er enda mer basic og som består av færre studenter. eksperten tror at når et kurs består av veldig mange studenter så opplever ikke studenten den direkte kontakten med foreleser som en er vandt med fra elev tiden. Dermed vil studenten føle seg mer hjelpeløse om de sliter i kurset. i kurs med mange studenter blir det derfor tilbudt studass-timer for å erstatte den direkte kontakten, men for mange studenter oppleves ikke dette like bra.

     

    Er strykprosenten høyere i internasjonale fag enn de som foregår på norsk?

    Er ikke tiltrekkende data til å vite om strykprosenten i internasjonale fag er høyere enn fag som foregår på norsk. dette fordi fag som går på engelsk er en ganske ny praksis på høgskolen og man har som sagt ikke nok data til å trekke en konklusjon. men blir spennende å se i fremtiden hvordan disse dataene slår ut og om strykprosent har veldig variasjon fra internasjonale til nasjonale fag.

     

    Er det noen forelesningsmetoder som er mer effektive enn andre?

    som rådgiver har ikke eksperten noe data på hvilke forelesningsmetoder som er mer effektive enn andre og mener heller det variere veldig fra person til person i kursene. Derfor er det veldig vanskelig å sette disse metodene i bokser på hva som fungerer og hva som ikke fungere. en person som oppfatter noe som veldig effektivt kan oppfattes som uforståelig for en annen student. Dette er også en grunn til at det er veldig vanskelig å tilrettelegge og tilpasse kurset til alle studenter i store kurs. 

     

    Hvorfor tror du så mange studenter faller ut i forelesninger?

    dårlig engasjement fra foreleser. Virker ikke som foreleser er veldig interessert i det han/hun lærer bort. lite variasjon i fremgangsmåten foreleser velger å bruke til å lære bort. disse er kanskje de mest sentrale grunnen til at studenter mister interessen i kursene og i foreleseren.

     

    Hvilke tiltak kan gjøres for å forbedre forelesninger?

    Man kan sette i gang kollegavurderinger blandt forelesere og ikke bare student vurderinger. Dette for at forelesere mellom seg kan også gi litt kritikk på hva som kan bli gjort bedre, annerledes. ha flere forelesere i kurs, så studenter kan prøve å få oppleve mer direkte kontakt med foreleser. når ikke det er mulig må foreleser og studass ha klar og god kommunikasjon så de formidler med samme mål til studentene. åpne kontor så langt det lar seg gjøre, så studenter som trenger kan komme innom kontoret til foreleser for en prat. Forelesere må passe på å også legge ut forelesningsnotater på en plattform hvor studenter har tilgang til de. i tilfellet med høgskolen i østfold blir dette canvas. 

    Gjøres det nok tiltak for å forbedre forelesninger?

    *Klarte ikke å svare*

     

    Observation


    Planning




    • Who was observed? 





    1. Bachelor students in a foreign class. We chose this class because of its diverse educational background, language barrier and small class size. These factors would affect the lecturers way of conveying information in a classroom, which we learned from the literature search that we wanted to investigate.

    2. Lecturer 




    • Which was the observation scene? (Private or public setting) 





    1. Public setting; A smaller classroom at Østfold university college.  




    • What was the role of the observer? 





    1. The novice; a student 




    • What observation method did you use? 





    1. Fly on the wall – go to a location and unobtrusively observe what goes on there. 




    • What was the intention (s) of the observation? 





    1. Observing the professor giving a lecture to international bachelor students in a classroom. 




    • Why did you choose to observe that specific behaviour? 





    1. To learn about which methods the lecturer uses to convey information to bachelor students.


     

    Field notes transcript 


    Checking attendance

    20-25 students attended the lecture

    Many absent students

    The lecturer went through the students’ homework. Some students were chosen to present parts of it.

    The lecturer spoke both Norwegian and English. She spoke extra clearly when she spoke Norwegian

    Lecturer asked if any of the students had not gotten the homework in the last lecture

    The lecturer was energetic and engaged

    A lot of practical learning - Students were picked randomly to present homework, two at a time. Later, everyone read out loud at the same time as well some times.

    The lecturer knew and used the names of the students, which made their relationship more personal

    The students had to improvise a conversation in Norwegian with the help of their textbook

    Textbook was used a lot during the lecture

    The lecturer read a dialogue in norwegian out loud

    Group work, 2-3 students worked together

    The lecturer did not use a powerpoint presentation at all during this lecture.

     

    Analysis and Summary of Observations - What? How? Why? 


    We decided to observe bachelor students in a foreign class, as it would help us gain relevant data to our project. The group then decided to send 2 observers to observe a class at Østfold University College. The course we decided to observe was “Norwegian as a foreign language 1”.

    First, we asked the lecturer for permission to do the observation in her lecture, which we were granted. We then sat in the back of the classroom in this lecture and observed.

    The lecturer had more of a practical approach to how they held the lecture, with a lot of practical tasks for the students. The class size was about 20-25 students. This gave us an impression of a closer relationship between the lecturer and the students, as the lecturer knew the names of each student. This, combined with other factors, gave an increase in participation. The other factors include: a lot of practical tasks in class both while seated and in front of the entire class, the lecturer being more energetic while conveying information. It is also less intimidating for the students to perform tasks in front of the entire class, while being a smaller sized class. The lecturer were also making sure that the students were on the same page, actively asking if the students had some questions. The lecturer also actively used a textbook while lecturing, this made it easier to follow the lecture and as well as understanding the curriculum. 

    The major things we found out from this observation:



    • A smaller class size affected the relationship between the students and the lecturer, which resulted in increased participation from the students in the class.

    • The lecturer used a practical form of lecturing and was actively using the textbook, which made the lecture more interactive and easier to follow.

    • The behaviour of the lecturer played a major role in conveying information. The lecturer in this class was engaged and energetic and therefore kept the students involved. By doing this, the lecturer ensured that all the students were on the same page regardless of their educational background. 

  • 1.2 Ekspert intervju og/eller observasjon

    1.2 Ekspert intervju og/eller observasjon

    - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av hmpeders

    Hvem ble intervjuet?
    Sykepleier ved Tønsberg Sykehus.

    Hvor ble intervjuet holdt? og hvordan ble det holdt?
    Intervjuet ble holdt over telefon fra hiof.

    Hva var tema(ene) for intervjuet?
    Temaet for intervjuet vårt er kommunikasjon med eldre.

    Hvorfor ble dette temaet valgt?
    Vi valgte dette temaet fordi vi ønsket å finne ut mer om kommunikasjonen mellom eldre og helsevesenet, og om kommunikasjonen fungerer slik den er i dag, eller om det trenger en oppgradering.

    Spørsmål
    Hvordan opplever du at kommunikasjonen mellom de eldre og helsevesenet er?
    Hva slags kanaler benytter de eldre seg ofte av?
    Er kommunikasjonen effektiv?
    Hvordan oppfatter du at de eldre synes kommunikasjonen fungerer?
    Hvordan opplever du at den digitale plattformen fungerer?

    Transkribering
    Intervju 1.


    “Hei”
    - Heihei
    “Hyggelig at du kunne stille opp til intervju med oss her i dag. Takk”
    - Jo, bare hyggelig det.
    “ Vi jobber med en oppgave nå, som handler om kommunikasjon med eldre. Vi har noen spørsmål som vi håpet du kunne svare på.”
    - Ja, jeg kan prøve så godt jeg kan.
    “Er det greit jeg tar opp intervjuet?”
    - Ja, det går fint.
    “Så bra! Da setter vi bare i gang om det er greit?”
    - Ja, den er grei
    Hvordan opplever du at kommunikasjonen mellom de eldre og helsevesenet er?”
    - Jeg opplever at kommunikasjonen med de eldre/pasienten noen ganger kan være utfordrende og andre ganger går det ganske greit. I forhold til de pasientene som har kognitiv svikt så har vi en prosedyre på hvordan vi kommuniserer med pasienten. Men de eldre som er oppegående og ikke har noen form for kognitiv svikt så går kommunikasjonen ganske bra. Kommunikasjonen er også til tider utfordrende, i form av at man er uenig, eller at pasienten/ den eldre har en kontakt person / verge og man da har en tredje person og forholde seg i, i tillegg. Kommunikasjonen foregår ofte ansikt til ansikt eller på tlf. Ofte går også kommunikasjonen fra Pasient til lege- til sykepleier/hjelpepleier.
    "Hva slags kanaler benytter de eldre seg ofte av?"
    - De benytter seg ofte av telefon, møter selv opp på legekontoret, eller tar kommunikasjonen gjennom familie/kontaktperson.
    "Er kommunikasjonen effektiv?"
    -Det forekommer ofte ventetid om man ringer til legekontoret eller til vårt kontor, vi er ofte opptatt og beskjeder per telefon er ofte en usikker vei i forhold til at man kan glemme, eller at vi ikke er flinke nok til å ta beskjeden videre til lege etc. Dette kan være en utfordring ved at den informasjonen som pasienten deler ikke kommer frem eller er riktig informasjon.
    "Hvordan oppfatter du at de eldre synes kommunikasjonen fungerer?"
    -Det burde vært en enklere kommunikasjonsmetode for hvordan man kommuniserer både for oss som helsepersonell og et enklere, tryggere og sikrere system for de eldre.
    "Hvordan opplever du at den digitale plattformen fungerer?"
    -Foreløpig bruker sjeldent de eldre en digital plattform å kommunisere med fordi de er vandt med den “gamle” metoden, som å ringe eller møte opp ansikt til ansikt.

    Analyse og sammendrag 
    I intervjuet med sykepleieren fra Tønsberg sykehus fikk vi greie på at de fleste eldre tar kontakt med helsevesenet over telefon eller ved fysisk oppmøte på f.eks legekontor. Det er mange som får hjelp av familie og venner, og det er et fåtall som benytter seg av digitale kanaler som f.eks timebooking på internett.  Spørsmålet vi stiller oss etter dette intervjuet er hvorfor benyttes ikke internett i 2019? Selv av eldre? Det er mange eldre som er teknologiske av seg, men hvorfor ikke med kontakten med helsevesenet? 

    Introduksjon

    Intervju 2.

    Sarah Herlovsen er en bekjent av en på gruppen. Han tok kontakt med henne igjennom Facebook og fortalte om oppgaven vi hadde om å ha et ekspertintervju, å spurte om hun ønsket og hadde mulighet til å besvare noen spørsmål for oss. Etter en liten stund så fikk han svar tilbake fra Helsefagarbeider Sarah Herlovsen, hvor hun sa hun mer enn gjerne kunne svare på noen spørsmål for oss. Han spurte om hun ønsket å få spørsmålene tilsendt til henne på PDF, eller om hun ønsket å møtes for å kunne snakke sammen. Sarah H. fortalte at det passet best for henne med å få spørsmålene tilsendt på PDF, for da kunne hun svare på spørsmålene for oss i løpet av dagen. Når hun hadde litt bedre tid. På kvelden samme dag så fikk vi tilbake svar fra Sarah Herlovsen på spørsmålene vi hadde tilsendt.

     

    Spørsmål

    «Hva er navnet ditt?»

    «Hvor lenge har du jobbet innenfor helseyrket?»

    «Hvordan opplever du at kommunikasjonen mellom de eldre og helsevesenet er?»

    «Har de eldre et litt mer statisk og faglig forhold til dere som helsepersonell, eller har de eldre en mer emosjonell tilknytning til dere i personalet?»

    «Hva slags kanaler (digitale plattformer) benytter de eldre seg ofte av?»

    «Er den digitale kommunikasjonen effektiv?»

    «Hvordan oppfatter du, at de eldre synes kommunikasjonen fungerer?»

    «Hvordan opplever du, at den digitale plattformen fungerer?»

     

    Transkribering

    Intervju 2

    Et ekspertintervju med Helsefagarbeider Sarah Amalie Herlovsen

    «Hva er navnet ditt?»  Mitt navn er Sarah Amalie Herlovsen.

    «Hvor lenge har du jobbet innenfor helseyrket?»Jeg har jobbet i helsevesenet i 7 år.

    «Hvordan opplever du at kommunikasjonen mellom de eldre og helsevesenet er?»Forstår ikke spørsmålet.

    «Har de eldre et litt mer statisk og faglig forhold til dere som helsepersonell, eller har de eldre en mer emosjonell tilknytning til dere i personalet?» De eldre får en emosjonell tilknytting til oss, vi er jo de som ser dem vær dag. Vi i personalet kjenner de eldre mest på det stadiet de er på nå, de pårørende kjente jo de når de var friske og bodde hjemme. vi får også en veldig tilknytning til de eldre også. Jeg personlig blir veldig glad i dem, vi på min avdeling knytter sterke bånd så vi til og med blir bedt i begravelsen deres, det er for å få en avslutning på et liv som er borte. det går jo ikke mer enn 1-2 dager før vi har fått en ny pasient, så det å gå i begravelsen deres, er en veldig fin ting, syns jeg.

    «Hva slags kanaler (digitale plattformer) benytter de eldre seg ofte av?»Mange av de eldre har jo mobiltelefon. Men få har en smarttelefon. Noen er på Facebook, men er ikke særlig aktive pga. de har blitt sykere.

    «Er den digitale kommunikasjonen effektiv?» Mange av de eldre jeg jobber med er jo demente, så det å huske hvordan man brukte telefonen eller hvordan man logget seg inn på Facebook, er nok glemt for mange. Så effektivt er det nok ikke, ikke for dem. Men vi ansatte kan jo bruke PC/Internett som et verktøy i hverdagen vår. Eks Google ting som vi vet at Fru Hansen har vært opptatt av og kjenner igjen.

    «Hvordan oppfatter du, at de eldre synes kommunikasjonen fungerer?» Mange mister interessen for ting som de interesserte seg for før. Så noen synes det fungerer bra, men de fleste er nok ikke så opptatt av det lenger.

    «Hvordan opplever du, at den digitale plattformen fungerer?»Jeg syntes det absolutt er bra at både sykehjem / sykehus blir mer digitalisert. Det er mye vi kan bruker det til, på en bra måte, men jeg håper vi ikke kommer ditt at det kommer roboter som skal pleie de syke og dødene.

     

    Observasjon
    Hvem ble observert?
    - Besteforeldrene til en på gruppen ble observert. Personen ønsket å være anonym så vi har valgt å ikke bruke navnet hennes i denne oppgaven. 

    Hvor var observasjonsscenen?
    - Observasjonsscenen ble gjort privat hjemme hos besteforeldrene til en på gruppen. Målet ved observasjonen var å finne ut hvordan eldre kommuniserer med helsevesenet.

    Hvem hadde rollen som observatør?
    - Den som hadde rollen som observatør var et familiemedlem av de som ble observert. Det gir en unik posisjon som informantene er kjent med.

    Hvilke observasjonsmetoder brukte du?
    - Vi benyttet oss av både “flue på veggen” metoden hvor vi observerte diskret, men også skygging hvor vi fulgte deres rutine.

    Hva var intensjonen ved observasjonen?
    Intensjonen ved observasjonen var å finne ut hvordan eldre kommuniserer med helsevesenet. Hovedmålet er å finne ut hvordan pensjonister bestiller f.eks legetime, tannlegetime eller fysioterapaut.

    Hvorfor valgte du å observere denne spesifikke oppførselen?
    Vi valgte å observere denne spesifikke oppførselen fordi vi tenkte at denne måten å observere på ville gi oss mest konkrete svar på de spørsmålene vi hadde.

    Vi er på besøk hos “Ruth” (75). Hun skal bestille seg legetime og samtidig sjekke om hun må fornye en resept. Hun tar opp telefonen og taster inn telefonnummeret til legekontoret sitt, her blir hun satt på vent. Samtidig som hun venter så klager hun til oss over hvor lang tid det tar å få kontakt med legekontoret. 8 minutter senere får hun endelig kontakt med sykepleieren i resepsjonen.

    “Hei, jeg skulle gjerne ha bestilt en legetime jeg” 

    (...)
    “Nei, du skjønner at jeg har frisørtime klokka 12 på tirsdag, men jeg kan klokka ni?”
    (...)
    “Hvor lang tid tar det tror du?”
    (...)
    “Ja,men da kan jeg klokka ti også”
    (...)
    “Takk, da sier vi klokka ti på tirsdag! Kan du fornye resepten for meg også? Jeg skal en tur på senteret i dag, og da kan jeg gå innom apoteket i samme slengen”.
    (...)
    “Takktakk, hei”.

    Ruth legger på røret, og går bort til kalenderen på veggen hvor hun skriver opp når legetimen er.

    Her var vi på besøk hos Ruth, og observerte hvordan hun bestiller seg en legetime. Denne metoden med å ringe tror vi er en veldig vanlig metode blant eldre, og en metode de aller fleste benytter seg av. Derfor tror vi denne situasjonen er representativ for hvordan de fleste eldre kommuniserer med helsevesenet i dag, men det er nok også fortsatt noen eldre som reiser fysisk til legekontoret for å bestille seg time, eller får hjelp av familie til å bestille seg time. Ut fra de vi har spurt, er det et fåtall som benytter seg av reservasjon av legetime på nett. Vi tror grunnen til det er at den digitale plattformen ikke er lett nok å bruke, og få er informert om at den finnes. 


     

     

  • Cultural probes examples (classroom exercise)

    Cultural probes examples (classroom exercise)

    - Publisert den 24/09/2019 av timek

    Exercise - 30 minutes

    Chosen cultural probe: https://leannefischler.co.uk/?nor-563213c7f20e4=crafting-cultural-probe-boxes

    The topic of the given cultural probe is related to people's relation with their own objects.

    What is the design goal of the cultural probe?
    The goal of the cultural probe was to gather data on people's relationship to their physical posessions, explore ways in which to make people question their consumption and waste and lastly create an engaging physical experience to spark "meaningful" conversation.

    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?
    The creator of this cultural probe handcrafted wooden boxes to contain their cultural probe.

    What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?
    It is not listed. This link contained an unfinished study. Chose another cultural probe below due to the scarce information of the one we chose.

    Link: https://iat333teampark.wordpress.com/culturalprobe/

    What is the design goal of the cultural probe?
    The goal is to gather as much information as possible about the participants in order to investigate the social group at an in-depth level.

    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?
    It is made of a camera and a writing kit. They wanted the participants to document their dreams and aspirations over a given time period (being a week). With the writing kit they were told to write down their stress levels at different times of the day.

    What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?
    Considering the results they got were "too general", they learned that they wanted to stay away from a product that can improve the management/organization of the group, considering how people nowadays are more solution-oriented. It is stated that they'd like to focus on another direction; methods of sharing ideas between the creative and business sides.

     

     

     

  • 1.2 Expert Interview

    1.2 Expert Interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den september 27, 2019 av martho

    Who was interviewed? 



    1. A mother of two, who has a child in 2nd grade, and one in kindergarten. 

    2. A female teacher with many years of experience, who now is mainly teaching kids with special needs in 1.-4. grade. 


     

    Where was the interview conducted? 



    1. The first interview was conducted at the college university of Østfold, in a group room. 

    2. The second one was conducted at the school, in a group room, where the teacher works. 


     

    How was the interview conducted? 


    All of the group members contributed to making the questions. Before the interview we separated responsibilities among the people in our group. Primarily, one person was asking the questions, but the others could ask questions one by one afterwards.

    For both the interviews we showed appreciation for the person’s time, and guided them through the processwhat we wanted to know and that we had some questions about their experiences and thoughts. They signed the consent form which gives them anonymity, and which tells them the sound record will only be used by us and will be deleted afterwards. 

    We started the recording, asked our questions and showed interest by nodding or confirming what they’ve told us. At first, we asked some of our predefined questions, and depending on what the person said, we asked some questions that came to mind. This way it would become more of a natural conversation, and also a semi-structured interview. 

    Afterwards, we once again thanked them for their time and asked if they wanted to continue to participate in the project - for further, upcoming tasks.

     

    What was the theme(s) of the interview? 


    The communication between teachers and parents, and each of the parties experiences. 

     

    Why was the theme(s) chosen? 


    The theme was chosen in order to get personal input on the communication between the teachers and parents. In addition, we chose it to explore people’s own experiences and what they might find challenging about the information flow. 

     

    Interview Guide (questions) 



    • How do you communicate with the parent(s)/ teacher(s) of your pupils? 

    • What do you as a parent/teacher think about the existing communication system between the parent and teacher? 

    • Does the teacher/parent provide enough information about your child/pupil? 

    • Do you have time to attend all the teacher-parent conferences? Do you feel like all parents have the time to attend all the teacher-parent conferences? 

    • What is challenging about the everyday communication between parents and teachers? 


    Parent questions



    • Hvordan kommuniserer du med lærerne til barnet ditt? 

    • Hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom foreldre og lærere? 

    • Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 

    • Synes du at lærerne formidler nok informasjon om barnet ditt? 

    • Har du tid til å komme til alle foreldremøter, og lignende? 


    Teacher questions



    • Hvordan kommuniserer du med foreldrene til elevene dine? 

    • Hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom foreldre og lærere? 

    • Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 

    • Synes du at foreldrene formidler nok informasjon om barnet deres/eleven? 

    • Føler du at alle foreldrene har tid til å komme til foreldremøter, og lignende? 


     

    Transcription 


    The First Interview: The Parent


    Kan du fortelle meg hvordan du kommuniserer med lærerne til barnet ditt? 

    SMS eller e-post.

    Og hva synes du om det nåværende kommunikasjonssystemet mellom deg og lærerne? 

    Syns ikke at det fungerer bra, og syns at det skal forbedres. 

    Hvordan synes du det kan forbedres? 

    Jeg skulle ønske det var en plattform for å kunne dele informasjon, og som i barnehagen hvor den yngste sønnen min går, så får vi noen ganger bilder og info om hva som skjer på en app. Noen ganger får vi ark med info fra skolen, men det er mer generell info om ting som skal skje. Så de kunne kanskje sette av en tid hver uke hvor de sender ut et kort “newsletter” med hva som har foregått den uken som gjelder mitt barn eller generelt, sånn at vi blir bedre oppdatert. 

    Hva synes du er utfordrende med den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen mellom foreldre og lærere? 

    Det er litt upersonlig, og det er vanskelig å få tak i dem fordi de kun har jobbtelefon. Sønnen min går på skole og er flyttet til et midlertidig lokale så vi har ikke det daglige møtet, fordi vi må sette de på bussen og så kjører de. Og i fjor hadde vi bedre kommunikasjon fordi vi så læreren hver dag. 

    Det blir altså ikke formidlet nok informasjon om barnet ditt? 

    Nei, det blir det ikke. 

    Når det er foreldremøter og konferansetimer, har du tid til å være med på alt? 

    Ja, men vi bytter litt på det, noen ganger er jeg med, men nå er det litt vanskelig fordi det er så langt unna. 

    Så, når det er foreldremøte er det én av foreldrene som møter opp? 

    Ja. 

    Er dere flinke til å medføre informasjonen til hverandre eller skal læreren gi et sammendrag til begge foreldrene som f.eks. sendes på e-mail? 

    Det hadde vært fint, fordi samboeren min han glemmer litt, og det var foreldremøte i går og da var han tilstede. 

    Så du skulle ha ønsket at selv om ikke alle foreldrene hadde møtt opp, så ville alle foreldrene kunne ha fått den samme informasjonen selv om du ikke var der personlig? 

    Ja. 

    Føler du at læreren holder deg godt oppdatert om hvordan sønnen din har det daglig på skolen, eller om sønnen din har god eller negativ oppførsel? 

    Nei, det gjorde de i fjor, men nå så hører vi stort sett ingenting med mindre vi sender en melding. Så jeg vet at andre i klassen har problemer med å få tak i læreren, fordi jobbtelefonen hennes fungerer ikke, så hun får ikke beskjed. 

    Så du har ingen måter å kontakte de privat, kun i jobbetiden? 

    Ja, i fjor kunne vi kontakte de på deres private telefon, men i år så har de fått jobbtelefoner og da svarer de kun i jobbetiden, og da er de stort sett opptatt med å være lærere. 

     

    The Second Interview: The Teacher


    Først, så kan jeg spørre deg om du er kontaktlærer …? 

    Jeg har en stilling som er litt miks. Jeg er ansvarlig for intensiv opplæring, som dekker 1.-4.trinn. Primært nå er jeg på 1.-2.trinn i forhold til det da, og med de ressursene jeg har, så har jeg fem timer i uka. Så nå jobber jeg med å lage gode grupper i forhold til nivået de er på. Mange har jo ikke lært alle lydene ennå, og klarer ikke å sette lyder og bokstaver sammen, og så er vi på veldig tidlige lesestadiet og sånt. Så det er mye å jobbe med. Nå driver jeg med [spesial pedagogikk] på flere av elevene jeg har hatt siden 1.trinn. Dette er 3. trinn da, følger noen kjente elever der, primært med lesing; lesing og matte. Og så har jeg også- fordi jeg fyller opp for en kontaktlærer som har bibliotekansvaret her på skolen. Så når ho har bibliotektid, så har jeg engelsk på begge- eller hele trinnet, og så har jeg norsk og matte. Så sånn timelærer da, så jeg har på måte ikke en kontaktlærerstilling. Men jeg er jo, i bunn og grunn, førskolelærer med masse tilleggsutdanning, [spesial pedagogikk], og masse fag oppe på der igjen, men norsk som greia mi. Så der er min bakgrunn da, pluss at jeg har jobbet like mye i barnevernet og psykiatri som skolen, men nå har jeg jobbet noen år, så det ca. 15 år på hvert sted. 

    Så, mens du har jobbet nå da på 1.-4. trinn, har du hatt noe kontakt med foreldrene til elevene dine? 

    Det har jeg, men eh- eh, ikke i det settet her, fordi jeg har på en måte alltid vært student eller hatt andre typer oppgaver, men jeg har vært kontaktlærer tidligere. Og da har jeg vært kontaktlærer fra 1.-4. trinn, bare at det er en stund siden. 

    Så, hvordan kommuniserte du med foreldrene da, når du var kontaktlærer? 

    Eh, jeg hadde- hvis jeg skal summe meg litt tilbake til da jeg sist hadde 1.klasse, så var det veldig ofte- jeg hadde veldig ofte kontakt. Det kunne vært i morgensituasjon, bringing, og så den daglige praten. Men det er alltid sånn at det er noen som kommer mer frampå enn andre i forhold at de har mer behov for å snakke mer med lærerne enn ellers og sånn. Men det er mer på sånt detalj-beskjed-nivå. Det er ikke da du tar de store samtalene på en måte, det rekker du ikke heller. Og det var rett og slett litt uryddig også, fordi at når du skal ta imot klassen din, så har du nok med å hilse inn barn, ikke være på mange nivåer samtidig i hodet, ikke sant, da blir det jo ikke noe særlig kommunikasjon ut av det. Men det kunne vært sånn- det var oftere kontakt i hvert fall med de yngste.  

    Eh, og så har vi jo obligatoriske utviklingssamtaler. Vi har jo mobil: beskjeder og mail, ikke sant, så det her slusa seg litt ut. Hva får du på mail, hva får du på mobil, kanskje fravær, «ungen min har gått litt senere hjemmefra i dag, pass på at de kommer. Kan du gi meg beskjed når de kommer.» Den biten der. Til litt mer alvorligere livshendelser og andre type ting som er viktig at læreren får greie på om barns liv da og situasjon. Eh, telefonsamtalen eller direkte som her nå, møter eller på mail, så det var flere kanaler da.

    Hva synes du om det kommunikasjonssystemet? Synes du det var bra, eller om det er noe som burde bli forbedret? 

    Eh, hvis det går på det sikkerhetsmessige, så synes jeg det var litt dårlig å ha min mobil som jeg alltid måtte sørge for var der, i forhold om barna kom på skolen eller ikke. For vi har jo et ansvar om å vite om barnet er sykt, eller om det er- så nå er har jo alle kontaktlærere egne telefoner som hører til klassen. Jeg tenker at det er en gave. Vi er sent ute med det, for vi fikk det først nå. Veldig bra, for da har vi den sikkerheten igjen i forhold til hvorfor barna er vekk og sånt. 

    Eh, men [kommunikasjonssystemet] var bra, jeg tenkte vel aldri over det, for det var bare sånn det var. Jeg savnet ikke noe annet da, tror jeg. Men det er klart, eh, foreldre er forskjellige og så klart, jeg skulle ønske at noen kom litt før til meg, ved å gi et hint da «jeg trenger en samtale med deg om noe» eller «hvorfor er barnet som det er på skolen?». Sånn at man kanskje hadde forstått situasjonen bedre- vært mer tilpasset i forhold til barnets situasjon da. For barn reagerer jo når det er ting i livet, og det eh- men vi sier jo i fra at vi vil ha beskjed. Men noen ganger så tenkte jeg «oi, det her skulle jeg gjerne ha visst, ikke sant.» Jeg fikk faktisk en «faren min er død, han.» … Det skulle jeg faktisk ha visst… Vi har lesebøker med sånne temaer. Jeg vil gjerne kjenne klassen min før jeg tar det som et leseeksempel på en måte. Sånne tingen, ikke sant. Så kommunikasjonen kan jo aldri være god nok, men det er viktige ting å vite om. 

    Så, det er noe av det som er utfordrende ved den hverdagslige kommunikasjonen? Sånne ting? 

    Mhm. 

    Hvilke måter foretrekker du å kommunisere med foreldrene? Er det liksom person til person, foreldremøter, eller er det sånn en daglig mail eller melding? Som du foretrekker? 

    Det kommer helt an på hva det skal kommuniseres om. Jeg tar veldig gjerne møte- det møtet. Fordi at det andre er- du må tolke litt da, i meldinger og mail og sånn. Men har man en klar avtale på hva man skal melde ifra om på mobil: fravær, enkle ting, glemt boka. Hvis du har en unge som er litt stresset for at du snakker om å ta opp boka og så har den ikke husket boka, så kan man godt få den beskjeden da. Eh, selv om det ikke er så viktig, så er det noen unger det er veldig viktig for. Man kan jo gjøre sånne individuelle avtaler med foreldre, men da må man jo ha tatt den samtalen, som man gjerne tar på høsten. Med nye elever så ønsker jeg å komme fort inn i samtalemodus med foreldre, gjerne med et treff. Jeg vet ikke, det å sitte ned og kjenne litt på folk, synes jeg er litt ålreit. Så får de en feeling for meg også. Det er en god ting å gjøre. 

    Men når du har møter, føler du at begge foreldrene prioriterer å komme, eller føler du ofte det er en part som dukker opp? 

    Det er gjerne én part, eh, men jeg sier alltid ifra der det er skilte hjem at begge foreldrene har lov å komme, men at de kan komme hver for seg. Jeg har vært gjennom den biten selv, det er ikke bare å sitte sammen i en samtale med læreren hvis man har gått fra hverandre. Men da åpnet jeg opp for begge deler. Men det er klart, har du 24 elever og mange skilte hjem, så får du mange møter. Men man må jo tilpasse seg situasjonen, tenker jeg. Jeg har aldri sittet med klokka da, selv om man sier- man har jo denne halvtimen på samtalen, men møtet skal man kunne ta. Jeg vil gjerne være litt åpen på det, «bare kom». Vi gjør avtaler, og får vi det ikke til en gang, så får vi det til neste gang. Men min tid er også viktig, så jeg vil gjerne få beskjed. Du sitter ikke der gang på gang, bare venter og ingen kommer, det gidder vi ikke. Men det skjer ikke så ofte, egentlig. 

     

    Analysis and summary of findings with quotes 


    Both parties answered our questions, including those we came up with during the interview. The parent said she mainly communicated with the teacher through e-mails and text messages. However, she isn’t satisfied with the way they communicate, because the contact is impersonal and infrequent. 
    She says she “has problems getting in touch with the teacher, because the teacher only has a work phone , and [the teacher] doesn’t get the messages”.  

    The parent wants an application or platform where teachers can share information with the parents, such as sending general information. In her opinion, the teacher needs to be available more hours a day than just during work hours. The teacher however thought that getting a work phone has been a nice change, meaning that they are only available during work hours. Also, the teacher felt that having her own phone charged and available at all times was a burden.
    “For security purposes, I think it’s bad for me to always make sure my [private] phone is there, to check if a child has arrived at school or not,” the teacher says.

    Both parties agreed that they want a more personal way of communicating.
    “It’s a bit impersonal, and it’s difficult to reach [the teacher] because they only have a work phone,” the mother says. 

    The parent and the teacher preferred to communicate over face-to-face meetings so they could get a better understanding, but the parent thinks it should be more often.
    The teacher points out “it’s important to set a time for important conversations beforehand, and not take those conversations during a chaotic morning, since the teacher’s focus should primarily be on the kids. Also, the teacher should be notified of important things happening in a child's life.”

    She also says they differentiate what type of messages they should get over e-mails, the phones, and the direct face-to-face meeting. 

    When we brought up the teacher-parent conferences, both sides agreed mostly only one parent show up. As the teacher had experienced, she was open for both parents to come separately if they aren't together.
    The mother said, “it would be nice [to get a summary of the meeting sent on e-mail to both parents], because [the father of my son] easily forgets things.

    What we thought was the most interesting part was the application/platform the mother suggested. This is something we would like to look more into in the further parts of this project. 

  • 1.1 Exploration through Literature Search

    1.1 Exploration through Literature Search

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 17/09/2019 av lsaksnes

    Forberedelse 

    Aller først starter vi å diskutere hva temaet vårt handler om.

    Education” har vi valgt, og det innebærer alt vi gjør i høst. Vi er jo tross alt studenter nå. Vi diskuterer hva utdanning er og har vært fra vi var små til nå; hvilke fag har vi hatt utbytte av, hva kommer vi til å få bruk for videre i livet og er alt vi har lært til nå nyttig for ungdom i dag? Dessuten har vi fundert på hvilke karakterer fra VGS som har påvirket veien hit.  

    Mange spørsmål dukker opp underveis;  

    Why arent kids today as focused on education as before? 

    How does verbal interactions between primary school children affect their personal development in social settings later in life? 

    How can the elementary schools use the childrens social media usage to their academic advantage? 

    How can online education help kids (primary school pupilsbecome more engage in eLearning? 

    What is the reason why kids find education dry and dull, while social media and gaming more interesting and entertaining? 

      

    Søk 

    Vi må finne søkeord. Ord som kan hjelpe oss å finne relevante artikler til våre spørsmål. Vi prøver de første som slår oss når vi tenker på utdanning. Vi finner artikler fra i år og helt tilbake til 90-tallet. Lengre bak enn det tør vi ikke sjekke. Vi siler ut alt før 2015, det er interessant men ikke oppdatert nok. Vi prøver engelsk versjon og norsk versjon av spørsmålet vårt for å finne naturlige kandidater til rapporten.  

     

     

    Utvelgelse 

    Flere timer passerer, det er mange som er engasjerte i hvilket utbytte utdanning har for oss jo eldre vi blir.  Vi begynner å 

     

    Evaluering 

     

  • Cultural probe exercise

    Cultural probe exercise

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av Mohamed

    Family rituals - http://www.davidchatting.com/familyrituals/culturalprobes/

     

    Design goal: This cultural probe's design goal is to find out how  an individual's familiy life is, and how their daily routines help shape it. Another goal is to collect information about the individual's attitudes and values.

    Probe is made of:


    • Question box - Task:

    • Booklet called What Makes You You? - Family can for example answer the different questions, and complete the tasks.

    • Like/dislike stamp + camera - Task can be to stamp either things you like or dislike, and photograph these.

    • Card asking about house rules - Task can be to write house rules.


     

    • Booklet called "Your life as a Mobile Worker" - Task: Complete the booklet when not at home

    • List of photos - Take pictures while doing work trips

    • Set of maps with stickers - Task: Indicate trips and social networks.

  • 1.2 Expert interview

    1.2 Expert interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 4 - Publisert den september 27, 2019 av Mohamed


    1. Who was interviewed?

      We chose to interview Stein Hanssen Sæstad because he is an informatics student at Østfold University, which is relevant for our topic. He is 23 years old and fits perfectly with our selected age group.

      Our plan was to interview two different experts about this topic, where one of the interviewees would be between our selected age group from 18-25, and the other interviewee would be with a lecturer with a lot of knowledge about technology and socializing from outside of our selected age group.

      We couldn’t conduct an interview with a lecturer after asking several unfortunately, so we only interviewed Stein.




    2. Where was the interview conducted?

      The interview was conducted in a group room at Halden university college.




    3. How was the interview conducted?

      The interview was conducted face to face with the interviewee in a closed room. The type of the interview was semi-structured with some predefined questions, which allowed room for follow-up questions.




    4. What was the theme(s) of the interview?

      The theme of the interview was to get a better understanding of how young adults socialize using technology.




    5. Why was the theme(s) chosen?

      This theme was chosen because we want to research how socialization between young adults has changed because of the development of technology.




    6. Interview guide (questions):



    • Q1: How old are you?

    • Q2: What do you study?

    • Q3: What kind of technology devices do you use in your everyday life?

      • How often do you use these technologies?



    • Q4: What do you use these technologies for?

    • Q5: How does the technologies you mentioned help you to communicate with others?

      • IF these technologies doesn’t help communication: Why do you feel that these technologies don’t help with communication?



    • Q6: How would you socialize with other people without the use of these technologies?

      • Give an example if interviewee doesn’t understand: How do you contact your friends if you forget your phone at home or if it is out of power?



    • Q7: What is your opinion about using technology and social media to socialize with others?

    • Q8: Do you have any security concerns using these technologies?

    • Q9: What is your best experience with online communication?

      • How did this make you feel?

      • How often does it happen?

      • When was the last time?



    • Q10: What is your worst experience with online communication?

      • How did this make you feel?

      • How often does it happen?

      • When was the last time?

      • Does it happen with people you know?

      • Why do you think the people bullying/harassing others do it?



    • Q11: Is there anything we haven’t asked about that you would like to add perhaps?


     

    7. Transcription

    We chose to upload the transcription of the interview on google docs as a standalone document to not have several pages to scroll through on the blog. The transcription can be seen by clicking the follow link: Expert interview transcription.

     

    8. Summary

    The interviewee uses many different technology devices, but less frequently than before. He thinks it’s easy to socialize and become friends with others online and thinks online communication is a very positive thing, especially to make networks through video games or social media - “My best experiences would be making friends with people and making a network with people from around the world through games and through other means of online communication. Online socializing also makes it easy to avoid feeling lonely. Despite this, he hasn’t used online communication to make new friends the last 2-3 years. Now he prefers to meet people in real life, face-to-face.

    The interviewee also feels online communication can have its negative sides as well, as he has experienced online harassment personally. He also thinks that online harassment occurs because of how easy it is to be anonymous - “because you’re not looking at the face of another person. You’re just a name and it doesn’t even have to be your own name.

     Analysis    

    The interviewee got to have a look at the questions we had prepared 10 minutes before the interview. Both the interviewee and the group felt that this was a good idea so that the interviewee got to see the topic and questions in advance, which led to better and more thought through answers. This made the interviewee understand all the questions asked at the interview without any hiccups as well. The interviewee gave relatable and good enough answers for us to reflect on our chosen topic.

    When reflecting upon the interview, we feel that some of the interviewee’s answers applies to many young adults from 18-25 as well, but not necessarily all. People are different, and may have different use cases and opinions about socializing via technology. Just because the interviewee says he’s using one specific platform (for example Facebook), that might not apply to everyone within our selected age group.

    However, one interviewee would not be a big enough sample size to analyze and compare data from. If we wanted to do a proper analysis and comparison of data of how young adults within our selected age group uses technology for socialization as well as their opinions about the topic, we would need to have several interviews, preferably with a quantitative style.

  • Unge forskerspirer og innovatører

    Unge forskerspirer og innovatører

    Hva skjer'a? - Publisert den 26. september 2019 av Solveig Kristine Østby Vitanza

    Fra venstre: Harald Holone, Kim René Kristiansen Sydnes, Michael A. Lundsveen, Andreas Harnes, Nina Ewart (Foto: Hedvig E. Hovde Grønlund Moen)



    Hvordan kan HiØ  legge til rette for at våre studenter kan være med på å løse morgendagens utfordringer gjennom forskning og innovasjon? I høgskolens strategiske plan står det at høgskolen skal «sørge for at bachelor- og masterstudentane våre blir inviterte til å ta del i forskinga og det kunstnarlege utviklingsarbeidet til dei fagtilsette.»

    Ved å koble studentene tidlig på forskning, kan vi gi dem praktisk erfaring og en mer dyptgående fagkunnskap som jeg tror videreutvikler studentenes nysgjerrighet og engasjement for å løse utfordringer, både gjennom studiene og i den videre karrieren. , Under finner dere tips til samarbeid og muligheter HiØ har for å fremme kreativitet og skaperlyst hos våre studenter.

    Innovasjon og entreprenørskap

    Høgskolen har flere samarbeidspartnere som bidrar til kreativitet og innovasjonskompetanse. Vi har i flere år samarbeidet tett med Ungt entreprenørskap (UE) og starter hvert år opp flere studentbedrifter, særlig på IR. Lærerutdanningen har også hatt samarbeid med UE i sin opplæring om entreprenørskap i skolen på grunnskolelærerutdanningen. Mens IT- avdelingen hvert år kjører Innovasjonscamp.

    Drivhuset Østfold er HiØs studentinkubator og har flere programmer og tjenester for å bidra til innovasjon og entreprenørskap. Drivhuset har to fokusområder: (1) Lære og gi studenter praktisk erfaring med entreprenørskap og (2) Hjelpe studenter som vil utvikle en idé eller starte eget selskap.

    STUD-ENT er Forskningsrådets nasjonale konkurransearena hvor studenter i samarbeid med høyere utdanningsinstitusjoner kan søke om prosjektstøtte til studentdrevne forretningsideer. Hensikten er å bidra til økt studententreprenørskap gjennom å fremme forretningsideer som er kommet ut av forskningsresultater eller kunnskap studenter har ervervet gjennom studiet. Neste søknadsfrist er 12. februar, så spre det glade budskap.

    Halden bibliotek åpner Makerspace i samarbeid med HiØ/IT

    14. november 2019 åpner Halden bibliotek et Makerspace-tilbud for barn og unge i Halden. Makerspace er et verksted som tilrettelegger for læring og inspirasjon ved å bruke en form for digital sløyd - et rom fylt av verktøy og nyskapende teknologi. Et Makerspace ved biblioteket vil gi barn og unge et unikt tilbud om tidlig involvering og eksperimentering med teknologi. Det vil bli lagt til rette for at studentene ved IT- avdelingen kan jobbe med dette tilbudet som en del av sine studier.

  • Expert interview

    Expert interview

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den september 26, 2019 av toreme

    Interviewee


    We interviewed Thomas Reichborn, a professional consultant in Oslo county who’s responsible for a dedicated tutoring team that assists Oslo-schools with the introduction and use of tablets.


    Where and how was the interview was conducted


    We had the opportunity to interview him using face-time from a conference room at the school.


    What was the theme of the interview and why we choose it


    How has the information flow between teacher and student has changed, and in what way can it be improved?


    Our goal is to figure out what the major challenges and benefits are/have been after the introduction of tablets (iPads) in elementary classrooms.


    Interview guide
    We planned to follow the guide for a semi structured-interview.


    Generelle spørsmål:


    Hva var bakgrunnen for at man ville innføre iPad i Osloskolen?


    Hva ønsket man å oppnå?


    Hvordan er oppsettet på nettbrettene som leveres ut?


    Har oppsettet forandret seg siden de første brettene ble levert ut?


    På hvilken måte?


    Hvor mye av innholdet står Utdanningsetaten for?


    Hvor mye av innholdet er låst, kan elevene selv legge inn apper?


    Var informasjonsflyt, på et eller flere områder, et argument da man bestemte seg for å satse på iPad?


    På hvilken måte, hva ønsket man å forbedre?


    Har man oppnådd det man ønsket?


    Informasjonsflyt: Skole - hjemmet


    Har innføringen av iPad endret måten skolene kommuniserer med elevenes foreldrene eller foresatte?


    På hvilken måte?


    Har iPaden gjort det lettere å få kommunisere med foreldre og foresatte?


    Hvor mye av informasjonen med hjemmet går gjennom digitale kanaler på de skolene som har innført iPad?


    Er mer informasjon digital nå enn før iPadene ble tatt i bruk?


    Hvilke tilbakemeldinger har dere fått fra elevenes foresatte?


    Er det noen sider av kommunikasjonen med hjemmet dere har valgt å ikke digitalisere?


    Oslo kommune har blant annet utviklet appen Skolemelding elev og ansatt. Blir den appen brukt i barneskolen?


    Hva var bakgrunnen for at den appen ble utviklet?


    Planlegger dere å utvikle andre apper som skal inn i skole-iPadene?


    Har det blitt enklere for foreldre å gi tilbakemeldinger eller beskjeder til skolen?


    Ser dere noe forbedringspotensial i hvordan kommunikasjonen med hjemmet foregår?


    På hvilken måte?


    Nye løsninger?


    Informasjonsflyt; Lærer - elev


    Hvordan bruker lærerne iPaden i sin måte å kommunisere med elevene? (beskjeder, dele ut oppgaver, ta imot lekser, gi tilbakemeldinger , vise ting i timen osv)


    Har det blitt lettere for lærerne å følge opp hver enkelt elev?


    På hvilken måte foregår det? Egne apper?


    Vet du hva lærerne synes om å bruke iPad til å kommunisere med elevene?


    Noen utfordringer knyttet til kommunikasjon med elevene på iPad?


    Brukes nettbrettet for å levere lekser, og gir lærerne tilbakemelding via samme kanal?
    Finnes det løsninger for å samtidig dele tilbakemeldingen med foreldre?


    Har innføringen av ipad forandret måten lærerne legger opp undervisningen på?


    Nye undervisningsmetoder?


    Hvor utbredt er bruken i de forskjellige fagene?


     Apper, oppgaver o.l (Matte, E-bøker)?


    Hvilke løsninger bruker lærerne mens de underviser?


    Bruker de iPaden aktivt i de fleste fag?


    Hvilket fag benyttes ikke iPad i dag?


    Hvordan er tilgangen på apper som egner seg til undervisning i de forskjellige fagene?


    Hvor viktig er interaktivitet?


    Utvikler dere mye selv?


    Har dere gjort noen målinger på læringsutbytte i de fagene hvor man benytter iPad?


    Er nettbrett mer effektivt for å lære bort en tradisjonell undervisning?


    Informasjonsflyt; Elev - elev


    Hvordan har innføring av iPad endret hvordan elevene kan samarbeide?


    Har det blitt mer utbredt med samarbeid? på / etter skolen?


    Hvilke løsninger benyttes i dag for samarbeid mellom elever?


    Finnes det noen løsninger for å samarbeide om for eks lekser?


    Evaluering:


    Hva vektlegges når dere skal evaluere iPad som en læringsressurs?


    Når det kommer til læringsutbytte, ser dere noen endringer i resultatet på for eks nasjonale prøver på de skolen som bruker iPad?


    Er det noen løsninger til undervisning, kommunikasjon eller lignende dere skulle ønske fantes, som ikke eksisterer i dag?



    Interview transcription


    Generelle spørsmål:


    Hva var bakgrunnen for at man ville innføre iPad i Osloskolen?


    - Det er skolene og deres behov som selv velger om de ønsker å bruke iPad i undervisningen.

    Hva var det de behovene gikk i som førte til nettbrett?


    - Nei, det er litt vanskelig å si, men det viktigste var vel å forenkle hvordan man gjorde ting, iPaden er et enkelt verktøy å håndtere, med mange funksjoner som er nyttig for alle aldersgrupper.


    Er det helt ned i førsteklasse som bruker det nå i Osloskolen?


    - Det er alt fra første [klasse] tilogmed voksenopplæring som bruker nettbrett, i varierende grad. også de eldre titter også på bruk.

    Hvordan er oppsettet på nettbrettene som leveres ut?


    - Alle styres av et MDM (Mobile Device Manager), i tillegg har hver enkelt skole en ansvarlig som setter egne innstillinger på deres skoles nettbrett.

    Har oppsettet forandret seg siden de første brettene ble levert ut?


    - Ja, tidligere hadde ikke iPadene det samme styringssystemet som nå, dette gikk Oslo kommune til innkjøp av etter behovet ble tydelig.

    Hvor mye av innholdet står Utdanningsetaten/Oslo kommune for?


    - Oslo kommune står for det som heter Skole Plattform Oslo, som er den sentrale løsningen vi har skaffet. Dette kan sammenlignes med Office 365. I tillegg står vi for It’s Learning og kommunikasjonssystemet Skolemelding.

    Skolemelding er utviklet av kommunen? kan du si litt om den, hva er det den gjør/løser?


    - Den løser all kommunikasjon mellom lærer/elev, og lærer/lærer, samt lærer/foresatt. Det er et sentralt system/portal som blir brukt mye.
    Det er i utgangspunktet ikke en app men et system med et app grensesnitt, så den finnes da på “ikke nettbrett” og på nettbrett. Det er en app som er utviklet for telefoner og nettbrett.

    Var informasjonsflyt, på et eller flere områder, et argument/motivasjon da man bestemte seg for å satse på iPad?


    - Nei, altså, motivasjon og motivasjon, det er jo ikke sånn at man innfører noe uten å kartlegge et behov, og at det er et kommunikasjonsbehov mellom de forskjellige brukergruppene i skolen er det jo ikke noe tvil om. Vi har jo  vært kjent med at foresatte har vært en brukergruppe som har følt seg minst ivaretatt. Men vi har jo hatt kommunikasjonssystemer som har vært digitaliserte i Oslo-skolen i mange år, så siden fronter-dagene, som ble innført for 15 år siden [fronter], men som da av ulike årsaker ikke ble videreført og avtaler som ikke ble fornyet, så ble dette nye kommunikasjonssystemet vårt laget. Det er ikke noe tvil om at det fremdeles er behov for et kommunikasjonsverktøy.

    I hvor stor grad løser den de behovene som finnes?


    - I utgangspunktet løser det  alle behovene, men om det løser det på de måtene skolene ønsker at det skal løses, det er ikke nødvendigvis gitt. Vi ser at skolene bruker en del andre løsninger enn de vi tilbyr, til å kommunisere gjennom. Og det er jo fordi de står veldig fritt til å velge de løsningene de selv ønsker å bruke. Men muligheten er der.

    Informasjonsflyt: Skole - hjemmet


    Har innføringen av iPad eller digitalisering endret måten skolene kommuniserer med elevenes foreldrene eller foresatte?


    - Ja, nå kan for eksempel lærerne selv velge om de skal la foresatte svare på beskjeder som blir sendt ut eller ikke.

    Har dere noen målinger på hvor vellykket det systemet har vært?


    - Jeg har ikke den statistikken tilgjengelig her nå, men en god indikator på at appen blir brukt mye er den høye prosentandelen av foresatte som har lastet ned appen.

    Med tanke på språkproblematikk, er det lettere for dere å distribuere informasjon på flere språk på denne måten?


    - Jeg har jo hørt om skolen som legger ut beskjeder i flere ulike morsmål, så det blir brukt google translate på meldinger de ikke forstår osv.

    Ser dere noe forbedringspotensial i hvordan kommunikasjonen med hjemmet foregår? På hvilken måte?


    - Appen er  kontinuerlig under utvikling, vi tar i mot ting som folk stusser på, funksjonalitet  som kanskje ikke er helt optimal så det blir jo hele tiden endret. At det er et forbedringspotensiale der, er det jo. Alt utvikler seg jo. Det å nå ut til foresatte kan jo alltid være et problem (Sosiale grunner fremfor teknisk i så fall).

    Informasjonsflyt; Lærer - elev


    Hvordan bruker lærerne iPaden i sin måte å kommunisere med elevene? (beskjeder, dele ut oppgaver, ta imot lekser, gi tilbakemeldinger, vise ting i timen osv)


    - Det varierer fra skole til skole, fordi ulike skoler bruker ulike apper. Noen skoler er litt mer fremtredende enn andre, som du sikkert har kjennskap til, men det er jo  en del skoler som bruker Showby, som de bruker som en informasjonskanal, selv om det etter vår oppfatning er mer et oppgave verktøy, men de putter f.eks dokumenter inn i Showby som de mener elevene skal lese osv. I tillegg så bruker de dette meldingssystemet eller også OneNote og andre typer apper, men at de har et sånt samlet sted som alle har full kontroll på, er jeg litt usikker på. Det er en utfordring å ha enhetlig praksis på skolen når det er så mange apper og verktøy å velge mellom.

    Er det også litt styrt av lærernes interesse og kompetanse når det kommer til dette? Hvor stor grad de har erfaring selv som de vil bruke med elevene?


    - Ja, det kan kanskje sies å være den største utfordringen. En lærer bruker noe for alt det er verdt, mens en annen liker noe annet, og bruker det, og elevene står midt imellom og blir litt sånn halv forvirra på hvor man finner hva. Dette har vi prøvd å bøte på ved at alle skoler i Oslo har en såkalt “kanal strategi” så vi kan prøve å ha en enhetlig praksis. Det er nok ikke alle som får til det, og noe av årsaken til det er at utviklingen går veldig fort. Plutselig dukker det opp et nytt favoritt system for noen, og så blir det vanskelig for andre å henge med. Det er mer utbredt hos de eldre elevene, de som har flere faglærere, og ikke kun kontaktlæreren, da må eleven plutselig forholde seg til flere ulike måter å gjøre ting på. Elevene selv uttrykker et ønske om forbedring akkurat her. Vi ser at noen skoler utpeker seg innen kommunikasjon og bruken mellom lærer og elev og ett av de er OneNote.

    Har det vært et alternativ for Utdanningsetaten å låse iPadene i større grad, for å hindre at det blir brukt så mange ulike systemer?


    - Ja, det er en pågående prosess. Det har ikke så mye med at det er mange systemer å forholde seg til, men heller dette med GDPR-lovgivning som gjør at man ikke kan tillate at alle laster ned det de vil og distribuerer det fritt ut til elevene sine. Det må det være en viss kontroll på. Oslo kommune ser på å utvikle en lokal app-store, slik som Bærum-skolen har, der det er flere restriksjoner og mer styring av hvilke apper skolen får lov til å laste ned.

    Vet du hva lærerne synes om å bruke iPad til å kommunisere med elevene?


    - De får gitt de beskjedene som de ønsker å gi overfor elevene. Det er heller overfor foresatte at det er et problem å nå frem med kommunikasjon.

    Hva er innvendingen fra foresatte?


    - Foreldre forstår ofte ikke sin rett til innsyn, det kan være at foreldre vil gå inn på ipaden og se alt hva sine håpefulle gjør, men det er jo ikke helt sånn det fungerer. Barn har også rett til personvern, så det gjør at foresatte egentlig ikke skal kunne gå inn på elevenes nettbrett. Mye av frustrasjonen ligger i at de ikke får se alt elevene gjør, men det skal de heller ikke gjøre.

    Sånn som denne skolemelding appen, er det sånn at foreldrene også kan se alle beskjedene der, eller er det delt opp i forskjellige seksjoner?


    - Læreren kan velge å sende kun til elev, eller velge å hekte på foresatte. I de fleste tilfeller sender de til både elev og foresatt. Akkurat meldingsappen fungerer veldig godt som kommunikasjonskanal ut til foresatte. Utfordringen ligger i at man ikke når de som ikke har appen, og evt må sende sms og epost-varsling ved bruk av appen for å fange opp de som ikke allerede har den.

    Har det blitt lettere for lærerne å følge opp hver enkelt elev?


    - Lærerne sier at dokumentasjonen de har fra elevene, altså arbeidet og oppgavene de gjør, som de bruker som grunnlag til vurdering, er mye enklere når de har iPad. En av de tingene de gjør mye av er å ta bilder og filmer til når de gjør ting i f.eks kunst og håndverk, slik at de får et godt  vurderingsgrunnlag som er mye bedre nå enn før. Men mye av kommunikasjonen er nok muntlig tilbakemeldinger og relasjonen mellom lærer og elev. Mange av disse elevene er jo så små at de ikke kan lese selv enda.

    Har innføringen av ipad forandret måten lærerne legger opp undervisningen på? Nye undervisningsmetoder?


    - Det vi ser med de som lykkes med iPad-bruken er at læreren har endret seg fra å være en som står som en slags foredragsholder til at elevene er mer og mer involvert i  sin egen læring. De lærerne som ikke begrenser potensialet i bruken lykkes mye bedre enn de som bruker iPad som en slags kladdebok.

    Hvordan hjelper/veileder dere lærere til å bli flinkere til å bruke iPad? Trygger dere de utrygge eller introduserer dere løsninger de kan ta i bruk i undervisning?


    - Det er i utgangspunktet skolene selv som spør oss om hjelp, det er begrenset hvor mye vi kan hjelpe de skolene som har behov for det, da det er 190 skoler i Oslo og vi er 7 stykker på veilederteamet vårt. Det hele går via en søknadsprosess og via oslo og så går det via områdedirektør, og etter visse kriterier er det noen som får hjelp. Nå i år har vi rukket å hjelpe 25 skoler, der de får et standard opplegg, et kurs og veiledning ute på skolene. Det de får hjelp til er gjerne systemer de har selv, altså, de har hørt at  naboskolen synes ‘det’ systemet er kjempebra og så har de kjøpt det, og skjønner ikke helt hvordan de skal bruke det, så må vi komme å vise dem hvordan de skal bruke det. Hvis de har et bevisst forhold til hvilket system de har kjøpt, så hjelper vi dem med det. Veiledernes primæroppgave er å lære dem god praksis.

    Bruker de iPaden aktivt i de fleste fag? Er det app-basert hvilke fag det blir mest brukt i?


    - Det er ikke et app-fokus lenger, man trenger ikke en lese-app eller matte-app for å gjøre matte. De bruker det de kaller “produksjons apper” tilsvarende omtrent PowerPoint, og så produserer elever presentasjoner og annet. Man sitter ikke like mye å terper og jobber med oppgaver, det nærmer seg en fagfornyelse med rike og åpne oppgaver. Det er ikke mer enn en fire fem apper som alle bruker på skolen. Klart er det noen som er snevret inn på et tema, men dette er ikke like viktig lenger.

    Har dere gjort noen målinger på læringsutbytte i de fagene hvor man benytter iPad?


    - Vi måler ikke så mye utover Oslo-prøver og nasjonale prøver, så det å se en klar sammenheng mellom hvorvidt det å bruke iPad skaper mer læring enn de som ikke gjør det, har vi enda ingen gode tall på.

    Tilbakemelding fra lærerne, opplever de det som positivt å bruke iPad?


    - De fleste gjør det.  Lærerne er så klart ulike, det å få noen som har undervist på den samme måten i 30 år til å endre undervisningsmetode, kan være utfordrende, samtidig som man har de som ser nytten og verdien i iPad og er kjempe interessert i det, har lettere for å lykkes. Det er mange som ser nytten i dette verktøyet, gitt at det blir brukt riktig.

    Dette stiller kanskje noen nye krav til lærerne som de ikke har vært overfor før?


    - Det er helt riktig. Det er jo snakk om en del penger skolen bruker på å kjøpe dette. Ikke bare er det dyrt, men det kan jo være bortkastet å bruke masse penger på noe som ikke fungerer. Veldig mange skoleledere er veldig på for at det skal bli en suksess, for å si det sånn.

    Informasjonsflyt; Elev - elev


    Hvordan har innføring av iPad endret hvordan elevene kan samarbeide?


    - Mitt inntrykk er at de samarbeider på en annen måte nå, enn før. Nå har de egne systemer de kan samarbeide og drive med gruppearbeid i.

    Sånn som i de produksjons appene du snakker om at de bruker, er det noen innebygde samarbeid funksjoner der de kan samarbeide om å jobbe med det samme arket eller jobbe seg i mellom?


    - Ja, det er det så absolutt. Og det benyttes mye. Det samarbeides jo på mange flere måter, at en skriver og andre snakker for eksempel, slik som de også gjorde før, det er mye enklere nå.

     Er det noen muligheter for samarbeid også utenfor skolen, med for eksempel lekser?


    - Ja, de fleste har jo også med seg iPaden hjem, så der er det akkurat samme funksjoner hjemme som på skolen.

    Blir lekser levert på iPaden?


    - Ja, det er fullt mulig å levere lekser via iPad. Hvordan de leverer leksene avhenger av hva slags type lekse de har. Om det ikke leveres på iPad så blir det dokumentert med iPad i form av at man tar bilder av leksene.

    Evaluering:


    Når dere skal evaluere satsingen av iPad på skolene, hva er det man setter som suksesskriterier da?


    - Vi har ingen direkte måling på bruk av disse systemene, vi måler ikke antall timer brukt på iPad eller lignende. Vi styrer hovedsakelig etter de resultatene skolene har, i form av nasjonale prøver slik som vi alltid har gjort. Om en skole har gått veldig ned i resultater i forhold til tidligere resultater er det klart man må ta det til etterretning og revurdere bruken.

    Er det noen løsninger til undervisning, kommunikasjon eller lignende dere skulle ønske fantes, som ikke eksisterer i dag?


    - Nei, det er veldig vanskelig å svare på. Skolene har sine behov, de finner ofte løsninger som dekker behovene sine i varierende grad, men de får det jo ofte til. Siden behovene varierer så veldig så er det vanskelig å si noe konkret. Det er lettere å se behovet for mer tekniske ting som lagring. Men de er stort sett fornøyd.

    Er det noen av skolene som har gått til innkjøp av iPad, som har dempet satsingen?


    - Ja, det er noen som har falt litt fra i satsingen av iPad, ofte pga skolelederen tenker det er genialt, uten at hverken de selv eller lærerne helt forstår hvordan de skal bruke det, og så fortsetter de bare på samme måte som tidligere i stedet for å sette seg inn i det. Hovedutfordringen handler kanskje om at de ikke har nok  kompetanse til å kunne bruke det på en god måte.

    Summary and analysis


    The motivation to introduce iPads in Oslo came from the needs of the schools. He meant that the iPad solved many of the needs, and at the same time it’s an easy tool to use.


    The tablets are controlled by an MDM (Mobile Device Manager) provided to all schools in Oslo, but each school has a lot of freedom beyond that. The municipality of Oslo provides what is called the “Skole Plattform”, which in short is office 365, Itslearning and Skolemelding.


    They don’t measure the use of iPads in any specific way, other than what they’ve always done - using “Nasjonale prøver” and “Osloprøver”. They have numbers on how many people download their apps, but other than that there’s not much statistics.


    The biggest challenge with using tablets in schools is that not all teachers know how to use it, and it’s difficult to get help for those who seek it. The help team consists of 7 people that’s supposed to help 190 schools.


    There is also a privacy issue regarding the ipads pupils use. Parents’ desire right to access to see what their kids do on their tablets, but they're not always granted permission due to the strict privacy laws the schools have to follow.


    Another challenge is that many students expressed is the lack of standardisation in the use of apps for communication. Outside of the named apps schools are free to use most apps. This can cause a student to use two different apps serving the same purpose based on the preference of the teacher. To reduce the variance of apps some neighboring districts/schools are creating special app stores/market to get more control. Oslo is also planning to do the same.

  • Bokslipp: Terror i Europas hjerte - tankesmien Agenda

    Bokslipp: Terror i Europas hjerte - tankesmien Agenda

    DIXIT TACITUS - Publisert den 18. september 2019 av fro


    Velkommen til bokslipp og debatt på Kulturhuset (boksen, 2. etg), tirsdag 17. september kl. 1730. I regi av forlaget Res Publica og Agenda.


    Det er snart fire år siden 130 personer mistet livet i seks nøyaktig koordinerte terrorangrep i Paris. Den 13. november 2015 smalt det i tre bomber under fotballkampen mellom Frankrike og Tyskland på Stade de France. Samtidig kjørte en bil til flere fortauskaféer i Paris og meide gjestene ned med maskingevær. I konsertlokalet Bataclan var 1 500 fans på konserten med bandet «Eagles of Death Metal». De ble fanget som gisler av tre terrorister i et inferno. Slik forgikk angrepet som IS fullt og helt planla og gjennomførte på europeisk jord i 2015.
    Forfatteren følger Salah Abdeslam, den eneste overlevende terroristen, på hans vei fra festglad ungdomskriminell i Brussel, til terrorist i Paris.

    Du møter:
    - Vibeke Knoop Rachline, utenriksjournalist bosatt i Paris og forfatter av boken Terror i Europas hjerter
    - Thomas Hegghammer, seniorforsker ved Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt (FFI) og professor II ved og C-REX - Senter for ekstremismeforskning ved Universitetet i Oslo
    - Franck Orban, førsteamanuensis ved avdeling for økonomi, språk og samfunnsfag, Høgskolen i Østfold
    - Sylo Taraku, rådgiver i Agenda og forfatter av bøkene Balkaniseringen av Europa og Frihetskampen i islam (kommer september 2019)
    - Ivar Iversen, redaksjonssjef i Agenda Magasin (ordstyrer)

    Velkommen til bokslipp og debatt på Kulturhuset (boksen, 2. etg), tirsdag 17. september kl. 1730. I regi av forlaget Res Publica og Agenda.

  • 1.1 Literature Review

    1.1 Literature Review

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den september 10, 2019 av vilden

    Documentation of the Literature Search


    1. Preparation


    Questions / Goal



    • Our main question for this literature review is: How do teachers and parents communicate, and how can we make it easier?

    • Other relevant questions are about the challenges in the information flow, what needs to be improved, and the available digital tools.

    • Our goal for this project is to improve the way teachers and parents communicate, such as sharing information and keeping in touch.


    Keywords



    • Elementary school, teacher, parents / parent, information, communication, technology, problems, challenges, to improve, collaboration, everyday, digital tool

    • Barneskole, lærer, foreldre / forelder, informasjon, kommunikasjon, teknologi, problemer, utfordringer, å forbedre, samarbeid, hverdagslig, digitale verktøy


    Combining Keywords



    • How do teachers and parents communicate? ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parents AND communication) OR ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parent AND communication) OR ("teacher parent collaboration" AND everyday) OR (barneskole AND lærer AND foreldre AND kommunikasjon)

    • Do they use some type of technology to communicate? Or are there any available digital tools for them to use? ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND technology) OR (barneskole AND lærer AND foreldre AND teknologi)

    • Are there any problems regarding teacher-parent communication? If so, what needs to be improved? ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND problems) OR ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND challenges) OR ("Elementary school" AND teacher AND parents AND communication AND "to improve")


    Determine Nature of Literature


    We'll search for relevant literature through the web, f.i. Google Scholar and Google Search. Here we are mainly looking for articles, reports, and similar, which could tell us about the current process of teacher-parent communication. We have chosen the Internet as an information source, due to the fact that books are often outdated.

     

    2. Search, Selection & Evaluation


    As previously mentioned, we wanted to use Google Scholar and Google Search to research. First, we searched the combined keywords. Afterwards, we searched full texts to try and gather more useful information. We were mainly looking for free PDF-files we could download, however we were open to other kinds of sources as well.

    As we were looking for relevant literature, we read the bibliographic information to gather a sense of what each of the documents were about. This way we could determine if they were indeed relevant for our research. To get the most recent piece of information, we filtered our searches. Thus the documents must have been released after 2010 for us to see it as relevant.

    Once we had gathered a handful of sources, we dug deeper into the documents to look for answers. For a short time period, we deleted sources and went looking for new ones with better keywords. As soon as we were satisfied, we began writing the summary.

     

    Literature Review


    Information Flow Between Teachers and Parents 


    Main Elements/Characteristics of the Information Flow 


    According to the Norwegian Education Act § 1-1, the school and the pupil’s caregivers are bound to cooperate. This way the parents have the rights to obtain information about their child, including rights and duties, during parent-teacher conferences, other meetings, and conversations. These rights are connected to the parents’ responsibility for raising their child, giving care, and making decisions on their behalf, whilst the school’s main responsibility is to educate (Helgøy & Homme, 2015). 

    The teacher-parent information flow is dynamic and everchanging, depending on what the context behind the approach is (Lilleindset, 2019), meaning it could be spontaneous or planned beforehand.  

    It’s standard to divide the teacher-parent cooperation into three levels: information, dialogue and discussions, and involvement and codetermination (Odden, 2016). The exchange of information, for instance regarding a pupil’s academic- and social development, is essential in the teacher-parent communication. In this mutual exchange there is room for dialogue and discussions (Udir, 2016). Involvement and codetermination are part of the highest level of cooperation. On this level, teachers and parents have the influence to make decisions affecting the pupil (Odden, 2016). 

    By using methods to create a good teacher-parent relation and cooperation, the home will become an active and responsible part of the pupil’s academic life (Lilleindset, 2019). Simultaneously, good cooperation will help the teachers develop a better educational environment, which again will help the pupil achieve better results. Once again, you can distinguish three forms of school-home cooperation: the representative-, the direct-, and the contactless cooperation (Helgøy & Homme, 2015) 

    The representative cooperation involves different groups of individuals. In Norwegian elementary schools, it’s natural to have a parent council, consisting of all the pupils’ parents. The parent council selects a few individuals for the parent-teacher association, who will discuss important matters with the teachers and staff members on behalf of the rest of the parents (ibid).  

    Direct cooperation is referring to direct yet formal meetings between the teacher and the caregivers, such as teacher-parent conferences and achievement review meetings. The parents will receive information about the pupil’s academic goals, their academic development, and how the home can contribute to reaching those goals. Which leads us to contactless cooperation. As mentioned earlier, the home should be an active and responsible part of the pupil’s academic life. The simple act of showing interest in the pupil’s everyday academic life, will increase the pupil’s motivation to do well in school (ibid). 

     

    Challenges Encountered in the Information Flow 


    Communication between parents and teachers at the elementary school levels is a two-way street. However, this street is often a bump one. The lack of information flow between the parents and the school creates challenges for everyone involved, and the kids are often the ones who pay the price for this unnecessary problem. Many parents today do not have the luxury to take time off work to go to every teacher-parent meeting, and to help out at school events. This creates less opportunities for teachers and parents to talk about the pupil (Hall, 2013). By giving both the parents and the teachers an easier way to convey both information and needs, the barriers and fear of missing out grow smaller (Edsys, 2017). 

    The schools have a responsibility to inform the parents of events at school, such as; teacher-parent conferences, soccer days, hiking trips and so on. Other than general information, the school also has the responsibility to convey to the parents how their child is doing in classes, as well as advancing in social skills and over all behavior. On the other hand, the parents are responsible to convey any important information that can be relevant to the school, such as: allergies, if there is a situation at home the school should be aware of, diagnoses (ADHD, diabetes, and so on), the general normal behavior of the child, and so on (Drugli, Nordahl, 2016). 

    At an elementary school level, kids are still discovering who they are, and who they want to be. This means that it is important for teachers to tell the parents how the pupil is behaving, whether it is good or bad behavior. However, at this level the teacher must take in consideration that the behavior of a child in a school setting, differs from the behavior the parents see in their child at home. This often makes for disagreements, and/or one offended party (Drugli, Nordahl, 2016). In moments like this, it is important not to forget that emotions need to be laid aside to come to the best conclusion. However, this disagreement and “on guard” attitude is a blockage in the communication flow.   

     

    What needs to be Improved 


    Parents and teachers need a good enough understanding towards a child's needs in their learning process. Which means the teachers and parents would have to be on the same page throughout the child’s upbringing. Some schools blame the parents at home for not spending enough time throughout the child’s schooling and learning, while the parents at home blame the school for lack of information and bad learning guidance for their own child (Lilleindset, 2019). This shows that teachers and parents have different opinions on the child’s needs. This is something that must be improved to create better communication between the school and home, and for those two parties to come to an agreement. 

    When teachers call a child's parents for misbehaving actions it wouldn’t be pleasant news for a parent, and as Andrew McCormick stated, “Children don’t connect an error in their behavior from 9:00 am to a stern parent lecture at 4:00 pm.” Which points out that this might not be a good solution to teach a child, and at the same time the communication between the teacher and parent gives a negative impact. A pupil’s behavior is contextual. If there is a behavior in your class that you don’t like, it’s your responsibility to fix it.  This approach makes you the authority figure in the classroom (McCormick, 2015). 

    Some parents would have this bad feeling once a teacher tries to reach out to them, in the thoughts of “oh no, what did the kid do?” Which can portray how a parent think of school in a negative way. Having a communication policy that asks teachers to contact parents monthly, say, would subvert parent’s expectations that a phone call from the teacher means trouble at school (Lanagan, 2015). 

     

    An Overview of the Available Digital Tools and what Problem each of them Addresses 


    Blog 


    A teacher can start a blog to convey information and communicate. That allows a two-way communication system between parents and teachers, where parents can keep up with what’s happening in the classroom and teachers can connect with the families. When parents have questions, they can ask through the blog or read already published information. That makes it simple for parents to help their children with school when they know what’s going on in the respective classes. 

    E-mail 


    Communication with e-mail between parents and teachers is common way to communicate, which is used all over the world. This method is used by many because parents are already used to using e-mail daily. In the past, office staff would spend hours every two weeks typing and photocopying a school newsletter (Kathleen Morris, 2019). Today we have the easy option to use e-mail instead. By using e-mail, you can save a lot of time and it allows for a two-way communication where teachers can answer the e-mail. In addition, e-mail is more reliable in the way that it’s much harder to lose the information.  

    Social Media 


    As social media is getting bigger, and many parents use social media every day, it becomes more of a viable option for communication in schools. Social media is an excellent avenue to explore when considering how you can ‘meet parents where they’re at’ (Kathleen Morris, 2019). Rather than trying to make something new that requires much effort, communication can go through something that’s already in use. Social media is good for communicating both ways, but it can cause problems. For instance, there could be cases where not all parents use social media. Additionally, it’s easy for the information to get into the wrong hands. 

    Apps 


    In today’s social climate, waiting for even a couple of hours to receive a return e-mail can be considered rude, and it can be difficult for teachers to keep up with the constant need for communication (Matthew Lynch, 2017). With different apps the communication process between teachers and parents can be easy and quick. For example, there are many communication apps with a feature that can translate into different languages (Kathleen Morris). The problem can be to get everyone to use it, but by using good communication apps the two-way communication will be improved.  

     

    Sources  


    Drugli, M.B. Nordahl, T. (2016) Forskningsartikkel: Samarbeidet mellom hjem og skole. Utdanningsdirektoratet. Obtained from: https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/samarbeid/hjem-skole-samarbeid/samarbeidet-mellom-hjem-og-skole/innledning/ 

    Edsy (2017, 13. January) 7 Great Apps for Parent-Teacher Communication. Obtained from: https://medium.com/@Edsys/7-great-apps-for-parent-teacher-communication-61a7e6184cf2 

    Helgøy, I., & Homme, A. (2015). Hjem–skole-samarbeid for et godt læringsmiljø. Evaluering av lokale hjem–skoleprosjekter og gjennomføring av forsterket hjem–skolesamarbeidObtained from: https://uni.no/media/manual_upload/Rapport_2-2015_Helgoy_og_Homme.pdf 

    Lanagan.L (2015, 17. November) What Can Be Done To Improve Parent-Teacher CommunicationKQED News. Obtained from: https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/42715/what-can-be-done-to-improve-parent-teacher-communication 

    Lilleindset, I. (2019). Det vanskelige samarbeidet (Bachelor's thesis, NTNU.) Obtained from: https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnu-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2610321/no.ntnu%3ainspera%3a2316138.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 

    Lynch, M. (2017, 11. July). The tech edvocate’s list of 11 school communication apps, tools and resources. Obtained from: https://www.thetechedvocate.org/tech-edvocates-list-11-school-communication-apps-tools-resources/ 

    McCormick. A. (2015). Why I Don’t Call Home AnymoreThe art of educationObtained from: https://theartofeducation.edu/2015/11/16/why-i-dont-call-home-anymore/ 

    Megan Olivia Hall [TEDxBurnsvilleED], 2013, 7. November. Obtained from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kin2OdchKMQ  

    Morris, K. (2019, 15. January). Ways Teachers And Schools Can Communicate With Parents In 2019 [Blogpost]. Obtained from: http://www.kathleenamorris.com/2019/01/15/communicate-parents-2019/#apps 

    Odden, A. (2016). Samarbeid mellom skole og hjem når foreldrene ikke bor sammen (Bachelor's thesis). Obtained from: https://brage.inn.no/inn-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2495904/Odden.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y  

    Udir (2016) Hjem-skole-samarbeidObtained from: https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/samarbeid/hjem-skole-samarbeid/ and https://www.udir.no/laring-og-trivsel/lareplanverket/prinsipper-for-opplaringen2/samarbeid-med-heimen/ 

  • Probe

    Probe

    Designmetoder Gruppe 12 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av kmkarlse

    https://medium.com/@catherinelegros/designing-cultural-probes-31f2c62b9dcf

    What is the design goal of the cultural probe?

    to  learn more about food habits and philosophies of 20–30 year olds 

    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?

    the probe is made with a camera to document and take pictures of the food they eat, a journal to document what you think about a person trough what they are eating, a colour pallet to colour the colour pallet of the plate you eat off at home, a placemat to eat on top off take a new one every time you eat and sirkle around four different mood faces that are on the placemat, and envelopes with instruction.

    What inspiration did the design team get from the probe

    results?

    they found out that food are a place for playfulness and humor, there are deep habits when eating outside of your home like eating ate the same places, those who participated found it hard to judge other people off their eating habits.


    Experimenting with cultural probes redefined what research is and can be. It created an interesting relationship between designers and participants: They felt like they were given a gift (hence the importance of a well designed probe kit) and gave back by participating in the activities in a generous and personal way. The types of insights we got were varied and opened various discussions.




    exercise

    design a probe for your project:

    what is your design goal? who users?

    to be environmentally friendly the users are students.

    what is probe made of ? (artifacts & tasks)?

    plastic, rubber, lithium batteries and aluminium

    how to you plan to follow up your probe?

    we are planing to run a survey once a week to get information about how they function in a student society

    exercise

    how distribute

    how / when do you contact users?

    i would use a facebook group

    how / when do you deliver probe?

     i would have a pickup point on campus, would have them come pick them up through a day we have design methods 

    how/ when do you collect the probes

    i would have a delivery point on campus  and would collect after a week of the probes being with the students on the day we have design methods 

    what do student think about e-scooters ?

    we will fill a probe with 4 images and the students will jugde how they feel about it e-scooter

  • Cultural probe - class exercise

    Cultural probe - class exercise

    Designmetoder Gruppe 8 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av karinltr

    Choose an example cultural probes and find out:

    https://museummusings.blog/2012/06/29/cultural-probe-for-fashion-media-and-museum-mediation/


    • What is the design goal of the cultural probe?


    The probe aims to elicit thoughts on understandings of fashion, media and the city.

     

    • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?


    The participants followed instructions given to them through an informal interview, they were asked to complete activities over a period of six weeks and encouraged to do the activities with likeminded friends.

    -Drawings

    -Colours

    -Stickers

    -Map

    -Instructions on paper

    -Treats and samples

    • What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?

  • Distribute the probes

    Distribute the probes

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av ludvigbh


    • How / when do you contact users?
      We contact them through mutual acquaintances, either personally or through email or social media.

    • How / when do you deliver the probes?
      We deliver the probes personally at the start on monday.

    • How / when do you collect the probes?
      We collect the probes personally on friday.

  • Learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee.

    Learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee.

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av ludvigbh

    We wish to explore the situation that many refugees find themselves in when they come to a new country,  learning the language. Specifically for young adults above the age of 16 in Norway.

    These are the goals and questions we would like to be achieved and answered:

    Improve the process of learning Norwegian when coming to Norway as an adult refugee.

    How does it work today?

    How can we make it better?

    How can we support current solutions?

  • Exercise: Cultural probe

    Exercise: Cultural probe

    Designmetoder Gruppe 17 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av ludvigbh

    https://medium.com/@catherinelegros/designing-cultural-probes-31f2c62b9dcf

    What is the design goal of the cultural probe?
    The goal for the cultural probe was to answer these questions:


    • What sources of influence are present in participants’ day-to-day lives?

    • What are participants’ food aspirations and how do they compare to their food realities?

    • What emotional reactions do certain foods illicit in participants?


    What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?
    The probe are made off Activities to do at home coloured in white, and to-go which were coloured in yellow. The kit was made from toto bags, a camera, Moleskin notebooks and Cardboard Aesthetic.
    The activities were as following:

    1. Meal Documentation  (to go)
      The user was to take pictures of the food they ate outside of the house and the environment they were eating in.

    2. Assumption Journal (to go)
      There was a notebook which the user was supposed to have on them for atleast 1 day. Then they where instructed to observe when another person was eating and write down what they were eating. Then the user was supposed to pick 3 stickers that represent their assumptions about the person they were observing based on the food they were eating.

    3. Colour Palette (at home)
      With the provided placemat and colouring pencils the user was instructed to recreate the colour palette of what they ate every time they ate a meal at home.

    4. Mood Placemat (at home)
      Each time the user ate a meal at home they were to eat it on a new sheet of the placemat and circle how they feel about the food, and about themselves after they ate.

    5. /6 Envelopes (follow directions on the envelopes)
      The user was given envelopes which had different directions on them.
      For example:
      Open this after grocery shopping.
      - List the food items you bought.Open this on the last day before handing in your kit.
      - List the items still left untouched from your grocery shopping.


    What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?

    They felt it was inspiring because of the way the cultural probes redefined what research and bonding with the participants is all about.

  • Cultural Probes - Exercise

    Cultural Probes - Exercise

    Designmetoder Gruppe 11 - Publisert den september 24, 2019 av emilyl

    Choose an example cultural probes and find out:
    We chose the Crafting Cultural Probe Boxes


    • What is the design goal of the cultural probe?


    The design goal of the cultural probe was to find out the perception of value in the products that people own.

    • What is the probe made of (artifacts & tasks)?


    The probe is made out of oak wood. The task was for users to receive the box and interpret, then send the box back so the designer would interpret the possession that the user put inside the box.

    • What inspiration did the design team get from the probe results?


    The inspiration the design team got was from researching in "cultural probes are a means of conversation not simply another standard research method". After the designer put a lot of effort in making the box, they felt that they added a lot of their own value into the box and hopes that the world will endure the box as an item.

     

  • Hvordan kan barneskolen bruke barns bruk av sosiale media til å forbedre opplevelsen i klasserommet?

    Hvordan kan barneskolen bruke barns bruk av sosiale media til å forbedre opplevelsen i klasserommet?

    Designmetoder gruppe 14 - Publisert den 09/09/2019 av designmetoder

     


    • Vi ønsker å utforske hvordan vi kan bruke dagens barns sosiale media-bruk til å forbedre hverdagen i klasserommet


     

    • Informasjonen flyter til skolen, og den kan komme fra flere ulike kilder. (Sitat Klaudia i timen Designmetoder)


     

    • Informasjonen vi leter etter er barneskolens bruk av sosiale media


     

    • Grunnen til at vi vil utforske dette, er på grunn av studier har vist at mange barn som passer in i disse alders gruppene bruker allerede disse teknologiene nesten hver dag og  skoler burde inkludere denne teknologien i klasserommet.

  • Documentation of the literature search

    Documentation of the literature search

    Designmetoder Gruppe 10 - Publisert den september 17, 2019 av cmjensse

    Our goal for the literature search was to figure out if there’s enough information about the topic to actually write about it. We also wanted to find out what the major challenges and benefits are after the introduction of tablets (iPads) in elementary classrooms. How has the information flow between teacher and student has changed and in what way can it be improved?

    The keywords we decided to use were:

    iPad, Student, Teacher, elementary school, classroom, information flow, homework, learning, communication, creativity, tablet, educational, education.

    We used Google-scholar, Google news search, Web of Science, Education Research Complete and Eric as search engines.

    We divided the group into two parts, one group searched in scientific search engines and the rest did searches in news articles and from other, non-scientific sources. In this way we wanted to avoid getting the same search results. In our literature research we have focused on iPad over other touchpads because iPad has dominated the education market starting early with a 75% worldwide and 90% control in Canada in 2013. Norwegian schools has also chosen iPads as the platform to use in classrooms.

    During our search we found a lot of interesting articles that appealed to us, both scientific and from media sites. We also realised that most of the research about tablets, and especially iPads in the classroom, isn't about information flow directly. Although much of the information we found can be relevant for our project because it describes different challenges and or situations where flow of information is important and can be improved by new solutions.

    Literature review


    While teaching previously was passive and based on receiving information from the teacher learning today is about interaction, creativity and participation in the classroom. The introduction of digital platforms such as the iPad helps to reinforce this trend, according to a report from Telemark University College. Here scientist followed the introduction of iPads to all the pupils in 6th grade at Stathelle Primary School. Among the findings made during the two-year pilot project was that students through the iPad became more active in their own learning process. They could search the web for sources themselves and evaluate the sources' relevance to the task. It also became easier for the students to organize and take care of the learning material, which was a great help for the students' overview. On the basis of this, the researchers who followed the project concluded that this contributed to better adapted education and that the students got more benefit from the training provided. The researchers also found that Ipad made it easier to fully integrate all students into the classroom. Those with special needs got more organized for this with the help of the iPad. (Kongsgården, Midtbø 2014).

    In Bærum, every pupil in elementary school has their own iPad. According to a report published on the municipality's website the effort to give every pupil a Ipad isn't about technology. Its about new ways of learning. According to schools enrolled in the pilot program the relationship between pupil and teacher has changed. Communication has become more imminent. They can give feedback to the student almost in real time. The teachers can also adapt and differentiate teaching based on each pupils special needs. The teachers also see more motivate and creative pupils who gets more learning outcome. (Bærum municipality, 2015).

    Project leader for iPad in Bærum municipality, Christian Sørbye Larsen, says to the Norwegian daily Aftenposten that there were protest from both parents and teachers before introducing the device in the classroom. Among the positive elements are more efficient students, better collaboration and better feedback.  (Nipen, 2019).

    The reason why iPads has become popular in educational is how it makes for new ways of communication between students and between student and teacher. By using the built in communication possibilities the teacher can have a face-to-face with students who are sick or away from school. (Apple support pages).

    There are challenges to the introduction of technology in classrooms. Education are based on a constructivist approach (Henderson, Yeow, 2012). It's based on the idea that knowledge is not a substance that is transferred from teachers to students, but that knowledge is constructed by students themselves when they interact with objects in their environment. Children learn by doing and construct their own knowledge by actively performing a task.

    Educational technology as iPads and tablets, on the other hand, is based on behaviorist perspective. It posits that learning is manifested by change in behavior and that the environment determines these changes.

    “It is only relatively recently that educational technology has been able to support a constructivist approach. Smaller devices are better able to facilitate social collaboration than PCs which users must use singly, and the rise of more social application software enables much better opportunities for collaboration than were possible in the past.”

    The size of the iPad promotes collaboration. It stimulates to face-to-face social interaction between children (Hourcade, Beitler, Cormenzana, Flores, Druin, 2009). (Leichtenstern, Vogt, 2007).

    A school in New Zealand was one of the first to start using iPads in education. Scientist did a case study to understand their experiences (Henderson, Yeow, 2012). According to two of the teachers the iPad has allowed learning to become more accessible and productive. They found that it allows information to be easily searched and accessed quicker at any given location in the classroom. For example, as described by the teacher and senior teacher, students will not need to wait for the desktop computer or netbook to boot when they log in as they previously did, but simply press the iPad's button and tap on the web browser. Accessibility has also empowered students through not only allowing them to view a wider variety of information to enhance their learning and productivity, but also provides students with a sense of pride in their work, as the teacher explains:

    “The ease of access to information makes a huge difference… The standard of their presentation has hugely improved. They have a lot more pride in it so they're putting a lot more time into it… The presentations most students created I was amazed, they just looked so impressive… and the information was of a higher level as well” (section 5.3, Henderson, Yeow, 2012)

    One issue brought up by the senior teacher is that they are aware that the iPad is a difficult tool to be used for creating content but easy to consume, due to the nature of it. However, it was made apparent by the senior teacher that the iPad should not be used as an exclusive tool in education but to be used alongside others:

    “It's difficult to create content, it's easy to consume… I'm not convinced yet that typing out a big document is easy on the iPad as it is on a computer… I don't think it couldn't replace everything we certainly wouldn't ditch everything in place of the iPads” (section 5.7. Henderson, Yeow, 2012).

    Not all students readily adopt the iPad. In the interview it was discussed by the teacher that there was a case where a student chose to use the school's netbooks rather than the iPad:

    “I've only got one student in my class who if there is a choice will go for the laptop … its new technology, she's a bit scared” (section 5.7. Henderson, Yeow, 2012).

    Report by the Canada Research Chair in Technologies in Education based on a survey of 6,057 students and 302 teachers in Quebec, Canada. With this survey they wanted to gain a better understanding of how students and teachers use the iPad in class, as well as the associated benefits and challenges. To limit the scope of the survey other touchpads were not included. This is because iPad is the most used and developed platform in the education market controlling 75 % of the education market worldwide and 90% in canada in 2013. The study found that “On average, the teachers felt that they were moderately satisfied with using the iPad in class (average score of 3 out of a maximum of 5). The students felt that they were moderately to very satisfied with using the iPad in class (average score of 3.6 out of a maximum of 5).” When students were  asked for words describing the experience of using ipads the main responses were “Fun, useful, useless and portable”. They note in the report that one one answered that it helped them learn.

    In addition to finding out how satisfied the students and teachers were using the ipad they wanted to understand how the ipad was used in the classroom and outside it to improve learning. They found that for a 60 minutes lecture 88.5% of students reported using the ipad for 30 minutes or more. This varied based on the subject with math and science seeing less use. Part of understanding how ipad can improve learning is to look at what applications the students use. The most used apps were eTextbook, text processing and not taking apps. Later teachers were asked to suggest improvements and many wanted a list of useful apps and training in using the apps.

    When asked how the students were using the iPad for educational purposes doing school work was the most popular answer mostly interacting with eTextbooks. Internet searches were also frequent and students said that they appreciated being able to decide how they search for information  they needed. Despite being asked about educational purposes the third most frequent answer was games. Some students said it worked as a reward for doing work and motivated. At the same time this speaks to the distraction the ipad introduced.

    Outside of school, the most frequent uses were social media (facebook, iMessage). Second most frequent answer was homework. Some students said that using iMessage made it easier to ask other students about homework. One student said that before he never took out his school books when he had finished homework but now the ipad is always out.

    When students and teachers were asked about challenges using the iPad the most frequent answer was distraction. A lot less frequent was difficulty writing, difficulty organizing and unsuitable textbooks. The extent to which the ipad was a distraction became clear in interviews with teachers and students. Students found it hard to pay attention when receiving messages on facebook and seeing other students playing games. The limitations of the eTextbooks was another point of frustration with problems such as needing to be online or exercises that did not work.

    In a study of young children using multimodal devices to help them become literate in the 21st century it was found that tablets help children thrive in their learning.

    Since children responds very well to change and adapts quickly, as well as they’re easily intrigued by new ideas and forms of learning methods, it makes the tablet an excellent addition to teaching. There’s evidence that the quality of learning increases when children use tablets as they collaborate and communicate with one another, as well as the independent learning thrives.

    Teachers are eagerly using tablets in their literacy programs. It seems to be easier to tailor a solution to a single students learning difficulties, as the children can use different apps, i.e. LetterWorks to help enhance their struggles with reading. This broadens the specter of possibilities and resources for both teacher and student. (Nicola J. Yelland, 2018).

    The digital abilities of teachers are not equal, which may have a significant impact on differences within students learning environment. A study showed that the abilities differed so much as it gave a result of 65.9% teachers belonging to the intermediate level. 26.1% were placed below, and 8% above intermediate.

    The teachers with higher understanding of tablets spent more hours to support and develop their subjects, as well as higher usage of tablets in the classroom itself. The tablets may therefore be difficult to incorporate and use in classes depending on the each teachers digital abilities. (Cantú-Ballesteros, L. Urías-Murrieta, M. Figueroa-Rodríguez, S. Salazar-Lugo, G. M., 2017).

    There was a project that investigates if tablets can enable students with additional needs to access the curriculum in Australia. In many situations some apps were specifically selected for individual children. One app might gave motivational value to a specific student, meanwhile that may not be as relevant for another student. The reason for the difference of relevance had to do with the student’s interests. (Watts,  Brennan & Phelps, 2012)

    "Much of the success of iPad integration was felt to depend on the enthusiasm, creativity and pedagogical skill of the TA and teachers involved as they needto be able to identify how they can use the iPad productively to support individual students’ learning. If this ‘spark’ isn’t there the educational effectiveness of the iPads is not maximised. "(Watts,  Brennan & Phelps, 2012, p. 8)

    At MHOC the TA’s got access to a Ipad before the project. They were more responsive and familiar to be able to suggest apps in class, then the TA’s at JPC who did not get access to a Ipad before the project. (Watts,  Brennan & Phelps, 2012)

    "A key learning, then, was that TAs needed good access to the iPads to become familiar with them and to help identify apps that would be most suitable for individual students and to be able to respond quickly in a classroom setting to identify the best  app tosupport learning at any particular time."  (Watts, Brennan & Phelps, 2012, p. 8 )

    Two teachers took on the challenge of improving elementary reading. They decided to use Ipad’s to reach this goal, though it was a step into the unknown.

    There were some noisy apps that made some distraction from the learning environment. They solved this by purchasing headphones. (Getting & Swainey, 2018)

     

    Last year New York Times (Bowles, New York Times 2018)  had an article about digital gap between rich and poor kids. But not as you would expect. While America's public schools are still promoting devices with screen, private schools for rich kids are banning screens from class altogether.

    “Silicon Valley’s parents increasingly panic over the impact screens have on their children and move toward screen-free lifestyles, worries over a new digital divide are rising. It could happen that the children of poorer and middle-class parents will be raised by screens, while the children of Silicon Valley’s elite will be going back to wooden toys and the luxury of human interaction.”

    In the article, Kirstin Stecher and her husband, who works as an engineer at Facebook, are explaining how they raise their kids almost completely screen-free.

    “Is this coming from a place of information — like, we know a lot about these screens,” she said. “Or is it coming from a place of privilege, that we don’t need them as badly?

    Challenges and what needs to be improved


    From the different articles we have found some challenges has become apparent. Some of the challenges have already been worked on and the information flow has been improved.
    One challenge that was mentioned many times was the teacher and the students lack of experience using the touchpad. Teachers wanting more training and guidelines for using ipads in class and developing assignments that is designed to be done using an iPad. Since the individual teachers has different experiences with tablets, it should be required to take annual courses so that all the teachers and therefore students will have the same starting point.

    For many students the iPad can be a distraction with access to games, videos and social media. It can also be distracting for the rest of the class if one student watches a video or play games. This was described in older articles and one improvement in the experience using iPads was to give the teacher more control of the stu